Metastatic carcinomas involving the lung are a common specimen encountered in surgical pathology. These metastases may have different morphologic, and architectural patterns and may mimic primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma, especially the intra-alveolar (lepidic) pattern of spread which may simulate a primary pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma in situ). We present the case of a metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma that morphologically mimicked bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung in that the tumor had an exclusive intra-alveolar pattern of spread and had an immunophenotype that was noninformative as to the site of origin (cytokeratin 7+, cytokeratin 20−, TTF-1−). In this case, we used KRAS gene mutation analysis to support that the lung carcinoma represented a metastatic pancreatic carcinoma as they both possessed identical codon 12 KRAS mutations. We show that this method may be a useful way to prove site of origin of metastatic carcinoma—particularly if standard morphologic or immunohistochemical analysis is not definitive.
Hyper-IgG4 disease is a rare systemic disorder that usually affects middle age males. It is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and infiltration of organs by IgG4 positive plasma cells associated with fibrosis. Patients usually present with mass or masses in the involved organ that mimic neoplasia. While initially described in the pancreas, IgG4-related inflammatory tumors have been now described in many organs. We describe an unusual case of an IgG4-related pseudotumor of the kidney.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) exhibits natural tropism for dendritic cells and represents the prototypic infection that elicits protective CD8+ T cell (cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)) immunity. Here we have harnessed the immunobiology of this arenavirus for vaccine delivery. By using producer cells constitutively synthesizing the viral glycoprotein (GP), it was possible to replace the gene encoding LCMV GP with vaccine antigens to create replication-defective vaccine vectors. These rLCMV vaccines elicited CTL responses that were equivalent to or greater than those elicited by recombinant adenovirus 5 or recombinant vaccinia virus in their magnitude and cytokine profiles, and they exhibited more effective protection in several models. In contrast to recombinant adenovirus 5, rLCMV failed to elicit vector-specific antibody immunity, which facilitated re-administration of the same vector for booster vaccination. In addition, rLCMV elicited T helper type 1 CD4+ T cell responses and protective neutralizing antibodies to vaccine antigens. These features, together with low seroprevalence in humans, suggest that rLCMV may show utility as a vaccine platform against infectious diseases and cancer.
The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of 99Tcm-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintimammography and ultrasonography, alone and in combination, for the detection of chest wall recurrence in the post-mastectomy breast. A total of 41 consecutive post-mastectomy patients (mean age 46.6 years; median age 45 years) with clinical suspicion of breast cancer recurrence were evaluated. For scintimammography all patients received a 740–900 MBq iv injection of 99Tcm-MIBI; planar images were taken 5–10 min post-injection followed by supine single photon emission CT. Breast ultrasonography was performed in each patient using a 7.5 MHz transducer. Both MIBI uptake and ultrasound findings were documented using standard protocols. All patients had fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAC), core biopsy or excision biopsy for final tissue diagnosis. Of the 41 patients, 24 had true positive signs of local breast cancer recurrence upon ultrasonography, 10 were diagnosed as true negatives, a sensitivity of 86%, specificity 77%, positive predictive value (PPV) 89%, negative predictive value (NPV) 71% and accuracy 83% (p = 0.001). By comparison, scintimammography findings were found to be true positive in 25 patients and true negative in 12 patients — sensitivity 89%, specificity 92%, PPV 96%, NPV 80% and accuracy 90% (p = 0.001). Using a combination of these two modalities, the combined sensitivity was 100%, specificity 77%, PPV 90%, NPV 100% and accuracy 93%. The high NPV of the two studies in combination implies a potential use of this approach to exclude recurrent disease in patients with a low initial index of suspicion and/or when histology is indeterminate.
