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1.  Analysis of social epidemiology research on infectious diseases: historical patterns and future opportunities 
Background
Despite the many triumphs of biomedical research over infectious diseases, human pathogens continue to impact profoundly populations deprived of social resources. Correspondingly, health researchers have advocated a social determinants approach to the study and prevention of infectious diseases. However, it is unknown whether this call has resulted in an increase in the number of studies examining social determinants of infectious outcomes.
Methods
Research on social determinants of infectious diseases was systematically quantified by assessing temporal trends in the published literature using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science.
Results
Results of the literature review spanning 1966–2005 show that socially related citations increased an annual average of 180.3 for neuropsychiatric conditions, 81.9 for chronic conditions, 44.7 for sexually transmitted diseases and 18.9 for non‐sexually transmitted infectious diseases (p<0.0001). Of the 279 publications found to employ the term “social epidemiology”, 15 (5.4%) investigated infectious outcomes.
Conclusions
The results of the literature review suggest a paucity of social research on infectious diseases. There is a need for increased dialogue and collaboration between infectious disease epidemiologists and social epidemiologists.
doi:10.1136/jech.2006.057216
PMCID: PMC2465670  PMID: 18000122
2.  Secular Trends in Helicobacter pylori Seroprevalence in Adults in the United States: Evidence for Sustained Race/Ethnic Disparities 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2011;175(1):54-59.
Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence levels in US adults participating in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2000) increased with age in all racial/ethnic groups, with significantly higher age-standardized levels in Mexican Americans (64.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 58.8, 69.2) and non-Hispanic blacks (52.0%, 95% CI: 48.3, 55.7) compared with non-Hispanic whites (21.2%, 95% CI: 19.1, 23.2). Although seroprevalence levels remained similar to those found in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1988 to 1991 among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, they were significantly lower in non-Hispanic whites, especially at older ages. The factors driving the decline in H. pylori seroprevalence appear to be acting preferentially on the non-Hispanic white population.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwr288
PMCID: PMC3244610  PMID: 22085628
cohort effect; ethnic groups; health status disparities; Helicobacter pylori; nutrition surveys; seroepidemiologic studies
3.  Cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced telomerase activity in the Whitehall II cohort 
Experimental gerontology  2013;48(4):385-390.
Telomere length and telomerase activity have received increased attention as markers of cellular aging, but the determinants of inter-individual variation in these markers are incompletely understood. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may be particularly important for telomere and telomerase dynamics due to its dramatic impact on peripheral blood lymphocyte composition, i.e., increasing the number and proportions of highly differentiated T cells that are characterized by shorter telomere length (TL) and lowered telomerase activity (TA). However, the possible relationship between CMV infection and leukocyte TL and TA has not been well-examined in vivo. This study examined the associations of CMV seropositivity and CMV IgG antibodies with leukocyte (TL) and (TA) in a sample of 434 healthy individuals (ages 53–76) from the Whitehall II cohort. Positive CMV serostatus was significantly associated with lower TA among women, and higher CMV IgG antibody levels were associated with lower TA in the overall sample. However, neither CMV seropositivity nor CMV IgG antibody levels (reflecting subclinical reactivation) among the seropositive were significantly associated with TL. These associations were robust to adjustment for age, employment grade, BMI, and smoking status. The results demonstrate that CMV seropositivity and subclinical reactivation predict lower TA. Future longitudinal studies should test whether the association of CMV with lower TA contributes to accelerated telomere shortening over time.
doi:10.1016/j.exger.2013.01.016
PMCID: PMC3626117  PMID: 23403382
telomeres; telomerase; cytomegalovirus; infections; Whitehall II
4.  The Association between Influenza Treatment and Hospitalization-Associated Outcomes among Korean Children with Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(4):485-493.
