The occurrence of numerous cases of interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) every spring in Korea starting in 2006 raised suspicion about a causal relationship with the use of humidifier disinfectants (HDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HD use and the risk of chILD.
This retrospective, 1∶3 matched case-control study consisted of 16 cases of chILD that had developed between 2010 and 2011. The three groups of parallel controls (patients with acute lobar pneumonia, asthma, and healthy children) were matched by age, gender, and index date. Indoor/outdoor environmental risk factors, including HD use, were investigated by asking the guardians to complete a questionnaire.
The median age of the affected children (43.8% male) was 26 months (18.25–36.25). The chILD group did not differ significantly from the control groups with respect to socio-demographic and clinical variables. Indoor and outdoor environmental factors were not associated with a risk of chILD. However, the previous use of HDs (OR; 2.73. 95% CI; 1.41–5.90, P = 0.00) were independently associated with an increased risk.
This study showed that HDs, which are widely used in South Korea in the winter season, independently increased the risk of chILD in spring. Therefore, continuous monitoring and, if needed, changes in policy are essential to prevent and control pediatric diseases caused by toxic chemicals.
Fusidic acid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that is effective primarily on gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species. It is often topically applied to the skin, but is also given systemically as a tablet or injection. Allergic contact dermatitis, or urticaria, has been reported as a side effect of fusidic acid treatment, whereas anaphylaxis to topically administered fusidic acid has not been reported previously. A 16-year-old boy visited an outpatient clinic for further evaluation of anaphylaxis. He suffered abrasions on his arms during exercise, which were treated with a topical ointment containing sodium fusidate. Within 30 minutes, he developed urticaria and eyelid swelling, followed by a cough and respiratory difficulty. His symptoms were relieved by emergency treatment in a nearby hospital. To investigate the etiology, oral provocation with fusidate was performed. After 125 mg (1/2 tablet) of sodium fusidate was administered, he developed a cough and itching of the throat within 30 minutes, which was followed by chest discomfort and urticaria. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) dropped from 4.09 L at baseline to 3.50 L after challenge, although wheezing was not heard in his chest. After management with an inhaled bronchodilator using a nebulizer, chest discomfort was relieved and FEV1 rose to 3.86 L. The patient was directed not to use fusidate, especially on abrasions. Here we report the first case of anaphylaxis resulting from topical fusidic acid application to abrasions.
Anaphylaxis; fusidic acid; ointment
The present study was performed to determine the factor, either duration or the temperature of heat treatment, exerting maximal and significant influence on the composition and allergenicity of egg white (EW) proteins.
Raw EW and 4 kinds of heated EW (fried EW, boiled EW for 10 minutes, boiled EW for 30 minutes, and baked EW for 20 minutes at 170℃) were prepared, and subsequently protein extraction was carried out. The proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, and then immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoblots were performed with the sera of 7 egg-allergic patients. Furthermore, the antigenic activities of ovalbumin (OVA), ovomucoid (OM), and ovotransferrin (OT) in different EW samples were measured by inhibition enzyme-linked Immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA).
In SDS-PAGE analysis, the intensity of the protein band at 45 kD (corresponding to OVA) decreased significantly in boiled EW (30 minutes) and baked EW, but no change was observed in the case of boiled EW for 10 minutes. In IgE immunoblots, the IgE response to 34-50 kD (OM and OVA) in boiled EW for 30 minutes decreased significantly, when compared with raw EW and other heated EWs. In inhibition ELISA, a significant decrease in the OVA antigenic activity was observed in boiled EW for 30 minutes amongst other heated EW samples. However, OM antigenic activity in all kinds of heated EW including boiled EW for 30 minutes did not reduce after heat treatment. The OT antigenic activity nearly disappeared in heated EWs except in the case of boiled EW for 10 minutes.
Amongst 4 kinds of heated EWs, the boiled EW for 30 minutes showed the most significant changes both in composition and reduction in allergenicity. Our results revealed that the duration of heat treatment had more influence on the composition and allergenicity of EW proteins than the temperature.
