Enzymes produced by microorganisms and plants are used as food additives to aid the processing of foods. Identification of the origin of these enzyme products is important for their proper use. Proteinase digestion of α-amylase products, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, was applied to α-amylase from the mold Aspergillus species, the bacteria Bacillus species, and the actinomycetes Saccharomonospora species. Eighteen commercial products of α-amylase were digested with trypsin and endoproteinase Lys-C and HPLC analyzed. For some proteinase/sample combinations, the area of the intact α-amylase peak decreased and new peaks were detected after digestion. The presence and retention times of the novel peaks were used to group the products. The results from this method, called the proteinase digestion–HPLC method, allowed the classification of the α-amylase products into 10 groups, whereas the results from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed their classification into seven groups.
Endoproteinase Lys-C; HPLC; peptide; trypsin; α-amylase
Virus-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are sensed in the cytosol by retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs). These induce the expression of type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines through signaling pathways mediated by the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein. TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family proteins are reported to facilitate the RLR-dependent expression of type I IFN by interacting with MAVS. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show the role of FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in regulating the dsRNA-dependent expression of type I IFN. The binding of FKBP51 to TRAF6 was first identified by “in vitro virus” selection and was subsequently confirmed with a coimmunoprecipitation assay in HEK293T cells. The TRAF-C domain of TRAF6 is required for its interaction, although FKBP51 does not contain the consensus motif for interaction with the TRAF-C domain. Besides TRAF6, we found that FKBP51 also interacts with TRAF3. The depletion of FKBP51 reduced the expression of type I IFN induced by dsRNA transfection or Newcastle disease virus infection in murine fibroblasts. Consistent with this, the FKBP51 depletion attenuated dsRNA-mediated phosphorylations of IRF3 and JNK and nuclear translocation of RelA. Interestingly, dsRNA stimulation promoted the accumulation of FKBP51 in the mitochondria. Moreover, the overexpression of FKBP51 inhibited RLR-dependent transcriptional activation, suggesting a scaffolding function for FKBP51 in the MAVS-mediated signaling pathway. Overall, we have demonstrated that FKBP51 interacts with TRAF proteins and facilitates the expression of type I IFN induced by cytosolic dsRNA. These findings suggest a novel role for FKBP51 in the innate immune response to viral infection.
Elimination of potential self-reactive T cells in the thymus is crucial for preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases. Epithelial cell subsets localized in thymic medulla [medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs)] contribute to this process by supplying a wide range of self-antigens that are otherwise expressed in a tissue-specific manner (TSAs). Expression of some TSAs in mTECs is controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, of which dysfunctional mutations are the causative factor of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). In addition to the elimination of self-reactive T cells, recent studies indicated roles of mTECs in the development of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells, which suppress autoimmunity and excess immune reactions in peripheral tissues. The TNF family cytokines, RANK ligand, CD40 ligand, and lymphotoxin were found to promote the differentiation of AIRE- and TSA-expressing mTECs. Furthermore, activation of NF-κB is essential for mTEC differentiation. In this mini-review, we focus on molecular mechanisms that regulate induction of AIRE and TSA expression and discuss possible contributions of these mechanisms to prevent the onset of autoimmune diseases.
medullary thymic epithelial cells; autoimmune disease; NF-κB; TNF receptor family; gene expression
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are characterized by ectopic expression of self-antigens during the establishment of central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator (Aire), which is specifically expressed in mTECs, is responsible for the expression of a large repertoire of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) and plays a role in the development of mTECs. However, Aire-deficient mTECs still express TRAs. Moreover, a subset of mTECs, which are considered to be at a stage of terminal differentiation, exists in the Aire-deficient thymus. The phenotype of a specific cell type in a multicellular organism is governed by the epigenetic regulation system. DNA methylation modification is an important component of this system. Every cell or tissue type displays a DNA methylation profile, consisting of tissue-dependent and differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs), and this profile is involved in cell-type-specific genome usage. The aim of this study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of mTECs by using Aire-deficient mTECs as a model.