For patients with relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma, high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue may improve survival over chemotherapy alone. We assessed outcomes of HDCT-SCT in 37 consecutive adolescent and young adult patients with relapsed HL whose malignancy was categorized based on sensitivity to chemotherapy. We determined whether current outcomes supported the use of HDCT-SCT in all of our patients or just those patients with lower risk characteristics such as chemosensitivity. With a median follow up of 6.5 years, the 2 year overall survival was 89% (95% CI: 62%–97%) for the chemo-sensitive patients (n=21). Whereas for patients with resistant disease (n=16) OS was 53% (95%CI: 25%–74%). Both autologous and allogeneic transplants were well tolerated, with 100 day treatment related mortality under 10%. Our data show encouraging outcomes for patients with chemosensitive relapsed HL who receives HSCT and supports the value of the procedure even when the disease is chemoresistant.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Stem Cell Transplant; Salvage Therapy
Quercetin (QE), one of natural flavanoid group, was widely distributed as a secondary metabolite in plant kingdom. It has been believed that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the present study was the evaluation of possible effects of QE on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in experimental streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ was injected intraperitoneally with single dose of 50 mg/kg for diabetes induction. QE (15 mg/kg bw day, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection) was injected for 3 days prior to STZ administration; these injections were continued to the end of the study (for 25 days). Glucose tolerance test and random plasma glucose were done for all animals. Cellular antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in pancreatic homogenates. Quercetin had no effect on plasma glucose level of normal animals but its pre- treatment was able to prevent diabetes induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocintreated rats. Antioxidant enzyme activity significantly decreased in STZ induced diabetic group. QE treatment significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme activities. It could be concluded that quercetin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties, exerting its beneficial antidiabetic effects.
Quercetin; Flavonoid; Antioxidant; Antidiabetic
Tracheobronchial obstruction along with compression of pulmonary vessels is a rare complication after stenting of aortic aneurysm. We present this rare situation in a young patient who underwent stenting of traumatic thoracic aortic aneurysm and developed this near fatal complication and also the conservative management plan which we adopted to manage this case.
Bronchial obstruction; pulmonary vessel compression; thoracic aortic aneurysm
Needle length plays an important role for the success of ophthalmic block. The standard practice is to use 25 mm needles length; however, unnecessarily long needles may increase the risk of complications especially in the presence of staphyloma or previous scleral buckle.
This work was designed to compare the efficacy of using 15 and 25 mm needle in performing extraconal block for patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery.
Settings and Design:
Prospective randomized double blinded study.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 120 patients were enrolled in this study and were divided in two groups. In group (1) extraconal block was performed using 25 mm needle, while in group (2) 15 mm needle was used. After primary injection, assessment of the block was done by an anesthesiologist who was unaware of the needle used. If satisfactory akinesia was not achieved a supplementation was provided. At the end of the procedures, patients and surgeons were asked to assess their pain and satisfaction with the anesthetic technique.
Statistical Analysis used:
The sample size calculation using N-Quary version 4. Numerical and categorical data were analyzed using an independent sample, a two-tailed t-test, and chi-square test, respectively.
The volume of primary injectable was significantly higher in group 2. The two groups were comparable as regards total volume of local anesthetic, supplementation rate, akinesia, pain score, and surgeon satisfaction.
Using 15 mm needle length to perform extraconal blockade for posterior segment procedures is equally effective to 25 mm needle.
Peribulbar blockade; retinal surgery; scleral buckle; short needle
Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is a prototype of the ELR+CXC chemokines that play an important role in the promotion and progression of many human cancers including breast cancer. We have recently showed the implication of polymorphism (-251) T/A of IL-8 gene in the susceptibility and prognosis of breast carcinoma. IL-8 acts through its CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. CXCR2, expressed on the endothelial cells, is the receptor involved in mediating the angiogenic effects of ELR+CXC chemokines and in particular IL-8.
In the current study, we investigated the susceptibility and prognostic implications of the genetic variation in CXCR2 in breast carcinoma. We also confirmed the implication of IL-8 (-251) T/A polymorphism in a larger cohort. Finally, we combined the IL-8 and CXCR2 variant alleles and analyzed their effects in breast cancer risk and prognosis.
We used the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction to characterize the variation of IL-8 and CXCR2 for 409 unrelated Tunisian patients with breast carcinoma and 301 healthy control subjects. To estimate the relative risks, Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for the known risk factors for breast cancer. Associations of the genetic marker with the rates of breast carcinoma-specific overall survival and disease-free survival were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses.
