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1.  Protein detection through different platforms of immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):485.
Different immunoassay-based methods have been devised to detect protein targets. These methods have some challenges that make them inefficient for assaying ultra-low-amounted proteins. ELISA, iPCR, iRCA, and iNASBA are the common immunoassay-based methods of protein detection, each of which has specific and common technical challenges making it necessary to introduce a novel method in order to avoid their problems for detection of target proteins. Here we propose a new method nominated as ‘immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification’ or ‘iLAMP’. This new method is free from the problems of the previous methods and has significant advantages over them. In this paper we also offer various configurations in order to improve the applicability of this method in real-world sample analyses. Important potential applications of this method are stated as well.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-485
PMCID: PMC3835475  PMID: 24237767
iPCR; iRCA; iNASBA; ELISA; iLAMP; Protein detection
2.  Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):102.
Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to ‘second-generation liposomes’, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-102
PMCID: PMC3599573  PMID: 23432972
Liposomes; Glycolipids; Drug formulations; Drug delivery systems
3.  Inhibition of hTERT Gene Expression by Silibinin-Loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 in T47D Breast Cancer Cell Line 
BioImpacts : BI  2013;3(2):67-74.
Introduction: Nowadays, using drug delivery is an essential method to improve cancer therapy through decreasing drug toxicity and increasing efficiency of treatment. Silibinin (C25H22O10), a polyphenolic flavonoid which is isolated from the milk thistle plant, has various applications in cancer therapy but it has hydrophobic structure with low water solubility and bioavailability. To increase the effect of silibinin, silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was prepared to determine the inhibitory effect of this nanodrug on Telomerase gene expression. Methods: The rate of silibinin loaded into PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was measured. Then, the cytotoxic effect of silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 was determined by Methyl Thiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) assay. After that, inhibition of Telomerase gene expression was indicated through Real-time PCR. Results: Data analysis from MTT assay showed that silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 had dose dependent cytotoxic effect on T47D cell line. MTT assay showed no cytotoxic effect of free PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 on T47D breast cancer cell line. Real Time PCR analysis showed that the level of telomerase gene expression more efficiently decreased with silibinin-loaded PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 than with free silibinin alone. Conclusion: The present study indicates that this nanodrug causes down-regulation of Telomerase gene expression in cancer cells. Therefore, PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4 could be an appropriate carrier for hydrophobic agents such as silibinin to improve their action in cancer therapy.
doi:10.5681/bi.2013.005
PMCID: PMC3713872  PMID: 23878789
Telomerase; Breast Cancer; Silibinin; PLGA-PEG-Fe3O4; Real-Time PCR; MTT Assay
4.  Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line 
Background
The aim of present study was to develop the novel methods for chemical and physical modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with polymers via covalent bonding entrapment. These modified SPIONs were used for encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin.
Method
At first approach silane–grafted magnetic nanoparticles was prepared and used as a template for polymerization of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) via radical polymerization. This temperature/pH-sensitive copolymer was used for preparation of DOX–loaded magnetic nanocomposites. At second approach Vinyltriethoxysilane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were used as a template to polymerize PNIPAAm-MAA in 1, 4 dioxan and methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) was used as a cross-linking agent. Chemical composition and magnetic properties of Dox–loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposites were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, and VSM.
Results
The results demonstrate the feasibility of drug encapsulation of the magnetic nanoparticles with NIPAAm–MAA copolymer via covalent bonding. The key factors for the successful prepardtion of magnetic nanocomposites were the structure of copolymer (linear or cross-linked), concentration of copolymer and concentration of drug. The influence of pH and temperature on the release profile of doxorubicin was examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) of both magnetic DOx–loaded nanoparticles was examined. The in vitro tests showed that these systems are no toxicity and are biocompatible.