We identified the T-DMRs of mTECs (mTEC-T-DMRs) via genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of Aire−/− mTECs by comparison with the liver, brain, thymus, and embryonic stem cells. The hypomethylated mTEC-T-DMRs in Aire−/− mTECs were associated with mTEC-specific genes, including Aire, CD80, and Trp63, as well as other genes involved in the RANK signaling pathway. While these mTEC-T-DMRs were also hypomethylated in Aire+/+ mTECs, they were hypermethylated in control thymic stromal cells. We compared the pattern of DNA methylation levels at a total of 55 mTEC-T-DMRs and adjacent regions and found that the DNA methylation status was similar for Aire+/+ and Aire−/− mTECs but distinct from that of athymic cells and tissues.
These results indicate a unique DNA methylation profile that is independent of Aire in mTECs. This profile is distinct from other cell types in the thymic microenvironment and is indicated to be involved in the differentiation of the mTEC lineage.
Medullary thymic epithelial cells; Aire; T-DMR
The interaction between the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and its receptor RANK plays a critical role in the development and function of diverse tissues. This review summarizes the studies regarding the functions of RANKL signaling in immune regulatory systems. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that the RANKL signal promotes the survival of dendritic cells (DCs), thereby activating the immune response. In addition, RANKL signaling to DCs in the body surface barriers controls self-tolerance and oral-tolerance through regulatory T cell functions. In addition to regulating DC functions, the RANKL and RANK interaction is critical for the development and organization of several lymphoid organs. The RANKL signal initiates the formation of clusters of lymphoid tissue inducer cells, which is crucial for lymph node organogenesis. Moreover, the RANKL-RANK interaction controls the differentiation of M cells, specialized epithelial cells in mucosal tissues, that take up and transcytose antigen particles to control the immune response to pathogens or commensal bacterium. The development of epithelial cells localized in the thymic medulla (mTECs) is also regulated by the RANKL-RANK signal. Given that the unique property of mTECs to express a wide variety of tissue-specific self-antigens is critical for the elimination of self-antigen reactive T cells in the thymus, the RANKL-RANK interaction contributes to the suppression of autoimmunity. Future studies on the roles of the RANKL-RANK system in immune regulatory functions would be informative for the development and application of inhibitors of RANKL signaling for disease treatment.
RANKL; T cells; Dendritic cells; Thymus; Medullary thymic epithelial cells; Lymphoid tissue inducer cells; Lymph node; M cells; Peyer’s patches
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) provide the microenvironment required for the development of T cells in the thymus. A unique property of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is their expression of a wide range of tissue-restricted self-antigens, critically regulated by the nuclear protein AIRE, which contributes to the selection of the self-tolerant T cell repertoire, thereby suppressing the onset of autoimmune diseases. The TNF receptor family (TNFRF) protein receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), CD40 and lymphotoxin β receptor (LtβR) regulate the development and functions of mTECs. The engagement of these receptors with their specific ligands results in the activation of the NF-κB family of transcription factors. Two NF-κB activation pathways, the classical and non-classical pathways, promote the development of mature mTECs induced by these receptors. Consistently, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF6), the signal transducer of the classical pathway, and NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the signal transducer of the non-classical pathway, are essential for the development of mature mTECs. This review summarizes the current understanding of how the signaling by the TNF receptor family controls the development and functions of mTEC.
medullary thymic epithelial cells; TNF receptor family; NF-κB; signal transduction; self-tolerance; autoimmune disease
Apomixis is an intriguing trait in plants that results in maternal clones through seed reproduction. Apomixis is an elusive, but potentially revolutionary, trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Recent studies arguing that apomicts are not evolutionary dead ends have generated further interest in the evolution of asexual flowering plants.
