Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-5 (5)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Simvastatin for the Prevention of Exacerbations in Moderate-to-Severe COPD 
The New England journal of medicine  2014;370(23):2201-2210.
Retrospective studies have shown that statins decrease the rate and severity of exacerbations, the rate of hospitalization, and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We prospectively studied the efficacy of simvastatin in preventing exacerbations in a large, multicenter, randomized trial.
We designed the Prospective Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Simvastatin in the Prevention of COPD Exacerbations (STATCOPE) as a randomized, controlled trial of simvastatin (at a daily dose of 40 mg) versus placebo, with annual exacerbation rates as the primary outcome. Patients were eligible if they were 40 to 80 years of age, had COPD (defined by a forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] of less than 80% and a ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity of less than 70%), and had a smoking history of 10 or more pack-years, were receiving supplemental oxygen or treatment with glucocorticoids or antibiotic agents, or had had an emergency department visit or hospitalization for COPD within the past year. Patients with diabetes or cardiovascular disease and those who were taking statins or who required statins on the basis of Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were excluded. Participants were treated from 12 to 36 months at 45 centers.
A total of 885 participants with COPD were enrolled for approximately 641 days; 44% of the patients were women. The patients had a mean (±SD) age of 62.2±8.4 years, an FEV1 that was 41.6±17.7% of the predicted value, and a smoking history of 50.6±27.4 pack-years. At the time of study closeout, the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower in the simvastatin-treated patients than in those who received placebo. The mean number of exacerbations per person-year was similar in the simvastatin and placebo groups: 1.36±1.61 exacerbations and 1.39±1.73 exacerbations, respectively (P = 0.54). The median number of days to the first exacerbation was also similar: 223 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 195 to 275) and 231 days (95% CI, 193 to 303), respectively (P = 0.34). The number of nonfatal serious adverse events per person-year was similar, as well: 0.63 events with simvastatin and 0.62 events with placebo. There were 30 deaths in the placebo group and 28 in the simvastatin group (P = 0.89).
Simvastatin at a daily dose of 40 mg did not affect exacerbation rates or the time to a first exacerbation in patients with COPD who were at high risk for exacerbations. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; STATCOPE number, NCT01061671.)
PMCID: PMC4375247  PMID: 24836125
2.  Blockade of CD49d (alpha4 integrin) on intrapulmonary but not circulating leukocytes inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of asthma. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;100(12):3083-3092.
Immunized mice after inhalation of specific antigen have the following characteristic features of human asthma: airway eosinophilia, mucus and Th2 cytokine release, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. A model of late-phase allergic pulmonary inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice was used to address the role of the alpha4 integrin (CD49d) in mediating the airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Local, intrapulmonary blockade of CD49d by intranasal administration of CD49d mAb inhibited all signs of lung inflammation, IL-4 and IL-5 release, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In contrast, CD49d blockade on circulating leukocytes by intraperitoneal CD49d mAb treatment only prevented the airway eosinophilia. In this asthma model, a CD49d-positive intrapulmonary leukocyte distinct from the eosinophil is the key effector cell of allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.
PMCID: PMC508521  PMID: 9399955
3.  Mechanisms of the adult respiratory distress syndrome: selectins. 
Thorax  1995;50(Suppl 1):S49-S52.
PMCID: PMC1129016  PMID: 7570464
4.  Sequelae of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. 
Thorax  1994;49(1):8-13.
Most survivors of ARDS have persistent mild reductions of TLCO even as long as a year after their episode. The lung volumes and flows return to normal in most instances, although a subset of patients will have persistent impairment. Both obstructive and restrictive deficits may be seen. This group may be predicted by the degree of acute lung injury assessed by the level of FIO2, PEEP, and gas exchange abnormality that exists in the first few days. In the first year after ARDS most physiological abnormalities will improve, but if deficits persist at one year further improvement is unlikely. Although many patients report dyspnoea following ARDS, the symptom does not correlate with abnormalities of pulmonary function. The possibility that conventional management may augment the degree of acute injury and worsen outcome must be considered. The effects of chronic hyperoxia in humans with acute lung injury or those of high levels of PEEP compared with low levels are not known. Exploring new ventilator management strategies while we await more specific treatment directed at the primary problem of acute lung inflammation will hopefully reduce acute mortality as well as acute and chronic morbidity.
PMCID: PMC474074  PMID: 8153946
5.  Increased surface tension favors pulmonary edema formation in anesthetized dogs' lungs. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1979;63(5):1015-1018.
The possibility that surface tension may affect the hydrostatic transmural pressure of pulmonary vessels and the development of pulmonary edema was studied in anesthetized, open-chested dogs. Isogravimetric pressure (the static intravascular pressure at which transmural osmotic and hydrostatic pressures are balanced such that net fluid flux is zero and lung weight is constant) was measured in nine animals under three conditions: (a) control, normal surface tension, at an alveolar pressure of 30 cm H2O with the apenic lung at room temperature; (b) after increasing surface tension by cooling and ventilating at a low functional residual capacity, at an alveolar pressure sufficient to produce the same lung volume present during control measurements; and (c) after restoring surface tension by rewarming while holding the lung at a high inflation volume, again at the control lung volume. Lung volumes were established from external dimensions and confirmed +/- 10% by deflation spirometry. The isogravimetric pressure (relative to alveolar pressure) was significantly less with increased surface tension than during either the initial control condition (P less than 0.01), or when the surface tension has been restored (P less than 0.01). Similar changes occurred in each of three additional studies performed with control alveolar pressures of 10 cm H2O. Thus, increased surface tension favors fluid leakage presumably because it increases the microvascular transmural pressure.
PMCID: PMC372043  PMID: 447823

Results 1-5 (5)