Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are characterized by ectopic expression of self-antigens during the establishment of central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator (Aire), which is specifically expressed in mTECs, is responsible for the expression of a large repertoire of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) and plays a role in the development of mTECs. However, Aire-deficient mTECs still express TRAs. Moreover, a subset of mTECs, which are considered to be at a stage of terminal differentiation, exists in the Aire-deficient thymus. The phenotype of a specific cell type in a multicellular organism is governed by the epigenetic regulation system. DNA methylation modification is an important component of this system. Every cell or tissue type displays a DNA methylation profile, consisting of tissue-dependent and differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs), and this profile is involved in cell-type-specific genome usage. The aim of this study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of mTECs by using Aire-deficient mTECs as a model.
We identified the T-DMRs of mTECs (mTEC-T-DMRs) via genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of Aire−/− mTECs by comparison with the liver, brain, thymus, and embryonic stem cells. The hypomethylated mTEC-T-DMRs in Aire−/− mTECs were associated with mTEC-specific genes, including Aire, CD80, and Trp63, as well as other genes involved in the RANK signaling pathway. While these mTEC-T-DMRs were also hypomethylated in Aire+/+ mTECs, they were hypermethylated in control thymic stromal cells. We compared the pattern of DNA methylation levels at a total of 55 mTEC-T-DMRs and adjacent regions and found that the DNA methylation status was similar for Aire+/+ and Aire−/− mTECs but distinct from that of athymic cells and tissues.
These results indicate a unique DNA methylation profile that is independent of Aire in mTECs. This profile is distinct from other cell types in the thymic microenvironment and is indicated to be involved in the differentiation of the mTEC lineage.
Medullary thymic epithelial cells; Aire; T-DMR
The interaction between the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and its receptor RANK plays a critical role in the development and function of diverse tissues. This review summarizes the studies regarding the functions of RANKL signaling in immune regulatory systems. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that the RANKL signal promotes the survival of dendritic cells (DCs), thereby activating the immune response. In addition, RANKL signaling to DCs in the body surface barriers controls self-tolerance and oral-tolerance through regulatory T cell functions. In addition to regulating DC functions, the RANKL and RANK interaction is critical for the development and organization of several lymphoid organs. The RANKL signal initiates the formation of clusters of lymphoid tissue inducer cells, which is crucial for lymph node organogenesis. Moreover, the RANKL-RANK interaction controls the differentiation of M cells, specialized epithelial cells in mucosal tissues, that take up and transcytose antigen particles to control the immune response to pathogens or commensal bacterium. The development of epithelial cells localized in the thymic medulla (mTECs) is also regulated by the RANKL-RANK signal. Given that the unique property of mTECs to express a wide variety of tissue-specific self-antigens is critical for the elimination of self-antigen reactive T cells in the thymus, the RANKL-RANK interaction contributes to the suppression of autoimmunity. Future studies on the roles of the RANKL-RANK system in immune regulatory functions would be informative for the development and application of inhibitors of RANKL signaling for disease treatment.
RANKL; T cells; Dendritic cells; Thymus; Medullary thymic epithelial cells; Lymphoid tissue inducer cells; Lymph node; M cells; Peyer’s patches
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) provide the microenvironment required for the development of T cells in the thymus. A unique property of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is their expression of a wide range of tissue-restricted self-antigens, critically regulated by the nuclear protein AIRE, which contributes to the selection of the self-tolerant T cell repertoire, thereby suppressing the onset of autoimmune diseases. The TNF receptor family (TNFRF) protein receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), CD40 and lymphotoxin β receptor (LtβR) regulate the development and functions of mTECs. The engagement of these receptors with their specific ligands results in the activation of the NF-κB family of transcription factors. Two NF-κB activation pathways, the classical and non-classical pathways, promote the development of mature mTECs induced by these receptors. Consistently, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF6), the signal transducer of the classical pathway, and NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the signal transducer of the non-classical pathway, are essential for the development of mature mTECs. This review summarizes the current understanding of how the signaling by the TNF receptor family controls the development and functions of mTEC.
medullary thymic epithelial cells; TNF receptor family; NF-κB; signal transduction; self-tolerance; autoimmune disease
Apomixis is an intriguing trait in plants that results in maternal clones through seed reproduction. Apomixis is an elusive, but potentially revolutionary, trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Recent studies arguing that apomicts are not evolutionary dead ends have generated further interest in the evolution of asexual flowering plants.