In the present study, we investigate karyotypic variation in a single chromosome responsible for transmitting apomixis, the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region carrier chromosome, in relation to species phylogeny in the genera Pennisetum and Cenchrus. A 1 kb region from the 3' end of the ndhF gene and a 900 bp region from trnL-F were sequenced from 12 apomictic and eight sexual species in the genus Pennisetum and allied genus Cenchrus. An 800 bp region from the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region also was sequenced from the 12 apomicts. Molecular cytological analysis was conducted in sixteen Pennisetum and two Cenchrus species. Our results indicate that the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region is shared by all apomictic species while it is absent from all sexual species or cytotypes. Contrary to our previous observations in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, retrotransposon sequences of the Opie-2-like family were not closely associated with the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in all apomictic species, suggesting that they may have been accumulated after the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region originated.
Given that phylogenetic analysis merged Cenchrus and newly investigated Pennisetum species into a single clade containing a terminal cluster of Cenchrus apomicts, the presumed monophyletic origin of Cenchrus is supported. The Apospory-Specific Genomic Region likely preceded speciation in Cenchrus and its lateral transfer through hybridization and subsequent chromosome repatterning may have contributed to further speciation in the two genera.
Jumonji domain-containing protein 2B (JMJD2B), directly targeted by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, maintains the histone methylation balance important for the transcriptional activation of many oncogenes. Jumonji domain-containing protein 2B has been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression; however, the mechanism remains unclear.
Immunofluorescence and western blotting detected phosphorylated histone H2AX, characteristic of double-strand breaks, and comet assay was used to investigate DNA damage, in CRC cells after JMJD2B small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. We assessed the resulting in vitro responses, that is, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and senescence coupled with JMJD2B silencing-induced DNA damage, studying the regulatory role of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). The JMJD2B silencing anti-cancer effect was determined using an in vivo CRC xenograft model.
Jumonji domain-containing protein 2B knockdown induced DNA damage via ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related pathway activation, resulting in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence in both normoxia and hypoxia. Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 suppression by JMJD2B silencing enhanced DNA damage. Intratumoural injection of JMJD2B siRNA suppressed tumour growth in vivo and activated the DNA damage response (DDR).
Jumonji domain-containing protein 2B has an essential role in cancer cell survival and tumour growth via DDR mediation, which STAT3 partially regulates, suggesting that JMJD2B is a potential anti-cancer target.
JMJD2B; DNA damage response; hypoxia; STAT3; colorectal cancer
Isolated metachronous gastrointestinal metastases from advanced-stage lung cancer are rarely diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and resected. In this report, we present a case of resectable metachronous gallbladder and small intestinal metastases of lung cancer. An 86-year-old woman was treated for lung cancer with resection of the right inferior lobe. Five months after the surgery, she was re-admitted because of melena and anemia. Ultrasonography showed a gallbladder tumor with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and laparoscopic-assisted cholecystectomy was subsequently performed. However, 2 months after this event, the patient presented again with melena and anemia and was diagnosed with a small intestinal tumor. Therefore, laparoscopic-assisted partial resection of the small intestine was performed. Immunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcription factor-1 and cytokeratin 7 confirmed that the two resected tumors were metachronous metastases of the primary lung cancer. The patient died of liver metastases 5 months after the last surgery. Our experience with this case suggests that surgical resection might not be curative but palliative for patients with isolated gallbladder and small intestinal metastases diagnosed on the basis of melena that is resistant to conservative treatment.
