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1.  The Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version Test of Mobile Phone Dependency (TMD)  
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry  2015;10(4):265-272.
Objective: ‎‏ ‏Despite the fact that ‎the mobile phone has become a ‎pervasive technology of our time, ‎little research has been done on ‎mobile dependency. A valid and ‎reliable assessment instrument ‎corresponding to the Persian ‎culture is essential. This study ‎aimed to describe the ‎construction and validation of the ‎Persian version of TMD (Test of ‎Mobile phone Dependency) to ‎assess the addictive use of ‎mobile phone.‎
Methods: This was a cross-‎sectional study, for which data ‎were collected from 350 students ‎who were studying at Tehran ‎universities. Sampling method ‎was quota sampling. The ‎participants anonymously ‎completed the demographic ‎questionnaire, and CPDQ as a ‎valid questionnaire and gold ‎standard. Finally, clinical ‎interview [based on DSM-IV-TR] ‎was performed. To analyze the ‎data, concurrent validity, factor ‎analysis, internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbachα), split half; test-retest ‎and ROC Curve by SPSS18 ‎Software were used.‎
Results: As a result of the ‎reliability analysis and factor ‎analysis by principal component ‎and Varimax rotation, three ‎factors (“salient”, “preoccupation” ‎and “Spend a lot of time and ‎money”) for both male and ‎female participants were ‎extracted. Internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbach's alpha) of the TMD ‎was .92 (Cronbach alpha of the ‎factors is .88, .82, and .84, ‎respectively). The test-retest ‎correlation of the TMD was ‎‎.56.The best cut off point for this ‎questionnaire (TMD) is 38.‎
Conclusion: The TMD proved to ‎have an acceptable internal ‎consistency with adequate factor ‎models to assess the extent of ‎problems caused by the "misuse" ‎of the mobile phone in the ‎Iranian society. Therefore, it can ‎be concluded that the Persian ‎version of the test was reliable ‎and valid; however, further ‎analysis is needed.‎
PMCID: PMC4801496  PMID: 27006671
Validity; Reliability; Mobile Phone Dependency; Student
2.  Prevalence and treatment outcome of pulmonary and extrapulmonary pediatric tuberculosis in southwestern Iran  
Background:
Knowledge about childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Iran is limited. This study aimed to determine the proportion of tuberculosis in children living in Khuzestan in southwest of Iran and its treatment outcomes.
Methods:
In this retrospective study, the child’s medical records registered in national TB program (NTP) unit of Khuzestan Health Center (KHC) for TB treatment from 2005 to 2010 were studied. Data including demographic, clinical presentation, laboratory test results, and treatment outcomes were extracted from the files and were analyzed.
Results:
Of total 4104 new TB cases registered in KHC, 203 (4.9%) were children. The mean age was 10.7±4.3 years, and 75.7% of them were females. More than 84% of TB children cases were 10 years or older, whereas, young children (< 5 years old) accounted for 5.6%. Of the total studied cases, 57.1% were pulmonary TB and 42.9% were extra pulmonary, 91.7% were successfully treated and 8.3% had poor treatment outcome. The main risk factors for poor treatment outcome were: age <5 years (OR: 0.17, 95% CI, 0.04-0.76), low body weight (OR: 0.08, 95% CI, 0.01-0.60), household contact with cases of TB treatment failure (OR: 0.13, 95% CI, 0.03-0.52), and exposure to cigarette smoke odor inside the home (OR: 0.17, 95% CI, 0.05-0.56).
Conclusion:
The proportion of pediatric TB in the region was lower than expected. The treatment success rate was higher than the rate defined in NTP. Special attention should be given to children aged less than five years, low body weight, contact with TB treatment failure cases, and exposure to cigarette smoke.
PMCID: PMC4649270  PMID: 26644895
Tuberculosis; Children; Treatment outcomes; Iran
3.  Antibiotics Use Patterns for Surgical Prophylaxis Site Infection in Different Surgical Wards of a Teaching Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran 
Background:
Despite the effectiveness of prophylactic antimicrobials to prevent surgical site infection the use of antibiotic prophylaxis is often inappropriate.