In the present study, we investigate karyotypic variation in a single chromosome responsible for transmitting apomixis, the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region carrier chromosome, in relation to species phylogeny in the genera Pennisetum and Cenchrus. A 1 kb region from the 3' end of the ndhF gene and a 900 bp region from trnL-F were sequenced from 12 apomictic and eight sexual species in the genus Pennisetum and allied genus Cenchrus. An 800 bp region from the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region also was sequenced from the 12 apomicts. Molecular cytological analysis was conducted in sixteen Pennisetum and two Cenchrus species. Our results indicate that the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region is shared by all apomictic species while it is absent from all sexual species or cytotypes. Contrary to our previous observations in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, retrotransposon sequences of the Opie-2-like family were not closely associated with the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in all apomictic species, suggesting that they may have been accumulated after the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region originated.
Given that phylogenetic analysis merged Cenchrus and newly investigated Pennisetum species into a single clade containing a terminal cluster of Cenchrus apomicts, the presumed monophyletic origin of Cenchrus is supported. The Apospory-Specific Genomic Region likely preceded speciation in Cenchrus and its lateral transfer through hybridization and subsequent chromosome repatterning may have contributed to further speciation in the two genera.
We isolated tumour endothelial cells (TECs), demonstrated their abnormalities, compared gene expression profiles of TECs and normal endothelial cells (NECs) by microarray analysis and identified several genes upregulated in TECs. We focused on the gene encoding biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan. No report is available on biglycan expression or function in TECs.
The NEC and TEC were isolated. We investigated the biglycan expression and function in TECs. Western blotting analysis of biglycan was performed on sera from cancer patients.
Biglycan expression levels were higher in TECs than in NECs. Biglycan knockdown inhibited cell migration and caused morphological changes in TECs. Furthermore, immunostaining revealed strong biglycan expression in vivo in human tumour vessels, as in mouse TECs. Biglycan was detected in the sera of cancer patients but was hardly detected in those of healthy volunteers.
These findings suggested that biglycan is a novel TEC marker and a target for anti-angiogenic therapy.
biglycan; tumour endothelial cells; tumour angiogenesis
Oct4 plays a critical role both in maintaining pluripotency and the cell fate decision of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Nonetheless, in the determination of the neuroectoderm (NE) from ES cells, the detailed regulation mechanism of the Oct4 gene expression is poorly understood. Here, we report that crosstalk between Oct4 and Meis1a, a Pbx-related homeobox protein, is required for neural differentiation of mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells induced by retinoic acid (RA). During neural differentiation, Oct4 expression was transiently enhanced during 6–12 h of RA addition and subsequently disappeared within 48 h. Coinciding with up-regulation of Oct4 expression, the induction of Meis1a expression was initiated and reached a plateau at 48 h, suggesting that transiently induced Oct4 activates Meis1a expression and the up-regulated Meis1a then suppresses Oct4 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter analysis showed that Oct4 enhanced Meis1a expression via direct binding to the Meis1 promoter accompanying histone H3 acetylation and appearance of 5-hydoxymethylcytosine (5hmC), while Meis1a suppressed Oct4 expression via direct association with the Oct4 promoter together with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Furthermore, ectopic Meis1a expression promoted neural differentiation via formation of large neurospheres that expressed Nestin, GLAST, BLBP and Sox1 as neural stem cell (NSC)/neural progenitor markers, whereas its down-regulation generated small neurospheres and repressed neural differentiation. Thus, these results imply that crosstalk between Oct4 and Meis1a on mutual gene expressions is essential for the determination of NE from EC cells.