Metachronous gallbladder and small intestinal metastases; Primary lung cancer; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Immunohistochemical staining
When compared with other epithelial ovarian cancers, the clinical characteristics of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCC) include 1) a higher incidence among Japanese, 2) an association with endometriosis, 3) poor prognosis in advanced stages, and 4) a higher incidence of thrombosis as a complication. We used high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to identify somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) associated with each of these clinical characteristics of CCC. The Human Genome CGH 244A Oligo Microarray was used to examine 144 samples obtained from 120 Japanese, 15 Korean, and nine German patients with CCC. The entire 8q chromosome (minimum corrected p-value: q = 0.0001) and chromosome 20q13.2 including the ZNF217 locus (q = 0.0078) were amplified significantly more in Japanese than in Korean or German samples. This copy number amplification of the ZNF217 gene was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). ZNF217 RNA levels were also higher in Japanese tumor samples than in non-Japanese samples (P = 0.027). Moreover, endometriosis was associated with amplification of EGFR gene (q = 0.047), which was again confirmed by Q-PCR and correlated with EGFR RNA expression. However, no SCNAs were significantly associated with prognosis or thrombosis. These results indicated that there may be an association between CCC and ZNF217 amplification among Japanese patients as well as between endometriosis and EGFR gene amplifications.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits dendritic cells (DCs) to promote its transmission to T cells. We recently reported that the capture of HIV-1 by mature dendritic cells (MDCs) is mediated by an interaction between the glycosphingolipid (GSL) GM3 on virus particles and CD169/Siglec-1 on MDCs. Since HIV-1 preferentially buds from GSL-enriched lipid microdomains on the plasma membrane, we hypothesized that the virus assembly and budding site determines the ability of HIV-1 to interact with MDCs. In support of this hypothesis, mutations in the N-terminal basic domain (29/31KE) or deletion of the membrane-targeting domain of the HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein that altered the virus assembly and budding site to CD63+/Lamp-1-positive intracellular compartments resulted in lower levels of virion incorporation of GM3 and attenuation of virus capture by MDCs. Furthermore, MDC-mediated capture and transmission of MA mutant viruses to T cells were decreased, suggesting that HIV-1 acquires GSLs via budding from the plasma membrane to access the MDC-dependent trans infection pathway. Interestingly, MDC-mediated capture of Nipah and Hendra virus (recently emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses) M (matrix) protein-derived virus-like particles that bud from GSL-enriched plasma membrane microdomains was also dependent on interactions between virion-incorporated GSLs and CD169. Moreover, capture and transfer of Nipah virus envelope glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentivirus particles by MDCs were severely attenuated upon depletion of GSLs from virus particles. These results suggest that GSL incorporation into virions is critical for the interaction of diverse enveloped RNA viruses with DCs and that the GSL-CD169 recognition nexus might be a conserved viral mechanism of parasitization of DC functions for systemic virus dissemination.
IMPORTANCE Dendritic cells (DCs) can capture HIV-1 particles and transfer captured virus particles to T cells without establishing productive infection in DCs, a mechanism of HIV-1 trans infection. We have recently identified CD169-mediated recognition of GM3, a host-derived glycosphingolipid (GSL) incorporated into the virus particle membrane, as the receptor and ligand for the DC-HIV trans infection pathway. In this study, we have identified the matrix (MA) domain of Gag to be the viral determinant that governs incorporation of GM3 into HIV-1 particles, a previously unappreciated function of the HIV-1 MA. In addition, we demonstrate that the GSL-CD169-dependent trans infection pathway is also utilized as a dissemination mechanism by henipaviruses. GSL incorporation in henipaviruses was also dependent on the viral capsid (M) protein-directed assembly and budding from GSL-enriched lipid microdomains. These findings provide evidence of a conserved mechanism of retrovirus and henipavirus parasitization of cell-to-cell recognition pathways for systemic virus dissemination.
To assess treatment outcomes of snowboarding-related spinal and spinal cord injuries.
Overview of Literature
Snowboarding-related spinal or spinal cord injury have a great impact on social and sporting activities.
A retrospective review of 19 cases of surgically treated snowboard-related injury was done. Analyzed parameters included site of injury, type of fracture, peri- and postoperative complications, pre- and postoperative neurological status, activities of daily living, and participation in sports activities at the final follow-up.
