Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and is a growing epidemic throughout the world. In the United States, African Americans have an incidence of ESRD four times that of Whites.
Cross Sectional to examine the prevalence and awareness of CKD in African Americans
Setting & Participants
Observational Cohort in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)
CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, presence of albuminuria, or being on dialysis
Outcomes and Measurements
Data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) were analyzed. Medical history including disease awareness and drug therapy, anthropometric measurements, serum, and urine samples were obtained from JHS participants at the baseline visit. Associations between CKD prevalence and awareness and selected demographic, socioeconomic, healthcare access, and disease status parameters were assessed utilizing logistic regression models.
The prevalence of CKD in the JHS was 20%; CKD awareness was only 15.8%. Older participants had higher prevalence but were also more aware of CKD. Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increasing age and waist circumference as well as being single or less physically active were associated with CKD. Only advancing of CKD stage was associated with awareness.
Cross-sectional assessment, single urine measurement
The JHS has a high prevalence and low awareness of CKD, especially those with less severe disease status. This emphasizes the need for earlier diagnosis and increased education of health care providers and the general population.