Objectives:
The current study aimed to determine the pattern of prophylactic antibiotic use in a teaching hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
Patients and Methods:
The current descriptive study included 8586 patients who received prophylactic antibiotics before surgery from April 2011 to March 2012, in Razi Hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Indications for antibiotic use, proper or inappropriate antibiotics, an antibiotic or combination of antibiotics, dosage and length of treatment for each patient based on the infectious disease textbook (Mandel's Principle and practice of infectious diseases) definitions were administrated.
Results:
Of the total 8586 patients who took antibiotics for preventive purposes, 4815 (56%) required antimicrobial prophylaxis, and 3771 (44%) patients did not. Of the 4815 patients who received prophylaxis, 86.9% received it appropriately, 13.1% received it inappropriately; 8.2% received inappropriate dosage, and 9.5% received antibiotic longer than 24 hours.
Conclusions:
The current study revealed that 44% of those who received prophylaxis did not need it. In the patients who received antibiotics, the most common mistakes were antibiotic selection followed by prolonged prophylaxis (> 24 hours) and excess dose.
doi:10.5812/jjm.12251
PMCID: PMC4332232  PMID: 25774270
Prophylaxis; Infection; Nosocomial Infection
4.  Cytotoxicity of Liposomal Paclitaxel in Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7 
Regarding that the breast cancer is the most prevalent disease among women, paclitaxel, an anti-cancer drug, could be used in treatment of this disease. As paclitaxel has adverse effects, it was used of nanoliposome drug delivery technology in order to reduce adverse effects and improve drug efficacy. Certain ratios of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and paclitaxel were synthesized to prepare nanoliposomal paclitaxel. Using Zeta sizer device, the mean diameter of nanoliposomal paclitaxel was obtained 421.4 nm and its encapsulation efficiency was 91.3 %. By dialysis, drug release in nanoliposome paclitaxel formulation within 28 h was studied which was 5.53 %. This study showed that cytotoxicity effect of nanoliposomal paclitaxel is more than that of the standard form.
doi:10.1007/s12291-013-0296-1
PMCID: PMC3783912  PMID: 24426237
Breast cancer; Nano drug delivery; Paclitaxel; Nanoliposome
5.  Drug Delivery of Hydroxyurea to Breast Cancer Using Liposomes 
It is clear that cancer is one of the most mortal diseases in the world and the most prevalent among women is breast cancer. As hydroxyurea (HU)—a drug which is used in chemotherapy—has many adverse effects in long-term despite of its therapeutic properties, we made use of nano drug delivery technology in order to reduce adverse effects and increase therapeutic index. Thus, liposomation is a novel way in drug delivery systems. In this study a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol was mixed and HU was added to the resultant mixture. The mean diameter of the nanoliposomal HU measured with the Zeta Sizer device (equal to 402.5 nm) and its encapsulation efficiency was 70.8 %. Besides, using dialysis, the pattern of drug release from nanoliposomes has been studied and the results showed that the drug release of nanoliposomal drug within 28 h was equal to 25.85 %. This study showed that the cytotoxicity effect of nanoliposomal drug is more than that of the standard drug.
doi:10.1007/s12291-012-0291-y
PMCID: PMC3689336  PMID: 24426227
Breast cancer; Nano drug delivery; Hydroxyurea; Liposomal
6.  Dental Erosion in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in a Sample of Patients Referred to the Motahari Clinic, Shiraz, Iran 
Journal of Dentistry  2014;15(1):33-38.
Statement of Problem: Systematic reviews of the literature show that the dental erosion is associated with the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).The prevalence of the problem may not be exclusively similar in different countries.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) with dental erosion in a sample of Iranian population regarding the standing difference in the Iranian oral hygiene and diet.
Materials and Method: 140 patients with the average age of 30 to 50 years old comprised the study group. The participants were already eligible for the endoscopic examination, diagnosed by their gastroenterologist. All patients completed a detailed questionnaire regarding the medical and dental situations. After completing the questionnaire and before endoscopy, dental examination was performed by two blinded dentists.The endoscopy was then performed by a gastroenterologist and the patients were divided into three groups of healthy, suspected to GERD, and positive GERD. Data were collected and analyzed by Chi- Square test. The cross tabulation test was performed to compare the qualitative variants and discover the correlations. The statistical significance was adopted as: p < 0.05.
Results: The prevalence of dental erosion in GERD patients (22.6%) was found to be higher than the suspected (5.3%) and the healthy (7%) individuals.