Mammalian genomes encode numerous antisense non-coding RNAs, which are assumed to be involved in the regulation of the sense gene expression. However, the mechanisms of their action and involvement in the development of diseases have not been well elucidated. The ANA/BTG3 protein is an antiproliferative protein whose expression is downregulated in prostate and lung cancers. Here we show that an antisense transcript of the ANA/BTG3 gene, termed ASBEL, negatively regulates the levels of ANA/BTG3 protein, but not of ANA/BTG3 mRNA and is required for proliferation and tumorigenicity of ovarian clear cell carcinoma. We further show that knockdown of ANA/BTG3 rescues growth inhibition caused by ASBEL knockdown. Moreover, we demonstrate that ASBEL forms duplexes with ANA/BTG3 mRNA in the nucleus and suppresses its cytoplasmic transportation. Our findings illustrate a novel function for an antisense transcript that critically promotes tumorigenesis by suppressing translation of the sense gene by inhibiting its cytoplasmic transportation.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is a transmembrane isozyme of CAs that catalyzes reversible hydration of CO2. While it is known that CA IX is distributed in human embryonic chondrocytes, its role in chondrocyte differentiation has not been reported. In the present study, we found that Car9 mRNA and CA IX were expressed in proliferating but not hypertrophic chondrocytes. Next, we examined the role of CA IX in the expression of marker genes of chondrocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of Car9 siRNA to mouse primary chondrocytes obtained from costal cartilage induced the mRNA expressions of Col10a1, the gene for type X collagen α-1 chain, and Epas1, the gene for hypoxia-responsible factor-2α (HIF-2α), both of which are known to be characteristically expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes. On the other hand, forced expression of CA IX had no effect of the proliferation of chondrocytes or the transcription of Col10a1 and Epas1, while the transcription of Col2a1 and Acan were up-regulated. Although HIF-2α has been reported to be a potent activator of Col10a1 transcription, Epas1 siRNA did not suppress Car9 siRNA-induced increment in Col10a1 expression, indicating that down-regulation of CA IX induces the expression of Col10a1 in chondrocytes in a HIF-2α-independent manner. On the other hand, cellular cAMP content was lowered by Car9 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of Col10a1 mRNA after Car9 silencing was augmented by an inhibitor of protein kinase A, and suppressed by an inhibitor for phosphodiesterase as well as a brominated analog of cAMP. While these results suggest a possible involvement of cAMP-dependent pathway, at least in part, in induction of Col10a1 expression by down-regulation of Car9, more detailed study is required to clarify the role of CA IX in regulation of Col10a1 expression in chondrocytes.
Onset of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) in middle age is uncommon, and adults with renal or gastrointestinal involvement present with more severe disease than do similar pediatric patients.
We present the case of a 69-year-old male with HSP who, after treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and continuous intravenous prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), died as a result of severe gastrointestinal involvement with non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). Vascular narrowing associated with the NOMI improved after catheter injection of PGE1 and prednisolone, but the patient died of bleeding from an exposed small vessel. At autopsy there was no active vasculitis in the jejunal submucosa.
Treatment with PGE1 and prednisolone might improve small-vessel vasculitis associated with NOMI.
Henoch-Schönlein purpura; Intervention; Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia; Small vessel vasculitis
Malignant neoplasms very rarely metastasize to the mammary gland, the incidence of which is reported as 0.5–2%. Clear cell sarcoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for approximately 1% of all soft tissue tumors, which commonly occurs in the distal extremities of young adults aged approximately 20 to 40 years. So it is also called malignant melanoma of soft parts because it frequently produces melanin. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a neck mass. The mass was surgically removed, and pathological diagnosis was clear cell sarcoma of the neck, harboring the EWS-ATF1 chimeric gene. Computed tomography detected a right breast mass 11 months after operation. She was referred to our department, and the right breast tumor was resected. Histopathological examination revealed a 2.5-cm, well-defined mass composed of nests of small, spindle-shaped tumor cells with abundant, clear cytoplasm containing round nuclei and prominent nucleoli. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for HMB45, S-100, and Melan-A. These findings led to a diagnosis of metastasis of clear cell sarcoma to the mammary gland. This is the first report of clear cell sarcoma of the neck which metastasized to the mammary gland.