There are limited data evaluating the relationship between influenza treatment and hospitalization duration. Our purpose assessed the association between different treatments and hospital stay among Korean pediatric influenza patients. Total 770 children ≤ 15 yr-of-age hospitalized with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza at three large urban tertiary care hospitals were identified through a retrospective medical chart review. Demographic, clinical, and cost data were extracted and a multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the associations between influenza treatment types and hospital stay. Overall, there were 81% of the patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza who received antibiotic monotherapy whereas only 4% of the patients received oseltamivir monotherapy. The mean treatment-related charges for hospitalizations treated with antibiotics, alone or with oseltamivir, were significantly higher than those treated with oseltamivir-only (P < 0.001). Influenza patients treated with antibiotics-only and antibiotics/oseltamivir combination therapy showed 44.9% and 28.2%, respectively, longer duration of hospitalization compared to those treated with oseltamivir-only. Patients treated with antibiotics, alone or combined with oseltamivir, were associated with longer hospitalization and significantly higher medical charges, compared to patients treated with oseltamivir alone. In Korea, there is a need for more judicious use of antibiotics, appropriate use of influenza rapid testing.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.4.485
PMCID: PMC3991790  PMID: 24753694
Influenza, Human; Hospitalizations; Oseltamivir; Therapeutics; Child
5.  PhenX RISING: real world implementation and sharing of PhenX measures 
BMC Medical Genomics  2014;7:16.
Background
The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the PhenX RISING network and the site experiences in the implementation of PhenX measures into ongoing population-based genomic studies.
Methods
Eighty PhenX measures were implemented across the seven PhenX RISING groups, thirty-three of which were used at more than two sites, allowing for cross-site collaboration. Each site used between four and 37 individual measures and five of the sites are validating the PhenX measures through comparison with other study measures. Self-administered and computer-based administration modes are being evaluated at several sites which required changes to the original PhenX Toolkit protocols. A network-wide data use agreement was developed to facilitate data sharing and collaboration.
Results
PhenX Toolkit measures have been collected for more than 17,000 participants across the PhenX RISING network. The process of implementation provided information that was used to improve the PhenX Toolkit. The Toolkit was revised to allow researchers to select self- or interviewer administration when creating the data collection worksheets and ranges of specimens necessary to run biological assays has been added to the Toolkit.
Conclusions
The PhenX RISING network has demonstrated that the PhenX Toolkit measures can be implemented successfully in ongoing genomic studies. The next step will be to conduct gene/environment studies.
doi:10.1186/1755-8794-7-16
PMCID: PMC3994539  PMID: 24650325
PhenX; Phenotype; Epidemiology; Risk factors; Harmonization
6.  Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context and Cognitive Decline Among Older Mexican Americans: Results From the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2011;174(4):423-431.
In 1 previous study, it was shown that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with cognitive decline among Latinos. No studies have explored whether and to what extent individual-level socioeconomic factors account for the relation between neighborhood disadvantage and cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on cognitive decline and examine how individual-level SEP factors (educational level, annual income, and occupation) influenced neighborhood associations over the course of 10 years. Participants (n = 1,789) were community-dwelling older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Neighborhood SEP was derived by linking the participant's individual data to the 2000 decennial census. The authors assessed cognitive function with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Analyses used 3-level hierarchical linear mixed models of time within individuals within neighborhoods. After adjustment for individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, higher neighborhood SEP was significantly associated with cognitive function (β = −0.033; P < 0.05) and rates of decline (β = −0.0009; P < 0.10). After adjustment for individual educational level, neighborhood SEP remained associated with baseline cognition but not with rates of decline. Differences in individual educational levels explained most of the intra- and interneighborhood variance. These results suggest that the effect of neighborhood SEP on cognitive decline among Latinos is primarily accounted for by education.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwr095
PMCID: PMC3159426  PMID: 21715645
aging; cognition; education; Mexican Americans; residence characteristics
7.  Impact of Technical Sources of Variation on the Hand Microbiome Dynamics of Healthcare Workers 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88999.
We assessed the dynamics of hand microbial community structure of 34 healthcare workers from a single surgical intensive care unit over a short (3 week) time period, whilst taking into account the technical sources of variability introduced by specimen collection, DNA extraction, and sequencing. Sample collection took place at 3 different time points. Only the sampling collection method appeared to have a significant impact on the observed hand microbial community structure among the healthcare workers. Analysis of samples collected using glove-juice showed a slightly more similar microbial composition within individual hand samples over time than between the hands of different individuals over time. This was not true for samples collected using a swab, where samples from a single individual were no more similar to each other over time than those among other individuals over time, suggesting they were essentially independent. DNA extraction techniques (lysozyme only versus enzyme cocktail) and sequencing (replicate set 1 versus 2) using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, were not influential to the microbial community structures. Glove-juice sample collection may likely be the method of choice in hand hygiene studies in the healthcare setting.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088999
PMCID: PMC3925205  PMID: 24551205
8.  Socioeconomic Position and Inflammatory and Immune Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease: Applications to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 
Biodemography and Social Biology  2009;55(2):178-205.