The major site of injury was the thoracolumbar junction caused by fracture-dislocation (13/19 cases). The remaining 6 cases had cervical spine injuries. Over 60% of the patients had Frankel A and B paralysis. All patients were surgically treated by posterior fusion with instrumentation. Five underwent additional anterior fusion. Surgical outcome was restoration of ambulatory capacity in 12 patients (63.2%). Ultimately, 15 patients (78.9%) could return to work. Patients with complete paralysis upon admission showed reduced ambulatory capacity compared to those with incomplete paralysis. None of the patients again participated in any sports activities, including snowboarding.
Snowboarding-related spinal or spinal cord injury has a great impact on social as well as sports activities. It is necessary to enhance promotion of injury prevention emphasizing the snowboarders' responsibility code.
Snowboarding; Spinal injury; Surgical treatment; Clinical outcomes
AIM: To determine the effect of discontinuing non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on recurrence in long-term follow-up patients with colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB).
METHODS: A cohort of 132 patients hospitalized for CDB examined by colonoscopy was prospectively enrolled. Comorbidities, lifestyle, and medications (NSAIDs, low-dose aspirin, antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, acetaminophen, and corticosteroids) were assessed. After discharge, patients were requested to visit the hospital on scheduled days during the follow-up period. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate recurrence.
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 15 mo. The probability of recurrence at 1, 6, 12, and 24 mo was 3.1%, 19%, 27%, and 38%, respectively. Of the 41 NSAID users on admission, 26 (63%) discontinued NSAID use at discharge. Many of the patients who could discontinue NSAIDs were intermittent users, and could be switched to alternative therapies, such as acetaminophen or an antiinflammatory analgesic plaster. The probability of recurrence at 12 mo was 9.4% in discontinuing NSAID users compared with 77% in continuing users (P < 0.01, log-rank test). The hazard ratio for recurrence in the discontinuing NSAIDs users was 0.06 after adjusting for age > 70 years, right-sided diverticula, history of hypertension, and hemodialysis. No patients developed cerebrocardiovascular events during follow-up.
CONCLUSION: There is a substantial recurrence rate after discharge among patients hospitalized for diverticular bleeding. Discontinuation of NSAIDs is an effective preventive measure against recurrence. This study provides new information on risk reduction strategies for diverticular bleeding.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories; Drug withdrawal; Diverticular hemorrhage; Hemodialysis; Antithrombotic drugs
The cyclin B-dependent protein kinase Cdk1 is a master regulator of mitosis and phosphorylates numerous proteins on the minimal consensus motif Ser/Thr-Pro (S/T-P). At least in several proteins, however, not well-defined motifs lacking a Pro in the +1 position, referred herein to as non-S/T-P motifs, have been shown to be phosphorylated by Cdk1. Here we show that non-S/T-P motifs in fact form consensus sequences for Cdk1 and probably play roles in mitotic regulation of physiologically important proteins. First, we show, by in vitro kinase assays, that previously identified non-S/T-P motifs all harbour one or more C-terminal Arg/Lys residues essential for their phosphorylation by Cdk1. Second, using Arg/Lys-scanning oriented peptide libraries, we demonstrate that Cdk1 phosphorylates a minimal sequence S/T-X-X-R/K and more favorable sequences (P)-X-S/T-X-[R/K]2–5 as its non-S/T-P consensus motifs. Third, on the basis of these results, we find that highly conserved linkers (typically, T-G-E-K-P) of C2H2 zinc finger proteins and a nuclear localization signal-containing sequence (matching P-X-S-X-[R/K]5) of the cytokinesis regulator Ect2 are inhibitorily phosphorylated by Cdk1, well accounting for the known mitotic regulation and function of the respective proteins. We suggest that non-S/T-P Cdk1 consensus motifs identified here may function to regulate many other proteins during mitosis.
The combined anteversion (CA) technique is a method in which the cup is placed according to the stem anteversion in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We examined whether the CA technique reduced the dislocation rate, and the distribution of CA with the manual placement of the cup.
We retrospectively reviewed 634 hips in 579 patients with primary cementless THA. In 230 hips using the CA technique [CA(+)], a CA of 50 ± 10° was the aim. In the remaining 404 hips [CA(−)], the cup was first placed targeting 20° of anteversion. The post-operative CA was measured using the computed tomography (CT) images in 111 hips.