Conclusion: This study declared the GERD patients are at higher risk of developing dental erosion compared to the healthy individuals in a sample of Iranian population.
PMCID: PMC3986576  PMID: 24738088
Dental erosion; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Risk factor
7.  A 55-Year Old Man with Acute Painful Flank Mass, a Case Report 
Emergency  2014;2(2):96-97.
Lumbar hernias (LH) accounts for less than 1.5% of total hernia incidence. It can occur in two separate triangular areas of the flank. About 300 cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a 55-year old man with acute painful left side flank mass and final diagnosis of LH. The mass was appeared about three hours before admission and his pain was slight at first but became more severe gradually. He had stable vital sign and the only positive finding on his physical examination was the sphere shape, firm, mobile, and mild tender mass at his left flank.
PMCID: PMC4614589  PMID: 26495355
Hernia; flank pain; case report
8.  Treatment of brucellosis: a systematic review of studies in recent twenty years 
Background: The treatment of human brucellosis is controversial. The purpose of this study was to search published clinical trial papers to provide a simple and effective treatment in brucellosis.
Methods: Many studies on brucellosis treatment in a twenty- year span from 1993 to 2012 were searched in PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, Iranmedex and SID. The studies that were searched and classified in groups according to combination therapy and monotherapy and their results in treatment outcome were compared. Regimens with lower treatment failure or relapse were considered as more suitable for brucellosis treatment.
Results: The comparison of combined doxycycline and rifampicin (DR) with a doxycycline plus streptomycin (DS) favors the latter regimen. The combined doxycycline/cotrimoxazole (DCTM) showed similar effect with DR. The treatment with the combined regimen including quinolones was similar to DR but with higher relapse rates. Higher relapse rate was searched in monotherapy (13% vs. 4.8%) and in short-term (less than 4 weeks) treatment regimen (22% vs. 4.8%), respectively. Although in children, clinical trials were limited but showed cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks was the best treatment regimen.
Conclusion: In uncomplicated brucellosis in adult patients, doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination is the first choice with doxycycline- rifampin and doxycycline-cotrimoxazole should be the alternative regimens. The other oral regimens including quinolones may be considered as alternatives. Cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks may be the regimen of choice for the treatment of patients younger than 8 years old. Gentamicin for 5 days plus cotrimoxazole for six weeks may be a suitable alternative regimen.
PMCID: PMC3755828  PMID: 24009951
Brucellosis; Treatment; Streptomycin; Doxycycline; Relapse
9.  Influenza A virus among the hospitalized young children with acute respiratory infection. Is influenza A co infected with respiratory syncytial virus?  
Background: Both influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants and young children. This study was conducted to determine Influenza A virus and its co infection with RSV among the hospitalized children with ARI.
Methods: A total of 153 throat samples of the hospitalized young children aged between below one year and 5 years with the clinical signs of ARI were collected from the different hospitals in Khuzestan from June 2009 to April 2010. The samples were tested for Influenza A viruses by real time PCR. Positive IAV samples were tested for influenza A sub type H1N1 and for RSV by the nested PCR.
Results: In this study, from the total 153 samples, 35 samples (22.9%) including 15 (42.8%) females and 20 (57.2%) males were positive for influenza A viruses. From the 35 positive samples for IAV, 14 were positive for swine H1N1 subtype. All the positive samples for influenza showed negative for RSV infection which revealed no coinfection with RSV. The prevalence of influenza A among age/sex groups was not significant.
Conclusion: Influenza A is a prevalent viral agent isolated from young children with ARI. Influenza A subtype H1N1 was accounted for the 40 percent all laboratory-proven diagnoses of influenza in 2009. No evidence of coinfection of influenza A and RSV has been observed in the present study.
PMCID: PMC3755862  PMID: 24009929
Respiratory syncytial virus; Influenza A virus; swine H1N1; Acute respiratory infection; Co-infection.
10.  Melioidosis: It is not Far from here 
Tanaffos  2011;10(4):64-68.
In the modern world, with developed traveling facilities, tourism is an important factor in emerging new infectious diseases in non-endemic areas.
Therefore, the epidemiology of infections is a considerable issue for physicians and should be taken into account.