Biomarkers are an important aspect of research linking psychosocial stress and health. This paper aims to characterize the biological pathways that may mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and address opportunities for further research within the Panel Study for Income Dynamics (PSID), with a focus on psychosocial stressors related to SEP. We review the literature on CVD biomarkers, including adhesion and proinflammatory molecules (IL-6, other cytokines, C-reactive proteins, fibrinogen, etc.) and microbial pathogens. The impact of socioeconomic determinants and related psychosocial stressors on CVD biomarkers mediated by behavioral and central nervous system pathways are described. We also address measurement and feasibility issues including: specimen collection methods, processing and storage procedures, laboratory error, and within-person variability. In conclusion, we suggest that PSID consider adding important assessments of specific CVD biomarkers and mediating behavioral measures, health, and medications that will ultimately address many of the gaps in the literature regarding the relationship between socioeconomic position and cardiovascular health.
doi:10.1080/19485560903382304
PMCID: PMC3319671  PMID: 20183904
9.  Epigenetic Signatures May Explain the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Position and Risk of Mental Illness: Preliminary Findings from an Urban Community Based Sample 
Low socioeconomic position (SEP) has previously been linked to a number of negative health indicators, including poor mental health. The biologic mechanisms linking SEP and mental health remain poorly understood. Recent work suggests that social exposures influence DNA methylation in a manner salient to mental health. We conducted a pilot investigation to assess whether SEP, measured as educational attainment, modifies the association between genomic methylation profiles and traumatic stress in a trauma-exposed sample. Results show that methylation × SEP interactions occur preferentially in genes pertaining to nervous system function, suggesting a plausible biologic pathway by which SEP may enhance sensitivity to stress, and, in turn, risk of post-traumatic stress disorder.
doi:10.1080/19485565.2013.774627
PMCID: PMC3754421  PMID: 23701537
10.  Ancient evolutionary origins of epigenetic regulation associated with posttraumatic stress disorder 
Epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, are modifiable molecular factors that may underlie mental disorders, especially responses to trauma, including the development of and resilience to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work has identified differential DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotide sites genomewide between trauma exposed individuals with and without PTSD, suggesting a role for epigenetic potential—the capacity to epigenetically regulate behavior and physiology in response to lived experiences. The human species is characterized by an increased period of adaptive plasticity during brain development. The evolutionary history of epigenetic potential in relation to adaptive plasticity is currently unknown. Using phylogenetic methods and functional annotation analyses, we trace the evolution of over 7000 CpG dinucleotides, including 203 associated with PTSD, during the descent of humans in during mammalian evolution and characterize the biological significance of this evolution. We demonstrate that few (7%) PTSD-associated CpG sites are unique to humans, while the vast majority of sites have deep evolutionary origins: 73 and 93% were unambiguously present in the last common ancestor of humans/orangutans and humans/chimpanzees, respectively. Genes proximal to evolved PTSD-associated CpG sites revealed significant enrichment for immune function during recent human evolution and regulation of gene expression during more ancient periods of human evolution. Additionally, 765 putative transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) were identified that overlap with PTSD-associated CpG sites. Elucidation of the evolutionary history of PTSD-associated CpG sites may provide insights into the function and origin of epigenetic potential in trauma responses, generally, and PTSD, specifically. The human capacity to respond to trauma with stable physiologic and behavioral changes may be due to epigenetic potentials that are shared among many mammalian species.
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00284
PMCID: PMC4026723  PMID: 24860472
posttraumatic stress disorder; epigenetics; molecular evolution; DNA methylation; mental disorders
11.  Persistent Infection, Inflammation, and Functional Impairment in Older Latinos 
Background
The objective of this study was to examine whether cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with functional impairment in older Latinos.
