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4.  Assessment of Texan pharmacists’ attitudes, behaviors, and preferences related to continuing pharmacy education 
Pharmacy Practice  2016;14(3):769.
Whether the available Continuing Education (CE) programs meet pharmacists’ continuously increasing needs and preferences is open to question.
to investigate pharmacists’ perceptions and attitudes concerning available CE programs, evaluate the pharmacists’ choices with regard to selecting among different CE programs, and investigate the factors that are associated with preference to utilize online CE programs.
A 17-question survey was developed and mailed to a random sample of 600 Texan pharmacists. In addition to collecting basic demographic information, the survey investigated pharmacists’ choices with regard to delivery and content of CE programs, motivations to participation in CE programs, and pharmacists’ preferences for future CE programs.
A total of 161 pharmacists completed the survey and mailed back their responses. Excluding the 75 undeliverable surveys, the response rate was 31%. Approximately 83% of respondents found that currently available CE programs met their educational needs. The most important factors influencing pharmacists’ choices with regard to CE programs were the scope programs, the location where programs are held, and the cost associated with enrolling in such programs. Online CE was the most preferred mode of CE among participants. The factors that were associated with pharmacists’ preferences to complete 50% or more of required CE through online programs were previous use of online CE programs, preference to limit the duration of CE programs to 1 or 2 hour-long, and perceived ability to find adequate CE programs among currently available CE programs.
The findings suggest modalities for CE programs providers on how to improve CE programs in the future in order to meet the preferences of local pharmacists.
PMCID: PMC5061518  PMID: 27785162
Education; Pharmacy; Continuing; Pharmacists; Attitude of Health Personnel; Surveys and Questionnaires; United States
7.  Availability and Perceived Value of Masters of Business Administration Degree Programs in Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management 
Objectives. To examine pharmacist-targeted master of business administration (MBA) degree programs and investigate pharmacists’ perceptions regarding them.
Methods. Specialized MBA programs in pharmaceutical marketing and management offered at US colleges and schools of pharmacy were identified in the literature and compared. Pharmacists’ perceptions of MBA programs were evaluated through a survey of clinical preceptors affiliated with a school of pharmacy.
Results. Seven US universities that offer an MBA program in pharmaceutical marketing and management were identified. Thirty-three percent of the 57 pharmacist preceptors who responded to the survey reported plans to pursue an MBA degree program. Respondents preferred MBA programs related to healthcare or pharmacy (66%) over general MBA programs (33%).
Conclusion. An MBA in pharmaceutical marketing and management could provide pharmacists with advanced knowledge of the operational and strategic business aspects of pharmacy practice and give pharmacy graduates an advantage in an increasingly competitive job market.
PMCID: PMC3355284  PMID: 22611273
master of business administration (MBA); marketing; management; business; pharmaceutical industry; dual PharmD/MBA degree program
13.  Global Education Implications of the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination 
Although the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE) is not intended to measure educational outcomes or institutional effectiveness, it may be a reliable and valid criterion to assess the quality or success of international pharmacy programs. This comprehensive review describes the evolution and historical milestones of the FPGEE, along with trends in structure, administration, and passing rates, and the impact of country of origin on participant performance. Similarities between the FPGEE and the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) are also explored. This paper aims to provide a global prospective and insight for foreign academic institutions into parameters for evaluating their students' educational capabilities.
PMCID: PMC2907852  PMID: 20798798
Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE); Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA); National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP); global pharmacy; international
14.  Reliability assessment of a peer evaluation instrument in a team-based learning course 
Pharmacy Practice  2016;14(1):676.
To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting.
Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).
We found little variation in the standard deviation (SD) based on the score means among the high, medium, and low scores within each group. The lack of variation in SD of results between groups suggests that the peer evaluation instrument produces precise results. The ICC showed strong concordance among raters.
Findings suggest that our student peer evaluation instrument provides a reliable method for peer assessment in team-based learning settings.
PMCID: PMC4800015  PMID: 27011776
Students; Pharmacy; Education; Pharmacy; Educational Measurement; Curriculum; Cooperative Behavior; United States
15.  Pharmacy Faculty Retirement at Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy in the United States and Canada 
Objectives. To examine the work-related activities of full-time faculty members 55 years of age and older; to describe the retirement plans and perceptions of these faculty members; and to examine the factors, perceptions, or conditions that might influence the retirement decision.
Methods. Pharmacy faculty members aged 55 years and older in the United States and Canada were invited to participate in an online survey regarding their perceptions on issues related to their retirement planning behavior.
Results. Four hundred eighty-eight faculty members completed the survey instrument. The typical respondent worked 50 hours per week on work-related activities, was active in teaching and service, and had published an average of 5 refereed papers during the previous 36 months. The number of articles published was positively related to the respondent's target retirement age. The average anticipated retirement age was 66.6 years, and most respondents participated in a defined benefit plan. The majority would revise their target retirement age downwards if conditions were favorable.
Conclusion. The primary factors that influence the pharmacy faculty retirement decision include financial status, academic productivity, and higher order needs such as the opportunity to participate in meaningful activities. These findings can be used by administrators in strategic planning related to attracting and retaining quality faculty members.
PMCID: PMC3298402  PMID: 22412203
retirement; career; survey; faculty
16.  Concurrent Use of an Audience Response System at a Multi-Campus College of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess the impact of an audience response system (ARS) on student engagement at a multi-campus college of pharmacy.
Methods. An online questionnaire was designed and administered to measure the impact of an ARS on student engagement, distance education, projected use, and satisfaction among pharmacy students for a course delivered across 3 sites via synchronous video transmission.
Results. Students reported that use of the ARS made it easier to participate (85.3%) and helped them to focus (75.7%) in classes when the lecturer was physically at a different site. They also valued that the ARS allowed them to respond anonymously (93.2%). A minority of students indicated that use of the ARS was distracting (11.8%).
Conclusions. Implementation of an ARS was associated with positive student perceptions of engagement and may improve feelings of connectedness among students at schools with multiple sites. Use of ARSs could also represent a cognitive intercession strategy to help reduce communication apprehension.
PMCID: PMC3298404  PMID: 22412205
audience response system; clicker; distance education; student engagement

Results 1-16 (16)