A highly significant association was found between the homozygous CXCR2 (+ 1208) TT genotype (adjusted OR = 2.89; P = 0.008) and breast carcinoma. A significantly increased risk of breast carcinoma was associated with IL-8 (-251) A allele (adjusted OR = 1.86; P = 0.001). The presence of two higher risk genotypes (the TA and TT in IL-8, and the TT in CXCR2) significantly increased the risk of developing breast carcinoma (adjusted OR = 4.15; P = 0.0004).
The CXCR2 (+ 1208) T allele manifested a significant association with an aggressive phenotype of breast carcinoma as defined by a large tumor size, a high histological grade, and auxiliary's lymph node metastasis. A significant association between the IL-8 (-251) A allele and the aggressive form of breast carcinoma was also found.
Moreover, the presence of the IL-8 (-251) A and/or the CXCR2 (+ 1208) T allele showed a significant association with a decreased overall survival and disease-free survival in breast carcinoma patients.
Our results indicated that the polymorphisms in IL-8 and CXCR2 genes are associated with increased breast cancer risk, as well as disease progress, supporting our hypothesis for IL-8 and ELR+CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR2) involvement in breast cancer pathogenesis.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in ovarian carcinomas, with direct or indirect activation of EGFR able to trigger tumour growth. We demonstrate significant activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and its upstream activator Janus kinase (JAK)2, in high-grade ovarian carcinomas compared with normal ovaries and benign tumours. The association between STAT3 activation and migratory phenotype of ovarian cancer cells was investigated by EGF-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in OVCA 433 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Ligand activation of EGFR induced a fibroblast-like morphology and migratory phenotype, consistent with the upregulation of mesenchyme-associated N-cadherin, vimentin and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. This occurred concomitantly with activation of the downstream JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Both cell lines expressed interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), and treatment with EGF within 1 h resulted in a several-fold enhancement of mRNA expression of IL-6. Consistent with that, EGF treatment of both OVCA 433 and SKOV3 cell lines resulted in enhanced IL-6 production in the serum-free medium. Exogenous addition of IL-6 to OVCA 433 cells stimulated STAT3 activation and enhanced migration. Blocking antibodies against IL-6R inhibited IL-6 production and EGF- and IL-6-induced migration. Specific inhibition of STAT3 activation by JAK2-specific inhibitor AG490 blocked STAT3 phosphorylation, cell motility, induction of N-cadherin and vimentin expression and IL6 production. These data suggest that the activated status of STAT3 in high-grade ovarian carcinomas may occur directly through activation of EGFR or IL-6R or indirectly through induction of IL-6R signalling. Such activation of STAT3 suggests a rationale for a combination of anti-STAT3 and EGFR/IL-6R therapy to suppress the peritoneal spread of ovarian cancer.
ovarian carcinoma; epithelial–mesenchymal transition; migration; Janus kinase 2; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
Metal cutting processes are important due to increased consumer demands for quality metal cutting related products (more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness) that has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. This paper presents optimum surface roughness by using milling mould aluminium alloys (AA6061-T6) with Response Ant Colony Optimization (RACO). The approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The main objectives to find the optimized parameters and the most dominant variables (cutting speed, feedrate, axial depth and radial depth). The first order model indicates that the feedrate is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness.