Conclusion
IC50 of DOx–loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles on A549 lung cancer cell line showed that systems could be useful in treatment of lung cancer.
doi:10.1186/1477-3155-10-46
PMCID: PMC3605180  PMID: 23244711
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs); Drug loading efficiency; Radical polymerization; N-Isopropylacrylamide-methyl metacrylc acid (NIPAAm-MAA)
5.  Quantum dots: synthesis, bioapplications, and toxicity 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):480.
This review introduces quantum dots (QDs) and explores their properties, synthesis, applications, delivery systems in biology, and their toxicity. QDs are one of the first nanotechnologies to be integrated with the biological sciences and are widely anticipated to eventually find application in a number of commercial consumer and clinical products. They exhibit unique luminescence characteristics and electronic properties such as wide and continuous absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, and high light stability. The application of QDs, as a new technology for biosystems, has been typically studied on mammalian cells. Due to the small structures of QDs, some physical properties such as optical and electron transport characteristics are quite different from those of the bulk materials.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-480
PMCID: PMC3463453  PMID: 22929008
QD delivery systems; Toxicity; Emission spectra; Luminescence characteristics
6.  Magnetic nanoparticles: preparation, physical properties, and applications in biomedicine 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):144.
Finally, we have addressed some relevant findings on the importance of having well-defined synthetic strategies developed for the generation of MNPs, with a focus on particle formation mechanism and recent modifications made on the preparation of monodisperse samples of relatively large quantities not only with similar physical features, but also with similar crystallochemical characteristics. Then, different methodologies for the functionalization of the prepared MNPs together with the characterization techniques are explained. Theorical views on the magnetism of nanoparticles are considered.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-144
PMCID: PMC3312841  PMID: 22348683
magnetic nanoparticles; synthetic routes; biomedical applications; functionalization techniques; characterization
7.  Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of novel polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles for controlled delivery of doxorubicin 
Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-methyl methacrylic acid, PNIPAAm-MAA)-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using silane-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a template for radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and methacrylic acid. Properties of these nanoparticles, such as size, drug-loading efficiency, and drug release kinetics, were evaluated in vitro for targeted and controlled drug delivery. The resulting nanoparticles had a diameter of 100 nm and a doxorubicin-loading efficiency of 75%, significantly higher doxorubicin release at 40°C compared with 37°C, and pH 5.8 compared with pH 7.4, demonstrating their temperature and pH sensitivity, respectively. In addition, the particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. In vitro cytotoxicity testing showed that the PNIPAAm-MAA-coated magnetic nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and were biocompatible, indicating their potential for biomedical application.
doi:10.2147/NSA.S24328
PMCID: PMC3781717  PMID: 24198493
magnetic nanoparticles; drug loading; doxorubicin release; biocompatibility
8.  Preparation and in vitro evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with biocompatible copolymers 
Background
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are attractive materials that have been widely used in medicine for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and therapeutic applications. In our study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and the anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride, were encapsulated into poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) poly (ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles for local treatment. The magnetic properties conferred by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles could help to maintain the nanoparticles in the joint with an external magnet.
Methods
A series of PLGA:PEG triblock copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D, L-lactide and glycolide with different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG2000, PEG3000, and PEG4000) as an initiator. The bulk properties of these copolymers were characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the resulting particles were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry.
Results
The doxorubicin encapsulation amount was reduced for PLGA:PEG2000 and PLGA:PEG3000 triblock copolymers, but increased to a great extent for PLGA:PEG4000 triblock copolymer. This is due to the increased water uptake capacity of the blended triblock copolymer, which encapsulated more doxorubicin molecules into a swollen copolymer matrix. The drug encapsulation efficiency achieved for Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with PLGA:PEG2000, PLGA:PEG3000, and PLGA:PEG4000 copolymers was 69.5%, 73%, and 78%, respectively, and the release kinetics were controlled. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the Fe3O4-PLGA:PEG4000 magnetic nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and were biocompatible.
Conclusion
There is potential for use of these nanoparticles for biomedical application. Future work includes in vivo investigation of the targeting capability and effectiveness of these nanoparticles in the treatment of lung cancer.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S24326
PMCID: PMC3273983  PMID: 22334781
superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; triblock copolymer; doxorubicin encapsulation; water uptake; drug encapsulation efficiency

Results 1-8 (8)