Egg allergy; egg white; heat treatment; ovomucoid
It is known that ovomucoid, an egg allergen, is heat resistant and remains soluble after heating. However, a recent study showed that the antigenic activity of ovomucoid could be reduced by heating when egg white (EW) was mixed with wheat flour. This study was performed to determine the influence of wheat flour on the antigenic activities of EW proteins when EW is heated, and the influence of the duration of heat treatment.
A mixture of EW and wheat flour was kneaded for 10 minutes and then baked at 180℃ for 10 minutes and 30 minutes. The EW without wheat flour was also heated at 180℃ for 10 minutes and 30 minutes. The proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and IgE immunoblotting was performed with the pooled sera of 5 egg-allergic patients. The antigenic activities of ovomucoid in different EW samples were measured by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
1) SDS-PAGE: the intensity of the 37-50 kD bands (overlapped bands of ovomucoid and ovalbumin) decreased significantly in the mixture of EW and wheat flour baked for 30 minutes, compared with the mixture baked for 10 minutes, heated EW and raw EW. 2) IgE immunoblot: in the mixture of EW and wheat, a remarkable decrease of IgE reactivity to 37-50 kD was observed when baked for 30 minutes. 3) Inhibition ELISA: the antigenic activity of ovomucoid decreased significantly in the mixture of EW and wheat baked for 30 minutes, but not in the heated pure EW.
This study showed that the antigenic activity of ovomucoid can be reduced by baking EW with wheat flour. The decrease in ovomucoid antigenicity in the baked mixture of EW and wheat flour was dependent on the time of heat treatment, indicating that heating should be prolonged to achieve a reduction in ovomucoid antigenic activity.
Egg white; wheat flour; hot temperature; ovomucoid
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease that usually occurs in adolescence and early adulthood. It is characterized by recurrent non-pitting edema involving the skin and intestinal tract, especially the extremities and face. It is not associated with urticaria and pruritus. The cause is known to be the deficiency of C1 inhibitor. We herein report a 7-year-old girl with HAE who had recurrent episodes of swelling of the extremities and face without urticaria and pruritus. Her great grandmother had suffered from the same symptoms. The level of serum C4 was 8.01 mg/dL (normal: 10-40 mg/dL). The level of C1 inhibitor was 5.0 mg/dL (normal: 18-40 mg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric case with typical clinical symptoms of HAE and C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency in Korea.
Hereditary angioedema; angioedema; young children; Korea
We attempted to investigate the correlation between the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children and the indoor level of house dust mite (HDM) allergens. Ninety-five patients (31.1 ± 19.5 months of age) with AD were enrolled in this study, and serum specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae was measured. The severity of AD was assessed using the visual analogue scale on the same day of house dust collection. Living rooms and mattresses where the child usually slept were vacuumed for 2 minutes and concentrations of Der f 1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The skin symptoms were more severe in patients with Der f 1 concentrations in living room > 2 µg/g dust than ≤ 2 µg/g dust (P = 0.018). This difference was noted in AD patients without sensitization to HDM (P = 0.004), but not in patients with sensitization. There was no difference in symptom severity according to Der f 1 concentrations in mattresses (P = 0.062). The severity of skin symptoms is associated with indoor concentrations of HDM in children with AD, and it is likely to act as nonspecific irritants as well as allergens in AD skin lesions.
Atopic Dermatitis; Allergens; House Dust Mite
This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD.
Nutrient intake; Food restriction; Atopic dermatitis; Children
There are little objective data regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing, although bathing and the use of moisturizers are the most important facets to atopic dermatitis (AD) management.
We performed this study to evaluate the effect of bathing on AD.
Ninety-six children with AD were enrolled during the summer season. Parents were educated to bathe them once daily with mildly acidic cleansers, and to apply emollients for 14 days. Parents recorded the frequency of bathing and skin symptoms in a diary. Scoring AD (SCORAD) scores were measured at the initial and follow-up visits. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the compliance of bathing; poor compliance was defined as ≥ 2 bathless days.
