Paenibacillus polymyxa OSY-DF is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a fermented vegetable food. This bacterial strain displays potent antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, attributed to the production of the lantibiotic paenibacillin and the colistin peptide polymyxin E1. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa OSY-DF.
This research was initiated to search for novel antimicrobial compounds produced by food or environmental microorganisms. A new bacterial strain, designated OSY-SE, which produces a unique and potent antimicrobial agent was isolated from soil. The isolate was identified as a Paenibacillus sp. through cultural, biochemical, and genetic analyses. An antimicrobial compound was extracted from Paenibacillus OSY-SE with acetonitrile and purified using liquid chromatography. After analyses by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the antimicrobial compound was determined to be a cyclic lipopeptide consisting of a C15 fatty acyl (FA) chain and 13 amino acids. The deduced sequence is FA-Orn-Val-Thr-Orn-Ser-Val-Lys-Ser-Ile-Pro-Val-Lys-Ile. The carboxyl-terminal Ile is connected to Thr by ester linkage. The new compound, designated paenibacterin, showed antagonistic activities against most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, including Listeria monocytogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Paenibacterin is resistant to trypsin, lipase, α-glucosidase, and lysozyme. Its antimicrobial activity was lost after digestion by pronase and polymyxin acylase. Paenibacterin is readily soluble in water and fairly stable to exposure to heat and a wide range of pH values. The new isolate and its antimicrobial agent are being investigated for usefulness in food and medical applications.
The airway epithelium is in direct contact with the environment and therefore constantly at risk for injury. Basal cells (BCs) have been found to repair the surface epithelium (SE), but the contribution of other stem cell populations to airway epithelial repair has not been identified. We demonstrated that airway submucosal gland (SMG) duct cells, in addition to BCs, survived severe hypoxic-ischemic injury. We developed a method to isolate duct cells from the airway. In vitro and in vivo models were used to compare the self-renewal and differentiation potential of duct cells and BCs. We found that only duct cells were capable of regenerating SMG tubules and ducts, as well as the SE overlying the SMGs. SMG duct cells are therefore a multipotent stem cell for airway epithelial repair This is of importance to the field of lung regeneration as determining the repairing cell populations could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and cell-based therapies for patients with airway diseases.
Airway epithelial repair and regeneration; Lung stem cells; Submucosal glands; Hypoxic-ischemic injury
A novel approach for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) films on titanium substrates by using mechanical alloying (MA) technique has been developed. However, it was shown that one-hour heat treatment at 800°C of such mechanically coated HA layer leads to partial transformation of desired HA phase to beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) phase. It appears that the grain boundary and interface defects formed during MA promote this transformation. It was discovered that doping HA by silicon results in hindering this phase transformation process. The Si-doped HA does not show phase transition to β-TCP or decomposition after heat treatment even at 900°C.
Triglyceride accumulation is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Genetic disruption of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which catalyzes the final reaction of triglyceride synthesis, confers dramatic resistance to high-fat diet induced obesity. Hence, DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, the molecular events shaping the mechanism of action of DGAT1 pharmacological inhibition have not been fully explored yet. Here, we investigate the metabolic molecular mechanisms induced in response to pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 using a recently developed computational systems biology approach, the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE). The CRE algorithm utilizes microarray transcriptomic data and causal statements derived from the biomedical literature to infer upstream molecular events driving these transcriptional changes. The inferred upstream events (also called hypotheses) are aggregated into biological models using a set of analytical tools that allow for evaluation and integration of the hypotheses in context of their supporting evidence. In comparison to gene ontology enrichment analysis which pointed to high-level changes in metabolic processes, the CRE results provide detailed molecular hypotheses to explain the measured transcriptional changes. CRE analysis of gene expression changes in high fat habituated rats treated with a potent and selective DGAT1 inhibitor demonstrate that the majority of transcriptomic changes support a metabolic network indicative of reversal of high fat diet effects that includes a number of molecular hypotheses such as PPARG, HNF4A and SREBPs. Finally, the CRE-generated molecular hypotheses from DGAT1 inhibitor treated rats were found to capture the major molecular characteristics of DGAT1 deficient mice, supporting a phenotype of decreased lipid and increased insulin sensitivity.