Breast cancer; Clear cell sarcoma; Metastasis to the mammary gland
TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE) is a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with essential roles in the functional regulation of TNFα and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands. Previous studies have demonstrated critical roles for TACE in vivo, including epidermal development, immune response, and pathological neoangiogenesis, among others. However, the potential contribution of TACE to skeletal development is still unclear. In the present study, we generated a Tace mutant mouse in which Tace is conditionally disrupted in chondrocytes under the control of the Col2a1 promoter. These mutant mice were fertile and viable but all exhibited long bones that were approximately 10% shorter compared to those of wild-type animals. Histological analyses revealed that Tace mutant mice exhibited a longer hypertrophic zone in the growth plate, and there were fewer osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction in the Tace mutant mice than in their wild-type littermates. Of note, we found an increase in osteoprotegerin transcripts and a reduction in Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in the TACE-deficient cartilage, indicating that dysregulation of these genes is causally related to the skeletal defects in the Tace mutant mice. Furthermore, we also found that phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly reduced in the cartilage tissue lacking TACE, and that suppression of EGFR signaling increases osteoprotegerin transcripts and reduces Rankl and Mmp-13 transcripts in primary chondrocytes. In accordance, chondrocyte-specific abrogation of Egfr in vivo resulted in skeletal defects nearly identical to those observed in the Tace mutant mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TACE-EGFR signaling in chondrocytes is involved in the turnover of the growth plate during postnatal development via the transcriptional regulation of osteoprotegerin, Rankl, and Mmp-13.
The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein CD133 (also known as prominin-1) has been widely used as a marker for both cancer and normal stem cells. However, the function of CD133 has not been elucidated. Here we describe a cancer stem cell line established from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) and show that CD133 interacts with plakoglobin (also known as γ-catenin), a desmosomal linker protein. We further demonstrate that knockdown of CD133 by RNA interference (RNAi) results in the downregulation of desmoglein-2, a desmosomal cadherin, and abrogates cell-cell adhesion and tumorigenicity of CCC stem cells. We speculate that CD133 may be a promising target for cancer chemotherapy.
Plant hormones play important roles as signaling molecules in the regulation of growth and development by controlling the expression of downstream genes. Since the hormone signaling system represents a complex network involving functional cross-talk through the mutual regulation of signaling and metabolism, a comprehensive and integrative analysis of plant hormone concentrations and gene expression is important for a deeper understanding of hormone actions. We have developed a database named Uniformed Viewer for Integrated Omics (UniVIO: http://univio.psc.riken.jp/), which displays hormone-metabolome (hormonome) and transcriptome data in a single formatted (uniformed) heat map. At the present time, hormonome and transcriptome data obtained from 14 organ parts of rice plants at the reproductive stage and seedling shoots of three gibberellin signaling mutants are included in the database. The hormone concentration and gene expression data can be searched by substance name, probe ID, gene locus ID or gene description. A correlation search function has been implemented to enable users to obtain information of correlated substance accumulation and gene expression. In the correlation search, calculation method, range of correlation coefficient and plant samples can be selected freely.
Database; Multiomics; Oryza sativa; Plant hormones; Transcriptome
PRIMe (http://prime.psc.riken.jp/), the Platform for RIKEN Metabolomics, is a website that was designed and implemented to support research and analyses ranging from metabolomics to transcriptomics. To achieve functional genomics and annotation of unknown metabolites, we established the following PRIMe contents: MS2T, a library comprising >1 million entries of untargeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data of plant metabolites; AtMetExpress LC-MS, a database of transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches in Arabidopsis developmental stages (AtMetExpress Development LC-MS) and a data set of the composition of secondary metabolites among 20 Arabidopsis ecotypes (AtMetExpress 20 ecotypes LC-MS); and ReSpect, hybrid reference MS/MS data resources (acquisitions and literature). PRIMeLink is a new web application that allows access to the innovative data resources of PRIMe. The MS2T library was generated from a set of MS/MS spectra acquired using the automatic data acquisition function of mass spectrometry. To increase the understanding of mechanisms driving variations in metabolic profiles among plant tissues, we further provided the AtMetExpress Development LC-MS database in PRIMe, facilitating the investigation of relationships between gene expression and metabolite accumulation. This information platform therefore provides an integrative analysis resource by linking Arabidopsis transcriptome and metabolome data. Moreover, we developed the ReSpect database, a plant-specific MS/MS data resource, which allows users to identify candidate structures from the suite of complex phytochemical structures. Finally, we integrated the three databases into PRIMeLink and established a walk-through link between transcriptome and metabolome information. PRIMeLink offers a bi-directional searchable function, from the gene and the metabolite perspective, to search for targets seamlessly and effectively.