response surface method; ant colony; aluminium alloys; surface roughness
platelet polymorphisms; glycoprotein Ibα; Kozak; PFA‐100
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPARβ) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family and is a ligand-activated transcription factor with few known molecular targets including 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1(PDK1). In view of the association of PPARβ and PDK1 with cancer, we have examined the expression of PPARβ and PDK1 in normal ovaries and different histological grades of ovarian tumours. Normal ovaries, benign, borderline, grades 1, 2 and 3 ovarian tumours of serous, muciuous, endometrioid, clear cell and mixed subtypes were analysed by immunohistochemistry for PPARβ and PDK1 expression. All normal ovarian tissues, benign, borderline and grade 1 tumours showed PPARβ staining localised in the epithelium and stroma. Staining was predominantly nuclear, but some degree of cytoplasmic staining was also evident. Approximately 20% of grades 2 and 3 tumours lacked PPARβ staining, whereas the rest displayed some degree of nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of the scattered epithelium and stroma. The extent of epithelial and stromal PPARβ staining was significantly different among the normal and the histological grades of tumours (χ2=59.25, d.f.=25, P<0.001; χ2=64.48, d.f.=25, P<0.001). Significantly different staining of PPARβ was observed in the epithelium and stroma of benign and borderline tumours compared with grades 1, 2 and 3 tumours (χ2=11.28, d.f.=4, P<0.05; χ2=16.15, d.f.=4, P<0.005). In contrast, PDK1 immunostaining was absent in 9 out of 10 normal ovaries. Weak staining for PDK1 was observed in one normal ovary and 40% of benign ovarian tumours. All borderline and malignant ovarian tumours showed positive cytoplasmic and membrane PDK1 staining. Staining of PDK1 was confined to the epithelium and the blood vessels, and no apparent staining of the stroma was evident. Significantly different PDK1 staining was observed between the benign/borderline and malignant ovarian tumours (χ2=22.45, d.f.=5, P<0.001). In some borderline and high-grade tumours, staining of the reactive stroma was also evident. Our results suggest that unlike the colon, the endometrial, head and neck carcinomas, overexpression of PPARβ does not occur in ovarian tumours. However, overexpression of PDK1 was evident in borderline and low- to high-grade ovarian tumours and is consistent with its known role in tumorigenesis.
ovarian carcinoma; peroxisome proliferating-activated receptor; phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1; metastasis; differentiation
CD8 T cells are recognized key players in control of persistent virus infections, but increasing evidence suggests that assistance from other immune mediators is also needed. Here, we investigated whether specific antibody responses contribute to control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a prototypic mouse model of systemic persistent infection. Mice expressing transgenic B cell receptors of LCMV-unrelated specificity, and mice unable to produce soluble immunoglobulin M (IgM) exhibited protracted viremia or failed to resolve LCMV. Virus control depended on immunoglobulin class switch, but neither on complement cascades nor on Fc receptor γ chain or Fc γ receptor IIB. Cessation of viremia concurred with the emergence of viral envelope-specific antibodies, rather than with neutralizing serum activity, and even early nonneutralizing IgM impeded viral persistence. This important role for virus-specific antibodies may be similarly underappreciated in other primarily T cell–controlled infections such as HIV and hepatitis C virus, and we suggest this contribution of antibodies be given consideration in future strategies for vaccination and immunotherapy.
Persistent viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) or HIV can defeat the body's defense system and cause devastating epidemics worldwide. Recent attempts at vaccinating against HIV have relied on the induction of specific antiviral killer T lymphocytes but have failed to confer protection on the host. Better knowledge about how a successful defense should operate is therefore essential for developing and refining new vaccines. Here, we have used a prototypic mouse model to investigate basic defense mechanisms required to eliminate persisting viruses. Experiments in several genetically engineered mouse models show that contrary to common belief, not only antiviral killer T cells, but also antibodies (produced by B cells), are needed to prevent a virus from persisting in its host. These findings suggest that induction of antibodies, along with antiviral killer T lymphocytes, should be envisaged when devising new strategies for vaccinating against HIV or HCV.
Andreas Bergthaler and colleagues reveal that T cell control of systemic persistent viral infections requires support by antibodies produced by B cells, which may have important implications for future vaccination strategies against HIV and hepatitis C.
The basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor twist1, as an antagonist of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)–dependent cytokine expression, is involved in the regulation of inflammation-induced immunopathology. We show that twist1 is expressed by activated T helper (Th) 1 effector memory (EM) cells. Induction of twist1 in Th cells depended on NF-κB, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and interleukin (IL)-12 signaling via signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 4. Expression of twist1 was transient after T cell receptor engagement, and increased upon repeated stimulation of Th1 cells. Imprinting for enhanced twist1 expression was characteristic of repeatedly restimulated EM Th cells, and thus of the pathogenic memory Th cells characteristic of chronic inflammation. Th lymphocytes from the inflamed joint or gut tissue of patients with rheumatic diseases, Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis expressed high levels of twist1. Expression of twist1 in Th1 lymphocytes limited the expression of the cytokines interferon-γ, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and ameliorated Th1-mediated immunopathology in delayed-type hypersensitivity and antigen-induced arthritis.