We report a case of melioidosis in a 69-year-old Iranian man during his trip to Southeast Asia.
On admission, he was febrile with tachycardia and tachypnea and had diabetes mellitus and hypertension since eleven years ago.
Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed. Blood and BAL cultures revealed heavy growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei.
According to the aforementioned culture results, the patient was treated with meropenem and TMP-SMX, while other antibiotics were discontinued.
After 3 weeks, the patient was discharged with stable status and normal pulmonary function; and eradication therapy with TMP-SMX continued for about 3 months. The control lung CT scan after one month demonstrated significant improvement
PMCID: PMC4153165  PMID: 25191391
Meloiodosis; Infection; Burkholderia pseudomallei
11.  Temporomandibular Disorders: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Dentists in Tehran, Iran 
Background and aims
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) account for the most common orofacial pains rising from musculoskeletal origin. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge, attitudes and practice of dental practitioners regarding TMD in Tehran, Iran.
Materials and methods
A questionnaire, containing 29 questions on etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of TMD, was given to 200 randomly selected general dental practitioners and specialists as well as 11 TMD ex-perts.
Results
An overall response rate of 97% was achieved among participants (mean age: 39 ± 8.2 years old; mean years in practice: 11.5 ± 7.4). The mean score of knowledge of TMD was found to be 10.85± 2.54 (of a total of 23). TMD specialists were significantly more knowledgeable than general dental practitioners (p<0.05). With respect to attitude, there was a significant difference among various age groups, and by increasing age and years in practice, the attitude towards TMD had weakened. However, no significant difference was recorded between general dental practitioners’ attitude and that of TMD experts towards TMD. There was a positive correlation between subjects’ knowledge and attitude (P= 0.007, r=0.138).
Conclusion
According to the results, the level of knowledge and attitude of general dental practitioners of Tehran regarding TMD is not desirable. The majority are not willing to admit and treat TMD patients.
doi:10.5681/joddd.2010.023
PMCID: PMC3429978  PMID: 22991606
Attitude, dentist; knowledge; practice; temporomandibular disorders
12.  Increased FDG uptake suggests synovial inflammatory reaction with osteoarthritis: preliminary in vivo results in humans 
Nuclear medicine communications  2015;36(12):1215-1219.
The objective of this prospective study was to compare the metabolic activity of the knee joints of a group of subjects with painful knees clinically (as recurrent joint pain, joint instability and functional limitations) consistent with osteoarthritis (OA) and those of another group of patients without such complaints, using FDG-PET imaging. A total of 97 subjects who participated in either painful joint prosthesis or diabetic foot research studies involving FDG-PET scans were asked to complete a knee pain questionnaire. The patients were asked whether they experienced pain in any joint, and if so, which joints were affected. A total of 18 knee joints without prosthesis were reported to be painful. The maximum SUVs (SUVmax) of the middle joint space and lateral synovial tissue of these 18 knees were measured and compared to those of a set of subjects with control asymptomatic knees. The average SUVmax of the middle part of the joint space in the painful knees was 1.35 ± 0.59, as compared to an average SUVmax value of 0.86 ± 0.14 in the control group (p = 0.0176). The average SUVmax of the synovium in the lateral part of the painful joints was 1.17 ± 0.49, as compared to 0.73 ± 0.31 in the control group (p = 0.0161). These data indicate that increased FDG uptake is associated with knee pain in OA patients, and that there is a positive relationship between the two parameters.
doi:10.1097/MNM.0000000000000376
PMCID: PMC4626296  PMID: 26367212
Osteoarthritis; FDG uptake; Synovial tissue; Pathophysiology
13.  A Comparison of the Effects of Alpha and Medical-Grade Honey Ointments on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats 
Journal of Pharmaceutics  2016;2016:9613908.