Statistically-based experimental designs were used to optimize the production of cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase (CGTase) from a local isolate of Bacillus megaterium using shack culture fermentation. Seven cultural conditions were examined for enzyme production and specific activity using Plackett-Burman factorial design. Fermentation time and K2HPO4 level were the crucial for factors improving enzyme production process. The steepest ascent design was adopted-based on the results recorded with Plackett-Burman design. Maximal enzyme estimates (activity 56.1 U/ml, and specific activity 62.7 U/mg protein) were achieved. A verification experiment was carried out to examine model validation of this optimization.
Bacillus megaterium; Cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase; Optimization; Factorial design
Smoking is the most important known risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Tobacco exposure results in chronic inflammation, tissue injury and repair. A recent hypothesis argues for a stem/progenitor cell involved in airway epithelial repair that may be a tumor-initiating cell in lung cancer, and which may be associated with recurrence and metastasis. We used immunostaining, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blots and lung cancer tissue microarrays to identify subpopulations of airway epithelial stem/progenitor cells under steady state conditions, normal repair, aberrant repair with premalignant lesions and lung cancer and their correlation with injury and prognosis. We identified a population of keratin 14 (K14)-expressing progenitor epithelial cells that was involved in repair after injury. Dysregulated repair resulted in persistence of K14+ cells in the airway epithelium in premalignant lesions. The presence of K14+ cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples predicted poorer outcomes. This was especially true in smokers where the presence of K14+ cells in NSCLC was predictive of metastasis. The presence of K14+ progenitor airway epithelial cells in NSCLC predicted a poor prognosis and this predictive value was strongest in smokers, where it also correlated with metastasis. This suggests that reparative K14+ progenitor cells may be tumor-initiating cells in this subgroup of smokers with NSCLC.
Lung carcinogenesis; dysregulated repair; injury
Annulatascus nilensis sp. nov., from freshwater habitats in Egypt, is described, illustrated and compared to other species in the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of its LSU rDNA sequence with similar fungi placed the new species in the genus Annulatascus (Annulatascaceae, Sordariomycetidae incertae sedis). Annulatascus nilensis is characterized by immersed ascomata with an ascomatal neck oriented horizontally to the substrate surface, asci with a long, narrow stalk and massive bipartite apical ring, and 5–11-septate, hyaline ascospores surrounded by a large irregular, granular sheath that is not seen in water.
Ascomycota; molecular phylogeny; Phragmites; Sordariomycetes; subtropics
Decompensated cirrhosis has traditionally been considered a contraindication to interferon and ribavirin therapy. Whereas, the same may be true for advanced cirrhosis, which is only successfully amenable to liver transplantation (LT), there are reports in the literature in which antiviral therapy was given successfully in selected cases of early hepatic decompensation with an aim to attain sustained viral clearance, halt disease progression, and expect potential (though, often, partial) recovery of hepatic metabolic activity. Antiviral therapy may also be instituted to prevent hepatitis C recurrence after LT (it has even caused removal of some patients from the waiting list for LT). Thus, decompensation per se is no more an absolute contraindication to antiviral therapy. Nonetheless, considering that a large proportion of such patients have pre-existing hematological cytopenias, modifications in antiviral dose regimens and close monitoring is required in order to prevent worsening of the same. Although the final sustained virological response rates attained in these patients are relatively low, successful antiviral therapy is potentially lifesaving which explains the need to go for it. In this article, the pros and cons of antiviral therapy in decompensated liver cirrhosis are reviewed with special emphasis on how to avoid antiviral dose reductions/withdrawals secondary to the development of hematologic side effects by using hematopoietic growth factors.
Antiviral therapy; chronic hepatitis C; decompensated cirrhosis; hematopoietic growth factors
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children is different from the adult infection in many ways, like natural course of the disease; duration, therapeutic response and side effects profile of the drug therapy; and prognosis. Special considerations include consideration on what could be the appropriate time to investigate a suspected child, when to institute drug therapy and how to prevent vertical transmission. Although over the past one decade many landmark studies have greatly increased our insight on this subject, yet we are far from developing a consensus statement. In this article, a concise yet comprehensive review of HCV infection in children – diagnosis and treatment – is given, followed by suggested recommendations at the end. It is hoped that these recommendations will help develop local guidelines on this subject.
Antiviral therapy; children; chronic hepatitis C
In this paper we present a fractional order generalization of Perelson et al. basic hepatitis C virus (HCV) model including an immune response term. We argue that fractional order equations are more suitable than integer order ones in modeling complex systems which include biological systems. The model is presented and discussed. Also we argue that the added immune response term represents some basic properties of the immune system and that it should be included to study longer term behavior of the disease.