Arabidopsis; Database; Metabolome; Multiomics; Transcriptome
Lightly touching normal skin near a site of itch can elicit itch sensation, a phenomenon known as alloknesis. To investigate the neural mechanisms of alloknesis, we have developed an animal model. Low-threshold mechanical stimulation of the skin normally does not elicit any response in naïve C57/BL6 mice. Following acute intradermal (id) injection of histamine in the rostral back, mechanical stimulation 7 mm from the injection site elicited discrete hindlimb scratch bouts directed toward the stimulus. This began at 10 min and peaked 20–40 min post-histamine, declining over the next hour. Histamine itself elicited bouts of scratching not associated with the mechanical stimulus, that ceased after 30 min. Histamine- and touch-evoked scratching was inhibited by the μ-opiate antagonist naltrexone. Touch-evoked scratching was observed following id 5-HT, a PAR-4 agonist and a MrgprC11 agonist BAM8-22, but not chloroquine or a PAR-2 agonist. The histamine H1 receptor antagonist terfenadine prevented scratching and alloknesis evoked by histamine, but not 5-HT, a PAR-4 agonist or a MrgprC11 agonist. In mice with experimental dry skin, there was a time-dependent increase in spontaneous and touch-evoked scratching. This animal model, which to our knowledge is previously unreported, appears to be useful to investigate neural mechanisms of itch and alloknesis.
Oenothein B is a unique macrocyclic ellagitannin dimer that has been found in various medicinal plants belonging to Onagraceae, Lythraceae, and Myrtaceae, with diverse biological activities. The immunological effects of tannins in terms of cytokine-release from macrophages and monocytes have been discussed, while the effects on other immunocompetent cells have been the subject of minimal investigation. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects induced by tannin treatment in human dendritic cells (DCs), which play a critical role in the initial immune response, by measuring the changes in cytokine production, cell differentiation, and cell viability. Oenothein B showed significant down-regulation of the expression of cell surface molecules, CD1a and CD83, suggesting the inhibition of DC differentiation and/or maturation. The suppressive effect on DCs was associated with the induction of apoptosis without the activation of caspase-3/7, 8, and 9, and this was supported by the morphological features indicating significant nuclear condensation. Oenothein B also markedly suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-6, in a dose-dependent manner. These data may, in part, be able to explain the traditional use of tannin-containing medicinal plants for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.
dendritic cell; oenothein B; epigallocatechin gallate; cytokine; caspase
High-grade gliomas including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are among the most malignant and aggressive of tumors, and have a very poor prognosis despite a temozolomide-based intensive treatment. Therefore, a novel therapeutic approach to controlling recurrence is needed. In the present study, we investigated the effect of activated dendritic cell (DC) (α-type-1 polarized DC)-based immunotherapy on high-grade glioma patients with the HLA-A2 or A24 genotype.
Nine patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas including 7 with GBMs who fulfilled eligibility criteria were enrolled into a phase I study of monocyte-derived DC-based immunotherapy. HLA-genotyping revealed 1 case of HLA-A*0201 and 8 cases of A*2402. Enriched monocytes obtained using OptiPrepTM from leukapheresis products on day1, were incubated with GM-CSF and IL-4 in a closed serum-free system, and activated on day6 with TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-α, IFN-γ, and poly I/C. After pulsing with a cocktail of 5 synthetic peptides (WT-1, HER2, MAGE-A3, and MAGE-A1 or gp100) restricted to HLA-A2 or A24 and KLH, cells were cryopreserved until used. Thawed DCs were injected intradermally in the posterior neck at a dose per cohort of 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0× 107/body.