Introduction. This study compared the healing efficacy and possible adverse effects of topical Alpha and medical-grade honey ointments on cutaneous wounds in rats. Methods. To conduct the study, 22 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into two equal groups: (1) rats with Alpha ointment applied to the wound surface area and (2) rats with medical-grade honey ointment applied to their wounds. The ointments were applied daily during the 21-day study period. Wound contraction was examined photographically with images taken on days 0, 7, and 21 after wounding. The healing process was histopathologically assessed using skin biopsies taken from the wound sites on days 7 and 21. Results. No statistically significant difference in mean wound surface area was observed between the two study groups. According to histopathological assessment, a significant reduction in the amount of collagen deposition (P value: 0.007) and neovascularisation (P value: 0.002) was seen in the Alpha-treated rats on day 21. No tissue necrosis occurred following the application of Alpha ointment. Conclusion. Daily topical usage of Alpha ointment on a skin wound can negatively affect the healing process by inhibiting neovascularization. Topical Alpha ointment can reduce the possibility of excessive scar formation by reducing collagen deposition.
doi:10.1155/2016/9613908
PMCID: PMC5112314  PMID: 27885353
14.  Validating the Farsi version of the Pregnancy Worries and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ): An exploratory factor analysis 
Electronic Physician  2016;8(10):3132-3137.
Introduction
Biological, environmental, inter- and intrapersonal changes during the antenatal period can result in anxiety and stress in pregnant women. It is pivotal to identify potential stressors and prevent their foetal and maternal consequences. The present study was conducted to validate and examine the factor structure of the Farsi version of the Pregnancy Worries and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ).
Methods
In 2015, 502 Iranian healthy pregnant women, referred to selected hospitals in Tehran for prenatal care at 8–39 weeks of pregnancy, were recruited through a randomized cluster sampling. The PWSQ was translated into Farsi, and its validity and reliability were examined using exploratory factor analysis by SPSS version 21.
Results
The content validity of items on the PWSQ was between 0.63–1. The content validity index for relevance, clarity and simplicity were 0.92, 0.98, and 0.98, respectively, with a mean of 0.94. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.863. Test–retest reliability showed high internal consistency (α=0.89; p<0.0001)
Conclusion
The psychometric evaluation and exploratory factor analysis showed that the translated questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to identify stress in Iranian pregnant women. Application of the questionnaire can facilitate the diagnosis of stress in pregnant women and assist health care providers in providing timely support and minimizing negative outcomes of stress and anxiety in pregnant women and their infants.
doi:10.19082/3132
PMCID: PMC5133040  PMID: 27957315
Exploratory examination; Factor analysis; Pregnancy; anxiety; Stress; Worry
15.  Injecting risk behaviours following treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs: the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C 
Background
A barrier to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment among people who inject drugs (PWID) has been a concern that interferon-based HCV treatment may increase injecting risk behaviours. This study evaluated recent (past month) injecting risk behaviours during follow-up among PWID that did and did not receive HCV treatment.
Methods
The Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC) was a prospective study of natural history and treatment of recent HCV infection. Analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations.
Results
Among 124 participants with a history of injecting drug use (median age 32 years), 69% were male, and 68% were treated for HCV infection. HCV treatment was not associated with an increase in recent injecting drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.06, 95% CI 0.93, 1.21] or recent used needle and syringe borrowing during follow-up (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89, 1.08). HCV treatment was associated with a decrease in recent ancillary injecting equipment sharing during follow-up (aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74, 0.99). Further, among treated participants who remained in follow-up (n=24), ancillary injecting equipment sharing significantly decreased from 54% at enrolment to 17% during follow-up (P=0.012).
Conclusions
HCV treatment was not associated with drug use or used needle and syringe borrowing during follow-up, but was associated with decreased ancillary injecting equipment sharing during follow-up. Programs to enhance HCV assessment and treatment among PWID should be expanded, given that HCV treatment does not lead to increases in injecting risk behaviours and has previously been demonstrated to be safe and effective among PWID.
doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.05.003
PMCID: PMC4577441  PMID: 26115881
people who inject drugs; injecting drug use; HCV; antiviral therapy
16.  Design and Psychometric Properties of Male Adolescent Health Needs-Assessment Scale  
ABSTRACT
Background:
Given the importance of adolescents’ health in establishing health in the newly thriving generation of every society, the first step for adolescents’ health promotion is health needs assessment. The present study was, therefore, conducted to design a valid and reliable scale for health needs assessment of male adolescents.
Methods:
This is an exploratory sequential mixed method study (2014-2015). The qualitative part was performed using content analysis approach and aimed to generate items pool. Data collection was performed by 7 focus group discussions with 51 male adolescents, and 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 other adolescents. Nine further in-depth interviews were also performed with 9 key informants. Purposive sampling was used and continued until data saturation. In the quantitative part, the designed scale was psychometrically assessed through the examination of the face and content validities using qualitative and quantitative methods and also the construct validity using the exploratory factor analysis along with the tool’s internal consistency and stability.