There was an improvement of SCORAD score, itching, and insomnia in the good compliance group (all p < 0.001). The mean change in SCORAD score from the baseline at the follow-up visit was greater in the good compliance group than the poor compliance group (p = 0.038).
Daily bathing using weakly acidic syndets can reduce skin symptoms of pediatric AD during the summer season.
Atopic dermatitis; Child; Education; Skin care
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has become a serious epidemic in Korean children. We aimed to investigate the association between vitamin C, E and other nutrients, and serum total IgE/specific IgE levels in children with AD. A total of 119 children (0-24 mo) diagnosed with AD were recruited for this cross-sectional study from a medical center in Seoul. A 24 h recall was used to assess dietary intakes. Serum total and six food-allergen specific IgE levels were measured by CAP-FEIA. Serum vitamin E was also measured but only in 25 out of the total 119 participants. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficients between serum IgE levels and dietary intake as well as serum vitamin E. Serum vitamin E levels showed a significantly inverse association with serum total IgE and all specific IgE levels (P < 0.05). Fat intake was inversely related with specific-IgEs for egg whites, milk, buck wheat, soy, and peanuts (P < 0.05). Positive associations were found between carbohydrate (CHO) intake and total IgE and specific IgEs to egg whites, milk, soy, and peanuts (P < 0.05). Vitamin C, E and n-3/n-6 fatty acids were not related with serum total IgE and specific IgE levels except for the association between buck wheat and vitamin E. In addition, there were no significant differences between males and females in dietary intake and serum IgE levels by student's t-test. Although dietary vitamin E showed no association with serum IgE levels, serum vitamin E drew a significant inverse relationship with serum IgE levels. The evidence seems to suggest that vitamin E may possibly lower total and specific-IgEs in children with AD, and that it is important to maintain a relatively high serum vitamin E level in children with AD.
Atopic dermatitis (AD); serum immunoglobulin E (IgE); serum vitamin E; dietary intake; children
The aim of this study was to analyze the natural history of atopic dermatitis (AD) and the risk factors associated with the remission of AD in Korean children. We enrolled 597 children with AD that occurred in the first year of life. A variety of factors influencing the prognosis were assessed by medical records and telephone interviews. Their outcome was classified into complete remission, intermittent, and persistent AD. AD had completely disappeared in 422 cases (70.6%), while 149 (25%) and 26 cases (4.4%) showed intermittent and persistent skin symptoms, respectively. The average healing time was 29.6 months in complete remission group and expected healing time of the AD was 60 months. None of risk factors were significant by multivariate analysis. But, in moderate-to-severe AD group, maternal diet restriction during lactation (P = 0.046) and no sensitization to cow's milk (P = 0.017) were significantly associated with remission of AD in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, AD occurring in the first year of life disappears in a significant proportion of patients. In addition, in Korean children with moderate-to-severe AD, maternal diet restriction of allergenic food during lactation and sensitization to cow's milk seem to predict the prognosis of AD.
Dermatitis, Atopic; Natural History; Risk Factors
We attempted to investigate the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korea by using national statistics. Data on AD patients who received medical service at least once a year from 2003 through 2008 were collected from health insurance research team of National Health Insurance Corporation. Data of estimated populations during the same period were obtained from the Statistics Korea. In 2008, the prevalence of AD was 26.5% in aged 12-23 months and decreased substantially to 7.6% at age 6 yr, 3.4% at age 12 yr and to 2.4% at age 18 yr. In males, the prevalence was higher than females until 2 yr of age, while the opposite was shown in children aged 2 yr or older. In children aged less than 24 months, the prevalence of AD has increased from 19.8% to 23.8% between the years 2003 and 2008, while the prevalence showed no increase in the older age group. In conclusion, the prevalence of AD in 2008 peaked during infancy up to 26.5% and decreased thereafter. Our findings also suggest that increasing prevalence of AD in children less than 24 months might be responsible for the recent increase in the prevalence of AD in Korean children.