Four strains of Aspergillus niger were screened for lipase production. Each was cultivated on four different media differing in their contents of mineral components and sources of carbon and nitrogen. Aspergillus niger NRRL3 produced maximal activity (325U/ml) when grown in 3% peptone, 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.05% KCl, 0.2% K2HPO4 and 1% olive oil:glucose (0.5:0.5). A. niger NRRL3 lipase was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation. The majority of lipase activity (48%) was located in fraction IV precipitated at 50–60% of saturation with a 18-fold enzyme purification. The optimal pH of the partial purified lipase preparation for the hydrolysis of emulsified olive oil was 7.2 and the optimum temperature was 60°C. At 70°C, the enzyme retained more than 90% of its activity. Enzyme activity was inhibited by Hg2+ and K+, whereas Ca2+ and Mn2+ greatly stimulated its activity. Additionally, the formed lipase was stored for one month without any loss in the activity.
Lipase; Aspergillus niger; Culture conditions
Thrombocytopenia is a common clinical problem in HCV-infected cases. Multiple studies have consistently shown a rise in platelet count following a successful HCV treatment thus proving a cause-effect relationship between the two. Although, many therapeutic strategies have been tried in the past to treat HCV-related thrombocytopenia (e.g. interferon dose reductions, oral steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, splenectomy etc), the success rates have been variable and not always reproducible. After the cessation of clinical trials of PEG-rHuMGDF due to immunogenecity issues, the introduction of non-immunogenic second-generation thrombopoietin-mimetics (eltrombopag and Romiplostim) has opened up a novel way to treat HCV-related thrombocytopenia. Although the data is still sparse, eltrombopag therapy has shown to successfully achieve the primary endpoint platelet counts of ≥50,000/μL in phase II & III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Likewise, though it is premature to claim safety of this drug especially in high-risk patient groups, reported side effects in the published literature were of insufficient severity to require discontinuation of the drug. Based on the current and emerging evidence, a review of the pharmacologic basis, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy, safety profile and future considerations of eltrombopag in the context of HCV-related thrombocytopenia is given in this article. A MEDLINE search was conducted (1990 to August 2009) using the search terms eltrombopag, HCV, thrombocytopenia.
Eltrombopag; hepatitis C virus; thrombocytopenia
Many attempts to control Complex adaptive systems (CAS) have failed. Here we try to learn from biosystems to derive some principles for CAS management. An application to managing infections is given.
We evaluated virus-specific B and T cell responses induced by the attenuated Wa (P1AG1) human rotavirus (AttHRV) oral 2-dose vaccine with or without Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) colonization in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs. The AttHRV vaccinated and LA-fed pigs had a significantly higher magnitude of HRV-specific IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cell responses in ileum and spleen, IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cell responses in ileum, and serum IgM, IgA and IgG antibody and virus neutralizing antibody titers compared to the AttHRV vaccinated pigs without LA colonization. These findings suggest thatL. acidophilus has significant immunopotentiating effects and may be used as a safe oral adjuvant for rotavirus vaccines in neonates.
Probiotic Lactobacillus; Gnotobiotic pigs; B and T cell immune responses to rotavirus; vaccine
It is argued that by studying some design principles of the immune system, e.g. nonlinearity and being a complex adaptive system, one can easily find some explanations of basic properties of the system e.g. memory and tolerance.
The goal of this study was to define the impact of colonization of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on development of intestinal and systemic B cell responses to human rotavirus (HRV). The LAB-specific and total B cell responses were also assessed. Gn pigs were inoculated with LAB (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri) and virulent Wa strain HRV (LAB+HRV+), HRVonly (LAB−HRV+), LAB only (LAB+HRV−) or mock (LAB−HRV−). The HRV infection induced similar HRV-specific intestinal and systemic antibody and B cell responses in pigs with or without LAB, whereas LAB significantly enhanced total intestinal IgA secreting cell responses and total serum IgM and intestinal IgM and IgG titers. The LAB colonization did not reduce HRV shedding or diarrhea, this may be partly due to the short time interval between the first LAB feeding and HRV inoculation. Further studies are needed with longer time for LAB to establish before HRV inoculation. However, our studies demonstrate that Gn pigs infected with HRV develop a similar magnitude of virus-specific B cell responses as those of HRV-infected and LAB colonized pigs. LAB colonization alone is not as efficient in promoting intestinal B cell responses, as is HRV infection.