Results:
The content analysis of the data from the qualitative part led to the extraction of 4 main themes and 103 items, which moved to the quantitative stage. The mean content validity index of the scale was estimated 0.91 and content validity ratio was 0.89. The exploratory factor analysis showed 4 factors for the designed scale (49 items), including physical, psychological, social and sexual health needs. The internal consistency and the stability assessment of the scale showed 0.79 and 0.89, respectively. (P<0.001)
Conclusion:
According to the psychometric assessment, MAHNAS is a valid and reliable scale compatible with the Iranian culture that can be used in the health needs assessment of male adolescents.
PMCID: PMC5045974  PMID: 27713893
Health;  Needs assessment;  Adolescents;  Scale
17.  Acute extensive anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction following bee sting: a rare report of Kounis syndrome in LAD territory 
Herein we report a case of extensive anterior myocardial infarction (MI) after bee sting, in 57-year-old man who had no known risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD).
doi:10.21037/cdt.2016.04.01
PMCID: PMC5059390  PMID: 27747172
Kounis syndrome; ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI)
18.  Leiomyosarcoma of Inferior Vena Cava and Right Atrium with Ascites and Jaundice: A Case Report 
Leiomyosarcoma is one of the soft tissue sarcomas that could originate from different parts of body and are mostly presented as retropritoneal mass. Leiomyosarcomas of vascular origin are particularly rare tumors occurring mainly in inferior vena cava (IVC). Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented with ascites and jaundice. Further evaluation revealed large hepatic and cardiac masses with extension to IVC. Since it was not possible to determine the point of origin of leiomyosarcoma, the patient received chemotherapy under diagnosis of metastatic leiomyosarcoma but unfortunately passed away.
PMCID: PMC5139943  PMID: 27928478
Leiomyosarcoma; Cardiac mass; Ascites; Inferior vena cava
19.  Secondary ALL after Successful Treatment of Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report 
Treatment with intensification of chemotherapy using alkylating agents and Topoisomerase II inhibitors and radiotherapy has improved the outcome of patients with solid tumors such as Ewing’s sarcoma. However, there are several reports of secondary malignancy following treatment of these tumors. In this article, we describe a 12 years old girl with ALL who had Ewing’s sarcoma when she was 8 years old and underwent successful treatment but after two and half years at 12 years old, she came back with pallor and muscular pain.
PMCID: PMC5139944  PMID: 27928479
Chemoradiotherapy; Leukemia; Ewing sarcoma
20.  Dscam1 Forms a Complex with Robo1 and the N-Terminal Fragment of Slit to Promote the Growth of Longitudinal Axons 
PLoS Biology  2016;14(9):e1002560.
The Slit protein is a major midline repellent for central nervous system (CNS) axons. In vivo, Slit is proteolytically cleaved into N- and C-terminal fragments, but the biological significance of this is unknown. Analysis in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord of a slit allele (slit-UC) that cannot be cleaved revealed that midline repulsion is still present but longitudinal axon guidance is disrupted, particularly across segment boundaries. Double mutants for the Slit receptors Dscam1 and robo1 strongly resemble the slit-UC phenotype, suggesting they cooperate in longitudinal axon guidance, and through biochemical approaches, we found that Dscam1 and Robo1 form a complex dependent on Slit-N. In contrast, Robo1 binding alone shows a preference for full-length Slit, whereas Dscam1 only binds Slit-N. Using a variety of transgenes, we demonstrated that Dscam1 appears to modify the output of Robo/Slit complexes so that signaling is no longer repulsive. Our data suggest that the complex is promoting longitudinal axon growth across the segment boundary. The ability of Dscam1 to modify the output of other receptors in a ligand-dependent fashion may be a general principle for Dscam proteins.
During the development of the insect central nervous system, cleavage of the secreted signaling protein Slit allows the formation of a complex with the receptors Dscam1 and Robo1 that is required for longitudinal axon growth across body segment boundaries.