Drinking arsenic-contaminated water is associated with increased risk of neoplasias of the skin, lung, bladder and possibly other sites, as well as other diseases. Earlier, we showed that human lymphoblast lines from different normal unexposed donors showed variable sensitivities to the toxic effects of arsenite. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to compare the basal gene expression profiles between two arsenite-resistant (GM02707, GM00893) and two arsenite-sensitive lymphoblast lines (GM00546, GMO00607). A number of genes were differentially expressed in arsenite-sensitive and arsenite-resistant cells. Among these, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase 1 (GGT1) and NFB inhibitor-epsilon (NFKBIE) showed higher expression levels in arsenite-resistant cells. RT-PCR analysis with gene-specific primers confirmed these results. Reduction of GGT1 expression level in arsenite resistant lymphoblasts with GGT1-specific siRNA resulted in increased cell sensitivity to arsenite. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that expression levels of GGT1 and possibly NFKBIE might be useful as biomarkers of genetic susceptibility to arsenite. Expression microarrays can thus be exploited for identifying additional biomarkers of susceptibility to arsenite and to other toxicants.
arsenite; human; lymphoblasts; microarray; NFKBIE; GGT1
Objective: To study the long-term outcome of endonasal endoscopic skull base reconstruction with nasal turbinate tissue free graft. Patients and Methods: This study included 55 consecutive patients who underwent endonasal endoscopic skull base reconstruction with nasal turbinate graft and were available for follow-up. They were 30 patients with pituitary adenomas, 20 with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea of different etiologies, three with meningoencephalocele, and two with skull base meningiomas. Autologous nasal turbinate tissue materials were used in reconstructing the skull base defect. Clinical follow-up with endoscopic nasal examination was done routinely 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed when indicated. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 8 years. Results: There were no major operative or postoperative complications. Nasal turbinate graft was effective in sealing of intraoperative CSF leak, obliteration of dead space, and anatomic reconstruction of the skull base. There was no evidence of graft migration or inflammatory changes. Starting from 3 months after surgery to the rest of the follow-up period, endonasal endoscopic view of the site of duraplasty showed that: with small skull base defect (less than 5 mm), there was neither dural pulsation nor prolapse; with moderate-sized defect (5 to 10 mm), there was dural pulsation without prolapse; with larger defect (> 10 mm), there was dural pulsation and prolapse. These finding were constant regardless of the etiology of the lesion and the reconstruction material used. Conclusions: This long-term study demonstrated the efficacy of nasal turbinate graft in sealing of CSF leak without any delayed complications. Other rigid materials may be considered in reconstruction of large skull base defect (more than 10 mm) to prevent dural prolapse and herniation. For any future endonasal procedure for those patients, who had previous endonasal endoscopic duraplasty, the surgeons should be fully aware of the state of duraplasty (e.g., dural prolapse) to avoid any intraoperative complication (e.g., penetration of the prolapsed dura during nasal packing).
Endonasal; endoscopic; skull base; nasal turbinate
Many vaccination strategies and immune cell therapies aim at increasing the numbers of memory T cells reactive to protective antigens. However, the differentiation lineage and therefore the optimal generation conditions of CD4 memory cells remain controversial. Linear and divergent differentiation models have been proposed, suggesting CD4 memory T cell development from naive precursors either with or without an effector-stage intermediate, respectively. Here, we address this question by using newly available techniques for the identification and isolation of effector T cells secreting effector cytokines. In adoptive cell transfers into normal, nonlymphopenic mice, we show that long-lived virus-specific memory T cells can efficiently be generated from purified interferon γ–secreting T helper (Th) type 1 and interleukin (IL)-4– or IL-10–secreting Th2 effectors primed in vitro or in vivo. Importantly, such effector-derived memory T cells were functional in viral challenge infections. They proliferated vigorously, rapidly modulated IL-7 receptor expression, exhibited partial stability and flexibility of their cytokine patterns, and exerted differential effects on virus-induced immunopathology. Thus, cytokine-secreting effectors can evade activation-induced cell death and develop into long-lived functional memory cells. These findings demonstrate the efficiency of linear memory T cell differentiation and encourage the design of vaccines and immune cell therapies based on differentiated effector T cells.