Rotavirus; Probiotic; Lactobacillus; Gnotobiotic pigs; B cell responses
Despite accumulating knowledge of porcine macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) from in vitro studies, information regarding monocytes/macrophages and DCs in lymphoid tissues of enteric pathogen-infected neonatal animals in vivo is limited. In this study we evaluated the influence of commensal bacterial [two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri] colonization and rotavirus infection on distribution and frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and conventional DCs (cDCs) in ileum, spleen and blood. Gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated with LAB and virulent Wa strain human rotavirus (HRV) (LAB+HRV+), HRV only (LAB−HRV+), LAB only (LAB+HRV−) or mock (LAB−HRV−). The cDCs were characterized as SWC3+CD11R1+, whereas monocytes/macrophages were identified as SWC3+CD11R1− by flow cytometry in the gnotobiotic pigs at 10 days of age. Infection with HRV alone activated/recruited significantly more monocytes/macrophages to the intestine than LAB colonization and 56% versus 28% of these cells expressed CD14. Colonization with LAB alone also significantly increased the frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and cDCs and the CD14 expression on monocytes/macrophages in ileum and spleen compared to the controls. LAB colonization plus HRV infection significantly reduced macrophage and cDC frequencies in spleen compared to LAB colonization or HRV infection alone, suggesting that LAB colonization down-regulated HRV− infection-induced monocyte/macrophage activation/recruitment at the systemic lymphoid tissue. These results illustrated the distribution of porcine monocytes/macrophages and cDCs and the frequencies of CD14 expression on these cells in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues in the early stage of immune responses to intestinal colonization by LAB versus infection by an enteric pathogen HRV and will facilitate further in vivo studies on functional characterization of these immune cells in neonates.
Dendritic cells; Monocytes/macrophages; Rotavirus; Lactic acid bacteria; Lactobacillus acidophilus; Lactobacillus reuteri; Gnotobiotic pigs
The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application.
Drinking water treatment; Hazardous by-products; Natural attenuation; Ismailia Canal; Egypt
A new bacterial strain, displaying potent antimicrobial properties against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, was isolated from food. Based on its phenotypical and biochemical properties as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the bacterium was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa and it was designated as strain OSY-DF. The antimicrobials produced by this strain were isolated from the fermentation broth and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two antimicrobials were found: a known antibiotic, polymyxin E1, which is active against gram-negative bacteria, and an unknown 2,983-Da compound showing activity against gram-positive bacteria. The latter was purified to homogeneity, and its antimicrobial potency and proteinaceous nature were confirmed. The antimicrobial peptide, designated paenibacillin, is active against a broad range of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, including Bacillus spp., Clostridium sporogenes, Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Listeria spp., Pediococcus cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Furthermore, it possesses the physico-chemical properties of an ideal antimicrobial agent in terms of water solubility, thermal resistance, and stability against acid/alkali (pH 2.0 to 9.0) treatment. Edman degradation, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to sequence native and chemically modified paenibacillin. While details of the tentative sequence need to be elucidated in future work, the peptide was unequivocally characterized as a novel lantibiotic, with a high degree of posttranslational modifications. The coproduction of polymyxin E1 and a lantibiotic is a finding that has not been reported earlier. The new strain and associated peptide are potentially useful in food and medical applications.
Seventeen Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains were treated with ultrahigh pressure at 500 MPa and 23 ± 2°C for 1 min. This treatment inactivated 0.6 to 3.4 log CFU/ml, depending on the strain. The diversity of these strains was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, and there was no apparent association between PFGE banding patterns and pressure resistance. The pressure-resistant strain E. coli O157:H7 EC-88 (0.6-log decrease) and the pressure-sensitive strain ATCC 35150 (3.4-log decrease) were treated with a sublethal pressure (100 MPa for 15 min at 23 ± 2°C) and subjected to DNA microarray analysis using an E. coli K-12 antisense gene chip. High pressure affected the transcription of many genes involved in a variety of intracellular mechanisms of EC-88, including the stress response, the thiol-disulfide redox system, Fe-S cluster assembly, and spontaneous mutation. Twenty-four E. coli isogenic pairs with mutations in the genes regulated by the pressure treatment were treated with lethal pressures at 400 MPa and 23 ± 2°C for 5 min. The barotolerance of the mutants relative to that of the wild-type strains helped to explain the results obtained by DNA microarray analysis. This study is the first report to demonstrate that the expression of Fe-S cluster assembly proteins and the fumarate nitrate reductase regulator decreases the resistance to pressure, while sigma factor (RpoE), lipoprotein (NlpI), thioredoxin (TrxA), thioredoxin reductase (TrxB), a trehalose synthesis protein (OtsA), and a DNA-binding protein (Dps) promote barotolerance.