Author Summary
Most complex nervous systems have an anterior-posterior axis of symmetry: the midline of the central nervous system. Longitudinal nerves, formed by bundled axons, connect the brain to other parts of the body and grow long distances parallel to the central nervous system midline. In the fruit fly, the nerve cord is segmented, and the boundary of each segment represents a challenge for the longitudinal axons to cross. What cues promote growth of axons across these boundaries remains unknown. The Slit protein is classically known as a repulsive signal that prevents axons from crossing the midline by binding to its receptor Robo on the surface of axons. However, it is known that Slit is cleaved into two fragments, but the significance of this process remains to be elucidated. In this study, we find that cleavage of Slit allows the large fragment (Slit-N) to bind to another receptor called Dscam1, which then forms a complex with Robo1. Our experiments confirm that Slit processing is required for the longitudinal growth of axons across the segment boundary. Our work suggests that the Slit-N-Dscam1-Robo1 complex signals axons to grow, but Slit-N is not a specific navigational cue. Dscam proteins have evolutionarily conserved ligand-binding activities; therefore, they may be able to alter the signaling output of other receptors. The Slit fragments play diverse roles, from tumor metastasis to HIV replication; thus, identifying a receptor that is specific for Slit-N provides a molecular explanation for why cleavage occurs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002560
PMCID: PMC5031454  PMID: 27654876
21.  Assessing Cutaneous Psoriasis Activity Using FDG-PET 
Clinical nuclear medicine  2015;40(9):727-729.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by well-circumscribed erythematous plaques with thick silvery scale. Infiltration of inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages and epidermal cell proliferation within psoriatic lesions may result in selective FDG accumulation. We present a 55-year-old patient with a 30-year history of psoriasis. Nonattenuation corrected PET/CT images demonstrated significant cutaneous FDG uptake corresponding to clinically apparent psoriatic lesions. However, in attenuation corrected (AC) FDG-PET images, the signal was substantially diminished and minimally detectable. Nonattenuation corrected FDG-PET images may be useful and preferable to AC images in assessing skin inflammation in psoriasis.
doi:10.1097/RLU.0000000000000851
PMCID: PMC4589162  PMID: 26053710
Psoriasis; skin; fluorodeoxyglucose; positron emission tomography; non-attenuation corrected; attenuation corrected
22.  Assessment of dimensional accuracy of preadjusted metal injection molding orthodontic brackets 
Dental Research Journal  2016;13(5):440-445.
Background:
the aim of this study is to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of McLaughlin, Bennett, and Trevisi (MBT) brackets manufactured by two different companies (American Orthodontics and Ortho Organizers) and determine variations in incorporation of values in relation to tip and torque in these products.
Materials and Methods:
In the present analytical/descriptive study, 64 maxillary right central brackets manufactured by two companies (American Orthodontics and Ortho Organizers) were selected randomly and evaluated for the accuracy of the values in relation to torque and angulation presented by the manufacturers. They were placed in a video measuring machine using special revolvers under them and were positioned in a manner so that the light beams would be directed on the floor of the slot without the slot walls being seen. Then, the software program of the same machine was used to determine the values of each bracket type. The means of measurements were determined for each sample and were analyzed with independent t-test and one-sample t-test.
Results:
Based on the confidence interval, it can be concluded that at 95% probability, the means of tip angles of maxillary right central brackets of these two brands were 4.1–4.3° and the torque angles were 16.39–16.72°. The tips in these samples were at a range of 3.33–4.98°, and the torque was at a range of 15.22–18.48°.
Conclusion:
In the present study, there were no significant differences in the angulation incorporated into the brackets from the two companies; however, they were significantly different from the tiP values for the MBT prescription. In relation to torque, there was a significant difference between the American Orthodontic brackets exhibited significant differences with the reported 17°, too.
PMCID: PMC5091003  PMID: 27857770
Appliance; orthodontic; prescription
23.  Look Different: Effect of Radiation Hormesis on the Survival Rate of Immunosuppressed Mice  
Background:
Hormesis is defined as the bio-positive response of something which is bio-negative in high doses. In the present study, the effect of radiation hormesis was evaluated on the survival rate of immunosuppressed BALB/c mice by Cyclosporine A.