Cooperation of CD4+ T helper cells with specific B cells is crucial for protective vaccination against pathogens by inducing long-lived neutralizing antibody responses. During infection with persistence-prone viruses, prolonged virus replication correlates with low neutralizing antibody responses. We recently described that a viral mutant of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which lacks a T helper epitope, counterintuitively induced an enhanced protective antibody response. Likewise, partial depletion of the CD4+ T cell compartment by using anti-CD4 antibodies enhanced protective antibodies.
Here we have developed a protocol to selectively reduce the CD4+ T cell response against viral CD4+ T cell epitopes. We demonstrate that in vivo treatment with LCMV-derived MHC-II peptides induced non-responsiveness of specific CD4+ T cells without affecting CD4+ T cell reactivity towards other antigens. This was associated with accelerated virus-specific neutralizing IgG-antibody responses. In contrast to a complete absence of CD4+ T cell help, tolerisation did not impair CD8+ T cell responses.
This result reveals a novel “negative vaccination” strategy where specific CD4+ T cell unresponsiveness may be used to enhance the delayed protective antibody responses in chronic virus infections.
Background and aims: We tested the hypothesis that the actual or predicted consequences of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene correlate with the pancreatic phenotype and with measures of quantitative exocrine pancreatic function.
Methods: We assessed 742 patients with cystic fibrosis for whom genotype and clinical data were available. At diagnosis, 610 were pancreatic insufficient, 110 were pancreatic sufficient, and 22 pancreatic sufficient patients progressed to pancreatic insufficiency after diagnosis.
Results: We identified mutations on both alleles in 633 patients (85.3%), on one allele in 95 (12.8%), and on neither allele in 14 (1.9%). Seventy six different mutations were identified. The most common mutation was ΔF508 (71.3%) followed by G551D (2.9%), G542X (2.3%), 621+1G→T (1.2%), and W1282X (1.2%). Patients were categorized into five classes according to the predicted functional consequences of each mutation. Over 95% of patients with severe class I, II, and III mutations were pancreatic insufficient or progressed to pancreatic insufficiency. In contrast, patients with mild class IV and V mutations were consistently pancreatic sufficient. In all but four cases each genotype correlated exclusively with the pancreatic phenotype. Quantitative data of acinar and ductular secretion were available in 93 patients. Patients with mutations belonging to classes I, II, and III had greatly reduced acinar and ductular function compared with those with class IV or V mutations.
Conclusion: The predicted or known functional consequences of specific mutant alleles correlate with the severity of pancreatic disease in cystic fibrosis.
cystic fibrosis; cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator; pancreatic insufficiency; pancreas
Objective: To demonstrate the flexibility, adaptability, and efficacy of endoscopic endonasal removal of the inferior half of the middle turbinate in a cadaveric study and in surgery for the treatment of different sphenoid sinus and skull base lesions. Methods: Anatomic Cadaveric Study: Five adult cadaveric heads were studied. Six nostrils of 3 cadavers were studied endoscopically after the lower half of the middle turbinate was removed. Two adult cadaveric heads underwent bilateral paraseptal sagittal sectioning and were studied after the lower half of the middle turbinate was removed. Sixty-five patients with different sphenoid sinus and skull base-related lesions were treated through this surgical approach. Results: This approach increased surgical exposure, decreased tubular vision, and offered wider anatomic panoramic orientation with 0-degree and angled endoscopes. In the surgical group, there were no major intra- or postoperative complications. The approach improved exposure, accessibility to the lesion, and permitted good hemostasis, tumor resection, and repair of the skull base defect. Conclusion: The current approach provides a wide surgical field without increasing morbidity. It avoids unnecessary trauma to the other nostril as occurs in a binostril approach. The harvested piece of turbinate tissue is an excellent source of donor material for successful reconstruction of the sellar floor without inducing side effects or complications.
Middle turbinate; endoscopic; endonasal