One hip (0.4 %) had a dislocation in the CA(+) group, whereas ten hips (2.5 %) had a dislocation in the CA(−) group. A multivariate analysis showed that primary diagnosis, head size and CA technique significantly influenced the dislocation rate. Patients in the CA(−) group were 5.8 times more likely to have a dislocation compared to the CA(+) group. In the 111 hips with CT images, 81 hips (73.0 %) achieved the intended CA.
Although the manual placement of the cup resulted in 27 % of outliers from the intended CA, the CA technique significantly reduced the dislocation after primary THA.
Total hip arthroplasty; Dislocation; Combined anteversion technique; Stem anteversion
We investigated roles for substance P (SP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and glutamate in the spinal neurotransmission of histamine-dependent and –independent itch. In anesthetized mice, responses of single superficial dorsal horn neurons to intradermal (id) injection of chloroquine were partially reduced by spinal application of the AMPA/kainate antagonist CNQX. Co-application of CNQX plus a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) antagonist produced stronger inhibition, while co-application of CNQX, NK-1 and GRP receptor (GRPR) antagonists completely inhibited firing. Nociceptive-specific and wide dynamic range-type neurons exhibited differential suppression by CNQX plus either the GRPR or NK-1 antagonist, respectively. Neuronal responses elicited by id histamine were abolished by CNQX alone. In behavioral studies, individual intrathecal administration of a GRPR, NK-1 or AMPA antagonist each significantly attenuated chloroquine-evoked scratching behavior. Co-administration of the NK-1 and AMPA antagonists was more effective, and administration of all three antagonists abolished scratching. Intrathecal CNQX alone prevented histamine-evoked scratching behavior. We additionally employed a double-label strategy to investigate molecular markers of pruritogen-sensitive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. DRG cells responsive to histamine and/or chloroquine, identified by calcium imaging, were then processed for co-expression of SP, GRP or vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 (VGLUT2) immunofluorescence. Subpopulations of chloroquine- and/or histamine-sensitive DRG cells were immunopositive for SP and/or GRP, with >80% immunopositive for VGLUT2. These results indicate that SP, GRP and glutamate each partially contributes to histamine-independent itch. Histamine-evoked itch is mediated primarily by glutamate with GRP playing a lesser role. Co-application of NK-1, GRP and AMPA receptor antagonists may prove beneficial in treating chronic itch.
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to determine the effect of xenon irradiation of the
stellate ganglion region on fibromyalgia. [Subjects] The study included 5 men and 22 women
(age, 56.4 ± 16.3 years [range, 25–84 years]) who were diagnosed with fibromyalgia
according to the modified 2010 criteria of the American College of Rheumatology between
July and August 2013. [Methods] Bilateral xenon light irradiation (0.38–1.1 μm) around the
stellate ganglion was performed in the supine position by physical therapists using a
xenon phototherapy device. We evaluated pain before and after irradiation using the visual
analogue scale. [Results] We did not observe a relationship between the change in the
visual analogue scale score and duration of fibromyalgia. However, we observed a
relationship between the change in the visual analogue scale score and the score for the
Japanese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire using the Cochran-Armitage test
for trend. [Conclusion] Xenon light irradiation of the stellate ganglion significantly
decreased the visual analogue scale score in patients with fibromyalgia having a higher
score in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, suggesting that a stronger effect could be
obtained in patients with more severe fibromyalgia.