Prevalence; Dermatitis, Atopic; Korea
We investigated whether particular HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms contribute to egg allergy development in Korean children with atopic dermatitis (AD).
HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined by PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) and PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) methods in 185 patients with AD and 109 normal control (NC) subjects. AD patients were divided into two groups: 1) AD with egg allergy, consisting of 96 patients with egg allergies as determined by egg-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity; and 2) AD without egg allergy, consisting of 89 patients without egg allergies. HLA-DRB1 alleles were classified into functional groups (A, De, Dr, E, Q, R, a). HLA-DRB1 phenotype and functional group frequencies in the AD, AD with egg allergy, and AD without egg allergy groups were compared with those in the NC group.
The frequency of DRB1*08:02 was decreased in the AD with egg allergy group compared with the AD without egg allergy group (2.1% vs. 10.1%, P=0.021), and DRB1*15:01 was increased in the AD with egg allergy group compared with the AD without egg allergy group (22.9% vs. 11.2%, P=0.036). However, significance was lost after Bonferroni correction. HLA-DRB1*11:01 had a significantly higher frequency in AD patients compared with NCs (12.4% vs. 1.8%, corrected P=0.048) and was regarded as a susceptibility factor associated with AD. DRB1*08:03 was decreased in AD patients compared with NCs (10.8% vs. 19.3%, P=0.043). HLA-DRB1 functional group 'a', which includes DRB1*15:01, seemed to be associated with the development of egg allergy in AD (P=0.033), but this result was not significant after Bonferroni correction.
HLA-DRB1 polymorphism is not associated with egg allergy, but HLA-DRB1*11:01 is associated with AD in Korean children.
Egg; atopic dermatitis; HLA-DRB1; children; Korean
Regional dietary habits and cooking methods affect the prevalence of specific food allergies; therefore, we determined the effects of various pH conditions on major peanut allergens. Peanut kernels were soaked overnight in commercial vinegar (pH 2.3) or acetic acid solutions at pH 1.0, 3.0, or 5.0. Protein extracts from the sera of seven patients with peanut-specific IgE levels >15 kUA/L were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunolabeling. A densitometer was used to quantify and compare the allergenicity of each protein. The density of Ara h 1 was reduced by treatment with pH 1.0, 3.0, or 5.0 acetic acid, or commercial vinegar. Ara h 2 remained largely unchanged after treatment with pH 5.0 acetic acid, and was decreased following treatment with pH 1.0, 2.3, or 3.0 acetic acid. Ara h 3 and Ara h 6 appeared as a thick band after treatment with pH 1.0 acetic acid and commercial vinegar. IgE-binding intensities to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 were significantly reduced after treatment with pH 1.0 acetic acid or commercial vinegar. These data suggest that treatment with acetic acid at various pH values affects peanut allergenicity and may explain the low prevalence of peanut allergy in Korea.
Acetic acid; allergens; Ara h 1 allergen; Ara h 2 allergen; Ara h 3 allergen; peanuts
Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy). Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.
Food allergy; Allergens; Cross reactions; Disease management
The increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) suggests a role for environmental factors in triggering a genetic predisposition in sufferers.
The purpose of this study was to investigate home environmental factors related to AD severity.
We conducted a questionnaire survey about the home environmental factors in 380 children from two daycare centers and the Samsung Medical Center outpatient clinic. AD was diagnosed by Hanifin and Rajka's criteria and its severity was assessed by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. Children were divided into normal control group, mild AD group and severe AD group. Home environmental factors were compared among the three groups and were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and multiple logistic analysis.
Indoor remodeling activities, such as painting (p = 0.004), floor covering (p = 0.001) and wallpaper changing (p = 0.002) were associated with severity of AD. Those in the severe AD group were more likely to live in an apartment (p < 0.001). Severe AD was observed more frequently when the monthly income of household (p = 0.027) and final educational status of mother (p = 0.001) were higher.
Some home environmental factors were associated with AD severity, but its causal relationship is not clear. Further research is needed to confirm these associations and to clarify whether they are causative.