The frequency of CD14+ monocytes increased to 44.6% from 11.9% after gradient centrifugation. After a 7-day-incubation with cytokines, the mean percentage of DCs rated as lin-HLA-DR+ in patients was 56.2 ± 19.1%. Most DCs expressed high levels of maturation markers, co-stimulatory molecules and type-1 phenotype (CD11c+HLA-DR+) with a DC1/2 ratio of 35.6. The amount of IL-12 produced from activated DCs was 1025 ± 443 pg/ml per 105 cells. All 76 DC injections were well tolerated except for transient liver dysfunction with grade II. Six patients showed positive immunological responses to peptides in an ELISPOT assay, and positive skin tests to peptide-pulsed DC and KLH were recognized in 4 cases. The clinical response to DC injections was as follows :1 SD and 8 PD. Interestingly, the SD patient, given 24 DC injections, showed a long-term recurrence-free and immunological positive response period.
These results indicate peptide cocktail-treated activated α-type-1 DC-based immunotherapy to be a potential therapeutic tool against recurrent high-grade glioma with mainly HLA-A*2402.
Current non-randomized investigational trial UMIN-CTR UMIN ID: 000000914.
Dendritic cell; Immunotherapy; High-grade glioma; HLA-A24; Phase I trial
In neurodegenerative disorders, abnormally hyperphosphorylated and aggregated tau accumulates intracellularly, a mechanism which is thought to induce neuronal cell death. Methylene blue, a type of phenothiazine, has been reported to inhibit tau aggregation in vitro. However, the effect of methylene blue in vivo has remained unknown. Therefore, we examined whether methylene blue suppresses abnormal tau accumulation using P301L tau transgenic mice. At 8 to 11 months of age, these mice were orally administered methylene blue for 5 months. Subsequent results of Western blotting analysis revealed that this agent reduced detergent-insoluble phospho-tau. Methylene blue may have potential as a drug candidate for the treatment of tauopathy.
Human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been considered to be a promising source for regenerative therapy because they contain unique postnatal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) with self-renewal capacity, multipotency and immunomodulatory function. However preservation technique of deciduous teeth has not been developed. This study aimed to evaluate that cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of human exfoliated deciduous teeth is a retrievable and practical SHED source for cell-based therapy. SHED isolated from the cryopreserved deciduous pulp tissues for over 2 years (25–30 months) (SHED-Cryo) owned similar stem cell properties including clonogenicity, self-renew, stem cell marker expression, multipotency, in vivo tissue regenerative capacity and in vitro immunomodulatory function to SHED isolated from the fresh tissues (SHED-Fresh). To examine the therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo on immune diseases, SHED-Cryo were intravenously transplanted into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) model MRL/lpr mice. Systemic SHED-Cryo-transplantation improved SLE-like disorders including short lifespan, elevated autoantibody levels and nephritis-like renal dysfunction. SHED-Cryo amended increased interleukin 17-secreting helper T cells in MRL/lpr mice systemically and locally. SHED-Cryo-transplantation was also able to recover osteoporosis bone reduction in long bones of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, SHED-Cryo-mediated tissue engineering induced bone regeneration in critical calvarial bone-defect sites of immunocompromised mice. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo transplantation on immune and skeletal disorders was similar to that of SHED-Fresh. These data suggest that cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues of deciduous teeth provide a suitable and desirable approach for stem cell-based immune therapy and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine.
We report the complete genome sequence of Melissococcus plutonius DAT561, which is a causative agent of European foulbrood. M. plutonius DAT561 is a representative of nonfastidious strains isolated in Japan. The addition of potassium phosphate was not required for normal growth, unlike for typical M. plutonius strain/isolates.