Fibromyalgia; Xenon light irradiation; Stellate ganglion
Ganglioside GM3, a host-derived glycosphingolipid incorporated in the membrane of HIV-1 viral particles, mediates interactions between HIV-1 and Siglec1/CD169, a protein expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). Such interactions, which seem to be independent of viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, are poorly understood. Here we develop a model system consisting of self-assembled artificial virus nanoparticles (AVNs) that are free of viral glycoproteins or other host-derived glycolipids and glycoproteins. These plasmonic AVNs contain a membrane of defined composition wrapped around a solid metal core. GM3-containing AVNs are captured by CD169-expressing HeLa cells or mature DCs, and are sequestered within non-lysosomal tetraspanin-positive compartments. This distribution is reminiscent of CD169-dependent HIV-1 sequestration in mature DCs. Our results highlight GM3-CD169 binding as a gp120-independent signal for sequestration and preservation of HIV-1 infectivity. They also indicate that plasmonic AVNs offer improved features over liposome-based systems and represent a versatile tool for probing specific virus-cell interactions.
Siglec1; CD169; HIV; Smart Nanoparticles; Membranes; Gangliosides; Artificial Virus Nanoparticles; Exosomes; Reverse Engineering; Bioplasmonics
Enhancers are distal regulatory elements that can activate tissue-specific gene expression and are abundant throughout mammalian genomes. While substantial progress has been made towards genome-wide annotation of mammalian enhancers, their temporal activity patterns and global contributions in the context of developmental in vivo processes remain poorly explored. Here we used epigenomic profiling for H3K27ac, a mark of active enhancers, coupled to transgenic mouse assays to examine the genome-wide utilization of enhancers in three different mouse tissues across seven developmental stages. The majority of the ~90,000 enhancers identified exhibited tightly temporally restricted predicted activity windows and were associated with stage-specific biological functions and regulatory pathways in individual tissues. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that evolutionary conservation of enhancers decreases following mid-gestation across all tissues examined. The dynamic enhancer activities uncovered in this study illuminate rapid and pervasive temporal in vivo changes in enhancer usage underlying processes central to development and disease.
Metagenomics is a powerful methodology to study microbial communities, but it is highly dependent on nucleotide sequence similarity searching against sequence databases. Metagenomic analyses with next-generation sequencing technologies produce enormous numbers of reads from microbial communities, and many reads are derived from microbes whose genomes have not yet been sequenced, limiting the usefulness of existing sequence similarity search tools. Therefore, there is a clear need for a sequence similarity search tool that can rapidly detect weak similarity in large datasets.
We developed a tool, which we named CLAST (CUDA implemented large-scale alignment search tool), that enables analyses of millions of reads and thousands of reference genome sequences, and runs on NVIDIA Fermi architecture graphics processing units. CLAST has four main advantages over existing alignment tools. First, CLAST was capable of identifying sequence similarities ~80.8 times faster than BLAST and 9.6 times faster than BLAT. Second, CLAST executes global alignment as the default (local alignment is also an option), enabling CLAST to assign reads to taxonomic and functional groups based on evolutionarily distant nucleotide sequences with high accuracy. Third, CLAST does not need a preprocessed sequence database like Burrows–Wheeler Transform-based tools, and this enables CLAST to incorporate large, frequently updated sequence databases. Fourth, CLAST requires <2 GB of main memory, making it possible to run CLAST on a standard desktop computer or server node.
CLAST achieved very high speed (similar to the Burrows–Wheeler Transform-based Bowtie 2 for long reads) and sensitivity (equal to BLAST, BLAT, and FR-HIT) without the need for extensive database preprocessing or a specialized computing platform. Our results demonstrate that CLAST has the potential to be one of the most powerful and realistic approaches to analyze the massive amount of sequence data from next-generation sequencing technologies.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12859-014-0406-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
GPU; CUDA; Metagenomics; Microbial community; Sequence similarity search tool
We describe focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in a case of Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease and compare the findings with different chorioretinal conditions. A 55-year-old man was diagnosed with VKH based on panuveitis and exudative retinal detachments. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated a dome-shaped protrusion with a nonconforming pattern at the fovea, which had been detected as a conforming pattern 1 year before the onset. The FCE pattern returned into a conforming pattern following corticosteroid therapy. These findings suggest that the natively existent FCE could be affected by pathophysiological changes of VKH as well as other chorioretinal conditions.