Atopic dermatitis; Home environment; Childhood; Risk factor
Cow's milk is one of the most common food allergens in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). This study was conducted to describe the natural course of cow's milk allergy in children with AD, and to identify factors predictive of outcome. To accomplish this, we reviewed the medical records of 115 children who were diagnosed with AD and cow's milk allergy before 24 months of age to evaluate their clinical characteristics and prognostic factors. During a follow-up period of 24 to114 months, the median age for tolerance to cow's milk was found to be 67 months. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the peak cow's milk-specific IgE level within 24 months after birth was the most important factor for prediction of the outcome of cow's milk allergy. In conclusion, half of the children younger than 24 months of age with AD and cow's milk allergy could tolerate cow's milk at 67 months of age. The peak cow's milk-specific IgE level within the first 24 months of birth is useful to predict the prognosis of cow's milk allergy in children with AD.
Milk; Food Hypersensitivity; Immunoglobulin E; Prognosis
We performed this study to assess the prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens and to analyze the difference between prevalence rates according to children's ages and residential areas. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, first grade students of 45 elementary schools and 40 middle schools were randomly selected, and skin prick tests were performed for 18 inhalant allergens between October and November 2010. Of 7,829 analyzed subjects, 3,753 (47.9%) were sensitized to at least one aeroallergen. Sensitization to Dermatophagoides farinae was found to be the most prevalent in elementary schoolchildren (32.4%), followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Japanese hop, and oak. In middle schoolchildren, D. pteronyssinus yielded the highest prevalence (42.7%), followed by D. farinae, T. putrescentiae, Japanese hop, and cat. In middle schoolchildren, the sensitization rate to aeroallergens in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas was 57.2%, 54.3%, and 49.8%, respectively (P = 0.019). In this age group, the sensitization rate in low, middle, high, and very high income groups was 53.8%, 51.8%, 59.0%, and 59.6%, respectively (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the sensitization rate is 47.9% and house dust mite is the most prevalent allergen in the pediatric population in Korea. The rate is higher in metropolitan areas and the highest income group than in rural areas and low income groups.
Skin Tests; Child; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae
This was a prospective cohort study of 976 infants from birth to 12 months of age. Infants were fed breast milk, goat infant formula, cow infant formula, or a combination of formula and breast milk during the first 4 months of age. Data on type of milk feeding and infant growth (weight and height) were collected at birth and at 4, 8, and 12 months during routine clinical assessment. The number and consistency of bowel motions per day were recorded based on observational data supplied by the mothers. Infants fed breast milk or goat or cow infant formula during the first 4 months displayed similar growth outcomes. More of the infants fed cow infant formula had fewer and more well-formed bowel motions compared with breast-fed infants. The stool characteristics of infants fed goat formula resembled those of infants fed breast milk.
Infant formula; infants; growth
A 3-year-old girl with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to a H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection was complicated by necrotizing pneumonia was successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This is the first reported case in which a pediatric patient was rescued with ECMO during the H1N1 influenza epidemic in Korea in 2009.
2009 H1N1 influenza; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Child; Necrotizing pneumonia
Environmental pollutants are thought to be one of major triggers of atopic dermatitis (AD).
We attempted to evaluate the clinical effects of environment with low indoor pollutant levels on AD management.
Fifty-one children (mean age 1.7 years) with moderate to severe AD who failed to show improvement with conventional management were recruited. Disease severity was assessed by SCORAD (Scoring of AD) indices. They were admitted in a low pollutant oom for 3-4 days (mean 3.3 days) which was designed to keep low levels of dust, house dust mites, micro-organisms, and indoor air pollutants such as total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), particulate matter (PM), and so on. Air pollutant levels in the low pollutant room were lower than primary standards defined by the Korean Ministry of Environment. we compared disease severity on admission and after discharge, and the pollutant levels of each patient's home and low pollutant room.