Material and Methods:
We used 75 consanguine, male, BALB/c mice in this experiment. The first group received Technetium-99m and the second group was placed on a sample radioactive soil of Ramsar region (800Bq) for 20 days. The third group was exposed to X-rays and the fourth group was placed on the radioactive soil and then injected Technetium-99m. The last group was the sham irradiated control group. Finally, 30mg Cyclosporine A as the immunosuppressive agent was orally administered to all mice 48 hours after receiving X-rays and Technetium-99m. The mean survival rate of mice in each group was estimated during time.
Results:
A log rank test was run to determine if there were differences in the survival distribution for different groups and related treatments. According to the results, the survival rate of all pre-irradiated groups was more than the sham irradiated control group (p < .05). The highest survival time was related to the mice which were placed on the radioactive soil of Ramsar region for 20 days and then injected Technetium-99m.
Conclusion:
This study confirmed the presence of hormetic models and the enhancement of survival rate in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice as a consequence of low-dose irradiation. It is also revealed the positive synergetic radioadaptive response on survival rate of immunosuppressed animals.
PMCID: PMC5106546  PMID: 27853721
Radiation Hormesis ;  Survival Rate ;  BALB/c mice ;  Cyclosporine A ;  Radioadaptive Response
24.  Development and initial psychometric evaluation of the hospitalization-related stressors questionnaire for elderly patients 
Background:
Various factors threaten the health and recovery of hospitalized elderly, including stressors in medical service centers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and preliminary validate a measurement tool to assess hospitalization-related stressors (HRS) among the elderly.
Materials and Methods:
This methodological research was conducted in 2015. The study was performed in two main phases. In the first phase, which was to develop the questionnaire, the data were collected through literature review, interview with few elderly patients, and calculating content validity index with the participation of 16 experts. The second phase included preliminary validation of the questionnaire in which a convenient sample of 200 hospitalized elderly patients recruited from 4 educational medical centers of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Principal component analysis method was used to identify the factorial structure of the questionnaire. In order to evaluate validity, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated.
Results:
After evaluating the results and relocating and merging some of the items, a version of 26 items in 7 categories was prepared with acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient from 0.67 to 0.78 for the components and 0.83 for the tool).
Conclusions:
In this study, we were able to identify a set of important components and indicators of HRS in elderly; so it can be used as a useful instrument. Future studies are recommended in order to develop and validate this tool in other communities.
doi:10.4103/1735-9066.193416
PMCID: PMC5114798  PMID: 27904637
Elderly; hospitals; questionnaire design; stress
25.  Pretreatment 18F-FDG PET Textural Features in Locally Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: Secondary Analysis of ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235 
In a secondary analysis of American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/RTOG 0235, high pretreatment metabolic tumor volume (MTV) on 18F-FDG PET was found to be a poor prognostic factor for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we utilize the same dataset to explore whether heterogeneity metrics based on PET textural features can provide additional prognostic information.
Methods
Patients with locally advanced NSCLC underwent 18F-FDG PET prior to treatment. A gradient-based segmentation tool was used to contour each patient’s primary tumor. MTV, maximum SUV, and 43 textural features were extracted for each tumor. To address over-fitting and high collinearity among PET features, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method was applied to identify features that were independent predictors of overall survival (OS) after adjusting for MTV. Recursive binary partitioning in a conditional inference framework was utilized to identify optimal thresholds. Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank testing were used to compare outcomes among patient groups.
Results
Two hundred one patients met inclusion criteria. The LASSO procedure identified 1 textural feature (SumMean) as an independent predictor of OS. The optimal cutpoint for MTV was 93.3 cm3, and the optimal Sum-Mean cutpoint for tumors above 93.3 cm3 was 0.018. This grouped patients into three categories: low tumor MTV (n = 155; median OS, 22.6 mo), high tumor MTV and high SumMean (n = 23; median OS, 20.0 mo), and high tumor MTV and low SumMean (n = 23; median OS, 6.2 mo; log-rank P < 0.001).
Conclusion
We have described an appropriate methodology to evaluate the prognostic value of textural PET features in the context of established prognostic factors. We have also identified a promising feature that may have prognostic value in locally advanced NSCLC patients with large tumors who are treated with chemoradiotherapy. Validation studies are warranted.
doi:10.2967/jnumed.115.166934
PMCID: PMC4987286  PMID: 26912429
non–small cell lung cancer; chemoradiotherapy; 18FDG-PET; textural features

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