choroidal excavation; focal choroidal excavation; Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease; optical coherence tomography
Intramembrane metalloproteases are nearly ubiquitous in living organisms and they function in diverse processes ranging from cholesterol homeostasis and the unfolded protein response in humans to sporulation, stress responses, and virulence of bacteria. Understanding how these enzymes function in membranes is a challenge of fundamental interest with potential applications if modulators can be devised. Progress is described toward a mechanistic understanding, based primarily on molecular genetic and biochemical studies of human S2P and bacterial SpoIVFB and RseP, and on the structure of the membrane domain of an archaeal enzyme. Conserved features of the enzymes appear to include transmembrane helices and loops around the active site zinc ion, which may be near the membrane surface. Extramembrane domains such as PDZ (PSD-95, DLG, ZO-1) or CBS (cystathionines-β-synthase) domains govern substrate access to the active site, but several different mechanisms of access and cleavage site selection can be envisioned, which might differ depending on the substrate and the enzyme. More work is needed to distinguish between these mechanisms, both for enzymes that have been relatively well-studied, and for enzymes lacking PDZ and CBS domains, which have not been studied.
intramembrane metalloprotease; S2P; SpoIVFB; RseP; PDZ domain; CBS domain
Dental-derived MSCs are promising candidates for cartilage regeneration, with high chondrogenic differentiation capacity. This property contributes to making dental MSCs an advantageous therapeutic option compared to current treatment modalities. The MSC delivery vehicle is the principal determinant for the success of MSC-mediated cartilage regeneration therapies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel co-delivery system based on TGF-β1 loaded RGD-coupled alginate microspheres encapsulating Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) or Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (GMSCs); and (2) investigate dental MSC viability and chondrogenic differentiation in alginate microspheres. The results revealed the sustained release of TGF-β1 from the alginate microspheres. After 4 weeks of chondrogenic differentiation in vitro, PDLSCs, GMSCs as well as human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSC) (as positive control) revealed chondrogenic gene expression markers (Col II and Sox-9) via qPCR, as well as matrix positively stained by toluidine blue and safranin-O. In animal studies, ectopic cartilage tissue regeneration was observed inside and around the transplanted microspheres, confirmed by histochemical and immunofluorescent staining. Interestingly, PDLSCs showed more chondrogenesis than GMSCs and hBMMSCs (P<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that RGD-modified alginate microencapsulating dental MSCs make a promising candidate for cartilage regeneration. Our results highlight the vital role played by the microenvironment, as well as value of presenting inductive signals for viability and differentiation of MSCs.
tissue engineering; cartilage regeneration; dental mesenchymal stem cells; alginate hydrogel; RGD tripeptide
Cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants using alkaline and heat treatments were developed to enhance bone bonding. Although bone-bonding ability of the alkali- and heat-treated titanium surface has been demonstrated in animal studies, it remains unknown whether it enhances or provides durable bone bonding in humans.
We therefore (1) determined long-term survivorship, function, and radiographic signs of failure of fixation of alkali- and heat-treated THA implants; and (2) histologically examined their bone-bonding ability in two human retrievals.
We retrospectively reviewed 58 patients who underwent 70 primary THAs, of whom 67 were available for minimum followup of 8 years (average, 10 years; range, 8–12 years). Survival rate was calculated. Hip function was evaluated using the Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) hip scores, and radiographic signs of implant failure were determined from anteroposterior radiographs. Two retrieved implants were investigated histologically.
Using revision for any reason as the end point, the overall survival rate was 98% (95% confidence interval, 96%–100%) at 10 years. The patients’ average JOA hip scores improved from 47 points preoperatively to 91 points at the time of the last followup. No implant had radiographic signs of loosening. Histologically we observed bone in the pores 2 weeks after implantation in one specimen and apparently direct bonding between bone and the titanium surface in its deep pores 8 years after implantation.
Cementless THA implants with alkaline and heat treatments showed a high survival rate. Further study is required to determine whether the treatment enhances direct bone bonding.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.