The SCORAD was significantly reduced from 42.0 ± 11 .5 to 29.8 ± 8.9 (p < 0.001) by management in a low pollutant room. PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, TVOCs, carbon dioxide, bacterial suspensions, and indoor molds were significantly higher in the patient's home than low pollutant room. Out of 29 patients who deteriorated after discharge to their home, 8 patients were admitted again, and their SCORAD was rapidly decreased from 53.1 ± 16.2 to 39.2 ± 9.8 (p = 0.036).
Indoor air pollutants are likely to affect AD in susceptible individuals. Environmental control to lower indoor air pollutant levels might be necessary for better management of AD in some patients.
Atopic dermatitis; Childhood; Environment; Air pollution; Indoor
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorder in children, with a worldwide cumulative prevalence in children of 8-20%. The number of AD patients is beyond the level that can be dealt with at clinics and it is time to make an effort to reduce the number of AD patients in the community. Thus, caregivers and all persons involved with AD management, including health care providers, educators, technologists and medical policy makers, should understand the development and the management of AD. Although a number of guidelines such as Practical Allergy (PRACTALL) report have been developed and used, community understanding of these is low. This is probably because there are still remarkable differences in management practices between specialists and between countries and most of the reported guidelines have been prepared for physicians. From the viewpoint of providing a basis for a multidisciplinary team approach, easily comprehensible guidelines for organizing treatment of AD, i.e. an Atopic Dermatitis Organizer (ADO), are required. guidelines should be simple and well organized. We suggest an easy approach with a new classification of AD symptoms into early and/or progressive lesions in acute and/or chronic symptoms. The contents of this ADO guideline basically consist of 3 steps approaches: conservative management, topical anti-inflammatory therapy, and systemic anti-inflammatory therapy.
Atopic dermatitis; classification, Management; Guideline
Infants with chronic respiratory symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly because there are various causes which are different from those of children and adolescents.
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between chronic respiratory symptoms and bedtime bottle feeding in infants after the age of 6 months.
We conducted a prospective study that included 44 infants who presented with respiratory symptoms for more than 8 weeks and also had been bottle-fed during bedtime even after 6 months of age. The infants were divided into 2 groups; infants who discontinued bedtime bottle feeding and those who did not. Respiratory symptom scores were graded with a four-point scale at 0, 1, 2 and 3 months, and were compared between the 2 groups.
Twenty eight infants (63.6%) stopped being bottle-fed during bedtime and 16 infants (36.4%) were still bottle-fed. The respiratory symptom scores were significantly decreased in infants who stopped bedtime bottle feeding (p = 0.0003).
It is suggested that prolonged bedtime bottle feeding might be one of the causes of chronic respiratory symptoms in infants.
Feeding methods; Bottle feeding; Infants
The aim of this study was to determine the causes of hemoptysis in a pediatric age group.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients who were admitted to Samsung Medical Center between 1996 and 2008 with a chief complaint of hemoptysis. Patients with trauma or underlying bleeding tendency such as leukemia were excluded. Patients were divided into three groups according to age (0 to 5 yr, 6 to 10 yr, and 11 to 18 yr). The amount of hemoptysis was classified as mild (≤20 mL/day), moderate (20-100 mL/day), or massive (>100 mL/day). Causes and duration of hemoptysis, disease course, and mortality were also investigated.
A total of 40 patients (18 males and 22 females) were identified. Their median age was 6.3 yr (range, 10 months to 18 yr). Twenty-five patients manifested mild hemoptysis; moderate and massive hemoptysis were found in nine and six patients, respectively. Respiratory tract infection was the most common cause of hemoptysis. Other causes included congenital heart disease, Heiner syndrome, neoplasm in the airway, vasculitis syndrome, and bronchiectasis. In most patients (87.5%), hemoptysis disappeared during medical treatment that included antibiotics or transfusion. Hemoptysis recurred in 12 patients, and the overall mortality rate was 5%.
The most common cause of hemoptysis in children was respiratory tract infection. Most cases had a benign course, but recurrence and mortality occurred in a minority of patients. An accurate diagnosis of the underlying etiology is essential for treatment.
hemoptysis; children; etiology