Methods
A cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study conducted with a community dwelling elderly population. The sample was a subset (N = 1507/1789) of participants in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA) ages 60–101 with available serum samples and functional impairment measures. Baseline serum samples were assayed for levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to CMV and HSV-1 and for levels of CRP. Several measures were used to assess functional impairment, including activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and walking pace.
Results
CMV and CRP showed statistically significant graded associations with ADL functional impairment, even after controlling for age and gender. The relationship between CMV and ADL was slightly attenuated, and the confidence interval contained the null value when adjusted for total number of health conditions, body mass index, and household income. Only high levels of CRP were significantly related to ADL and IADL impairment even after adjusting for all other covariates.
Conclusion
Inflammation is clearly linked to physical functioning among aging Latinos. This study also suggests a role for CMV infection in relation to ADL impairment. Further research examining the influence of infection, immune response, and inflammation on longitudinal trajectories of physical functioning is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3178457  PMID: 18559636
Cytomegalovirus (CMV); CRP; Latinos; Physical function; Community
12.  Cytomegalovirus Antibody Levels, Inflammation, and Mortality Among Elderly Latinos Over 9 Years of Follow-up 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2010;172(4):363-371.
This study examined the relation between immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and possible mediating mechanisms. Data were derived from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a population-based study of older Latinos (aged 60–101 years) in California followed in 1998–2008. CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG), tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6 were assayed from baseline blood draws. Data on all-cause and CVD mortality were abstracted from death certificates. Analyses included 1,468 of 1,789 participants. For individuals with CMV IgG antibody titers in the highest quartile compared with lower quartiles, fully adjusted models showed that all-cause mortality was 1.43 times (95% confidence interval: 1.14, 1.79) higher over 9 years. In fully adjusted models, the hazard of CVD mortality was also elevated (hazard ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.80). A composite measure of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 mediated a substantial proportion of the association between CMV and all-cause (18.9%, P < 0.001) and CVD (29.0%, P = 0.02) mortality. This study is the first known to show that high CMV IgG antibody levels are significantly related to mortality and that the relation is largely mediated by interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. Further studies investigating methods for reducing IgG antibody response to CMV are warranted.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwq177
PMCID: PMC2950794  PMID: 20660122
cardiovascular diseases; cytomegalovirus; immune system; infection; inflammation
14.  Socioeconomic and Race/Ethnic Patterns in Persistent Infection Burden Among U.S. Adults 
Background
The pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie health disparities by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are poorly understood. Promising new research suggests that the burden of persistent infection may influence adult disease risk and mortality. This article examines how multiple persistent infections cluster within individuals and how this clustering varies by socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity in U.S. adults.
Methods
We analyze data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (N = 19,275) for adults aged 17–90 years. The clustering of infections within individuals is studied using tetrachoric correlations. Multiple indicator multiple cause models are used to analyze the infection burden construct as measured by seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, and hepatitis B, focusing on the burden's distribution by socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity. The results are corroborated using ordered logistic regression for a commonly used count index of individual infections.
Results
Seroprevalence of individual persistent infections is positively correlated, suggesting common factors related to exposure or susceptibility. Education, income, and race/ethnicity are strong and significant independent predictors of infection burden in U.S. adults in all models.
Conclusion
The disproportionate burden of persistent infections among disadvantaged groups across all ages may be one biologic pathway by which low socioeconomic position is related to increased rates of morbidity and mortality in the United States.
doi:10.1093/gerona/gln012
PMCID: PMC2655034  PMID: 19196638
Socioeconomic; Race; Ethnic; United states; Adults; Infection; Biomarkers
16.  Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2005;11(10):1565-1570.
Levels of antimicrobial drug resistance did not differ significantly between persons in households that used antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products and those that did not.
We examined whether household use of antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products is an emerging risk factor for carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant bacteria on hands of household members. Households (N = 224) were randomized to use of antibacterial or nonantibacterial cleaning and hygiene products for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of antibacterial product use in homes. Antibacterial product use did not lead to a significant increase in antimicrobial drug resistance after 1 year (odds ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.74–2.41), nor did it have an effect on bacterial susceptibility to triclosan. However, more extensive and longer term use of triclosan might provide a suitable environment for emergence of resistant species. Further research on this issue is needed.
doi:10.3201/eid1110.041276
PMCID: PMC3366732  PMID: 16318697
Antibacterial products; triclosan; antibiotic resistance; antimicrobial drug resistance; household; research
19.  Family poverty is associated with cytomegalovirus antibody titers in U.S children 
Background
Early life environmental and psychological influences are thought to play an important role in the development of the immune system. Antibody response to latent herpesviruses has been used as an indirect measure of cell-mediated immune function but has seldom been applied to younger age groups.