The T-box transcription factor, Tbx1, an important regulatory gene in development, is highly expressed in hair follicle stem cells in adult mice. Because mouse models of skin carcinogenesis have demonstrated that hair follicle stem cells are a carcinogen target population and contribute significantly to tumor development, we investigated whether Tbx1 plays a role in skin carcinogenesis. We first assessed Tbx1 expression levels in mouse skin tumors, and found down-regulation in all tumors examined. To study the effect of Tbx1 expression on growth and tumorigenic potential of carcinoma cells, we transfected mouse Tbx1 cDNA into a mouse spindle cell carcinoma cell line that did not express endogenous Tbx1. Following transfection, two cell lines expressing different levels of the Tbx1/V5 fusion protein were selected for further study. Intradermal injection of the cell lines into mice revealed that Tbx1 expression significantly suppressed tumor growth, albeit with no change in tumor morphology. In culture, ectopic Tbx1 expression resulted in decreased cell growth and reduced development into multilayered colonies, compared to control cells. Tbx1-transfectants exhibited a reduced proliferative rate compared to control cells, with fewer cells in S and G2/M phases. The Tbx1 transfectants developed significantly fewer colonies in soft agar, demonstrating loss of anchorage independent growth. Taken together, our data show that ectopic expression of Tbx1 restored contact inhibition to the skin tumor cells, suggesting that this developmentally important transcription factor may have a novel dual role as a negative regulator of tumor growth.
Skin cancer; stem cell; transcription factor; contact inhibition
Background and purpose
Cementless total hip arthroplasty is currently favored by many orthopedic surgeons. The design of the porous surface is critically important for long-term fixation. We examined the clinical and radiographic outcome of the cementless titanium hip implant with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic.
We retrospectively reviewed 109 hips (92 patients) that had undergone primary cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants. The mean follow-up period was 7 (3–9) years. Hip joint function was evaluated with the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip score, and radiographic changes were determined from anteroposterior radiographs.
The mean hip score improved from 9.7 preoperatively to 17 at the final follow-up. The overall survival rate was 100% at 9 years, when radiographic loosening or revision for any reason was used as the endpoint. 3 stems in 2 patients subsided more than 3 mm vertically within 1 year after implantation. Radiographs of the interface of the stem and femur were all classified as bone ingrowth fixation.
The short-term results of this study show good outcome for cementless implants with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic.
The diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) involvement in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is important to make because the need for treatment depends on the extent of the disease. Moreover, severe GI lesions can cause serious complications. Endoscopy with biopsy is an extremely useful method to diagnose GI-KS. However, determining the indications for endoscopy is difficult because KS can occur without GI symptoms or cutaneous KS. This study sought to clarify predictive clinical factors for GI-KS and its severity on endoscopy.
A total of 1,027 HIV-infected patients who underwent endoscopy were analyzed. Sexual behavior, CD4 count, HIV RNA, history of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), GI symptoms, and cutaneous KS were assessed. Endoscopic severity including bulky tumor, ulceration, and number of lesions were evaluated. Thirty-three patients had GI-KS and 46 patients cutaneous KS. Among the GI-KS patients, 78.8% (26/33) had no GI symptoms and 24.2% (8/33) had no cutaneous KS. Univariate analysis identified men who have sex with men (MSM), CD4 <100 cells/µL, HIV RNA ≥10,000 copies/mL, no history of HAART, and cutaneous KS were significantly associated with GI-KS. Among these factors, cutaneous KS was closely related to GI-KS on multivariable analysis. Among patients without cutaneous KS, MSM and CD4 count <100 cells/µL were the only independent clinical factors related to GI-KS. Bulky tumor was significantly associated with CD4 <100 cells/µL and large number of lesions was significantly associated with HIV-RNA ≥10,000 copies/mL.
To diagnose GI-KS, clinical factors need to be considered before endoscopy. The presence of GI symptoms is not useful in predicting GI-KS. MSM and CD4 count <100 cells/µL are predictive factors among patients without cutaneous KS. Caution should be exercised especially in patients with low CD4 counts or high HIV viral loads as they are more likely to develop severe GI-KS lesions.