Methods
We used data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to test for an association between family poverty and continuous antibody response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) in U.S. children aged 6–16 (N= 2,226) using OLS regression.
Results
Poverty was significantly associated with increased antibody levels among seropositive individuals. The association between income and antibody levels exhibited a threshold effect, with additional income beyond the poverty line not associated with increased antibody titers.
Conclusions
Early life social factors such as family poverty could have detrimental impacts on the developing immune system, with potentially important consequences for later life health outcomes.
doi:10.1037/a0025337
PMCID: PMC3677208  PMID: 21895372
CMV; poverty; socioeconomic status; health disparities; NHANES; immunity
20.  Helicobacter pylori Infection Is Associated With an Increased Rate of Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(3):520-525.
OBJECTIVE
Chronic infections could be contributing to the socioeconomic gradient in chronic diseases. Although chronic infections have been associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular disease, there is limited evidence on how infections affect risk of diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We examined the association between serological evidence of chronic viral and bacterial infections and incident diabetes in a prospective cohort of Latino elderly. We analyzed data on 782 individuals aged >60 years and diabetes-free in 1998–1999, whose blood was tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus 1, varicella virus, cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori, and Toxoplasma gondii and who were followed until June 2008. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative incidence rate of diabetes by serostatus, with adjustment for age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, smoking, and cholesterol levels.
RESULTS
Individuals seropositive for herpes simplex virus 1, varicella virus, cytomegalovirus, and T. gondii did not show an increased rate of diabetes, whereas those who were seropositive for H. pylori at enrollment were 2.7 times more likely at any given time to develop diabetes than seronegative individuals (hazard ratio 2.69 [95% CI 1.10–6.60]). Controlling for insulin resistance, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 did not attenuate the effect of H. pylori infection.
CONCLUSIONS
We demonstrated for the first time that H. pylori infection leads to an increased rate of incident diabetes in a prospective cohort study. Our findings implicate a potential role for antibiotic and gastrointestinal treatment in preventing diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1043
PMCID: PMC3322696  PMID: 22279028
21.  CMV and Immunosenescence: from basics to clinics 
Alone among herpesviruses, persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) markedly alters the numbers and proportions of peripheral immune cells in infected-vs-uninfected people. Because the rate of CMV infection increases with age in most countries, it has been suggested that it drives or at least exacerbates “immunosenescence”. This contention remains controversial and was the primary subject of the Third International Workshop on CMV & Immunosenescence which was held in Cordoba, Spain, 15-16th March, 2012. Discussions focused on several main themes including the effects of CMV on adaptive immunity and immunosenescence, characterization of CMV-specific T cells, impact of CMV infection and ageing on innate immunity, and finally, most important, the clinical implications of immunosenescence and CMV infection. Here we summarize the major findings of this workshop.
doi:10.1186/1742-4933-9-23
PMCID: PMC3585851  PMID: 23114110
22.  Building conditions, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and depressive symptoms in adolescent males and females 
Purpose
Emerging work suggests that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to risk of depression in adolescents, and that these factors may differ between genders. We assessed whether features of the social environment (SE), measured at varying levels, and genetic factors jointly shape the risk of depression in adolescent males and females.
Methods
Using data from a national survey of U.S. adolescents, we applied cross-sectional, multilevel mixed models to assess the contribution of: (i) 5-HTTLPR genotype and respondent-level building conditions to depressive sympton score (DSS); and (ii) 5-HTTLPR genotype and neighborhood-level building conditions to DSS. Models testing potential gene-SE (G × SE) interactions were also conducted. All models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, family structure, parental education and social support.
Results
Among females, adjusted analyses indicated that sl genotype carriers enjoyed a marginally significant (p=0.07) protective effect against higher DSS in models assessing respondent-level building conditions. In contrast, among males, adjusted analyses predicted significantly higher DSS for residents of neighborhoods with relatively poor building conditions (p<0.01). No significant G X SE interactions were detected for either gender.
Conclusions
These results suggest that adverse, macro-level SE effects increase risk of depression to a greater extent in adolescent males than females. Intervention strategies designed to improve mental health in adolescent populations should consider a growing body of work suggesting that the contextual effects conferring increased risk of depression differ among males and females.
doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.01.013
PMCID: PMC3179607  PMID: 21939868
social epidemiology; genetics; mental health; gender
23.  Life-course exposure to early socioeconomic environment, education in relation to late life cognitive function among older Mexicans and Mexican Americans 
Journal of aging and health  2011;23(7):1027-1049.
Objectives
To examine the associations between life-course education and late-life cognitive function along with the modifying role of migration history.
Methods
The combined sample includes 1,789 participants from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging and 5,253 participants from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Aged 60+ at baseline, participants were classified as Mexican residents, Mexicans-return migrants, Mexicans-immigrants to the US, and Mexicans-US-born. Cognitive function was measured using standardized z-scores of a short-term verbal recall test. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted.
Results
Participants’ z-scores were higher among those whose mother had more than elementary education (β=0.28, p<0.05). Participant’s education mediated this association. For 5-year difference in education, the cognitive z-score increased by 0.3 points for a US-born. Results were similar with father’s education.
Discussion
Adult educational attainment mediates the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on late-life cognition. Migration plays a role in shaping cognitive aging.
doi:10.1177/0898264311421524
PMCID: PMC3412879  PMID: 21948769
cognition; health; education; life course; old age; Mexican Americans
24.  SLC6A4 methylation modifies the effect of number of traumatic events on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder 
Depression and anxiety  2011;28(8):639-647.
Background
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and debilitating mental disorder that occurs following exposure to a traumatic event. However, most individuals do not develop PTSD following even a severe trauma, leading to a search for new variables—such as genetic and other molecular variation— associated with vulnerability and resilience in the face of trauma exposure.
Method
We examined whether serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) promoter genotype and methylation status modified the association between number of traumatic events experienced and PTSD in a subset of 100 individuals from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study.
Results
Number of traumatic events was strongly associated with risk of PTSD. Neither SLC6A4 genotype or nor methylation status were associated with PTSD in main effects models. However, SLC6A4 methylation levels modified the effect of number of traumatic events on PTSD after controlling for SLC6A4 genotype. Persons with more traumatic events were at increased risk for PTSD but only at lower methylation levels. At higher methylation levels, individuals with more traumatic events were protected from this disorder. This interaction was observed whether the outcome was PTSD diagnosis, symptom severity, or number of symptoms.
Conclusions
Gene-specific methylation patterns may offer potential molecular signatures of increased risk for and resilience to PTSD.
doi:10.1002/da.20825
PMCID: PMC3145829  PMID: 21608084
posttraumatic stress disorder; epigenetic; methylation; SLC6A4; trauma
25.  Life-span Socioeconomic Trajectory, Nativity, and Cognitive Aging in Mexican Americans: The Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging 
Objectives.
Early life circumstances influence health across the life span. Migration and ethnicity may modify the lifetime trajectory of socioeconomic status (SES) and lead to heterogeneity in cognitive aging in later life.
Methods.
We examined the effects of both lifetime socioeconomic trajectory and cumulative disadvantage from childhood through adulthood on late life cognitive performance in a 9-year cohort of 1,789 Mexican Americans aged 60–100 years in 1998–1999.
Results.
Compared with those with low SES sustained over the life course, we found that those with more advantaged lifetime SES trajectories experienced fewer declines on a test of global cognitive function and a short-term verbal memory test. These associations are larger in first- and second-generation immigrant families.
Discussion.
Heterogeneity of cognitive aging among diverse race/ethnic groups may be influenced by intergenerational changes in SES, cultural norms, and behaviors and changes in health related to changes in the social and physical environment.
doi:10.1093/geronb/gbq071
PMCID: PMC3132761  PMID: 21743044
Acculturation; Cognition; Epidemiology; Life course and developmental change

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