Patients with advanced ovarian cancer should be treated by radical debulking surgery aiming at complete tumor resection. Unfortunately about 70% of the patients present with advanced disease, when optimal debulking can not be obtained, and therefore these patients gain little benefit from surgery. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach in such cases. In this study, we report our results with primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy as treatment modalities in the specific indication of operable patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma (no medical contraindication to debulking surgery).
Patients and methods
A total of 59 patients with stage III or IV epithelial ovarian carcinomas were evaluated between 1998 and 2003. All patients were submitted to surgical exploration aiming to evaluate tumor resectability. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given (in 27 patients) where optimal cytoreduction was not feasible. Conversely primary debulking surgery was performed when we considered that optimal cytoreduction could be achieved by the standard surgery (32 patients).
Optimal cytoreduction was higher in the NACT group (72.2%) than the conventional group (62.4%), though not statistically significant (P = 0.5). More important was the finding that parameters of surgical aggressiveness (blood loss rates, ICU stay and total hospital stay) were significantly lower in NACT group than the conventional group. The median overall survival time was 28 months in the conventional group and 25 months in NACT group with a P value of 0.5. The median disease free survival was 19 months in the conventional group and 21 months in NACT group (P = 0.4). In multivariate analysis, the pathologic type and degree of debulking were found to affect the disease free survival significantly. Overall survival was not affected by any of the study parameters.
Primary chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery in select group of patients doesn't appear to worsen the prognosis, but it permits a less aggressive surgery to be performed.
Pulsed electric field (PEF)-resistant and PEF-sensitive Listeria monocytogenes strains were sublethally treated with electric pulses at 15 kV/cm for 29 μs and held at 25°C for 5 to 30 min prior to protein extraction. The levels of the molecular chaperones GroEL, GroES, and DnaJ were determined by immunoblotting. After 10 to 20 min after sublethal PEF treatment, a transient decrease in molecular chaperone expression was observed in the PEF-sensitive strain (Scott A). The levels of GroEL and DnaJ increased back to the basal expression level within 30 min. A substantial decrease in GroES expression persisted for at least 30 min after PEF treatment. Chaperone expression was suppressed after PEF treatment to a smaller extent in the PEF-resistant (OSY-8578) than in the PEF-sensitive strain, and no clear expression pattern was identified in OSY-8578. Inactivation of Scott A and OSY-8578 in phosphate buffer was compared when lethal PEF (27.5 kV/cm, 144 μs) and heat (55°C, 10 min) were applied in sequence. When PEF and heat treatments were applied separately, the populations of L. monocytogenes Scott A and OSY-8578 decreased 0.5 to 0.6 log CFU/ml. Cells treated first with PEF and incubated at 25°C for 10 min showed substantial sensitivity to subsequent heat treatment; the decrease in counts for Scott A and OSY-8578 was 6.1 and 2.8 log CFU/ml, respectively. The sequence and time lapse between the two treatments were crucial for achieving high inactivation rates. It is concluded that PEF sensitized L. monocytogenes to heat and that maximum heat sensitization occurred when chaperone expression was at a minimum level.
Nine Listeria monocytogenes strains were treated individually with a continuous pulsed electric field (PEF) apparatus, and their sensitivities to the treatment were compared at 25 kV/cm. When cell suspensions of these strains in 0.1% NaCl (pH 7.0) were treated at 23°C for 144 μs, inactivation ranged from 0.7 to 3.7 log10 CFU/ml. Inactivation by 72-μs PEF treatments at 37°C ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 log10 CFU/ml. L. monocytogenes OSY-8578 was substantially more resistant than other strains when cells were PEF treated in 0.1% NaCl, whereas Scott A was one of the most sensitive strains. The superiority of OSY-8578's resistance to that of Scott A was confirmed in 50% diluted acid whey (pH 4.2). Changes in sensitivity to PEF during phases of growth were minimal in OSY-8578 and substantial in Scott A. Use of L. monocytogenes OSY-8578, therefore, is recommended in studies to optimize PEF processes that target L. monocytogenes. The nine L. monocytogenes strains were genotyped with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) techniques. These strains were better differentiated with PFGE than with AP-PCR. The target strain (OSY-8578) was characterized by both molecular typing techniques, but resistance to PEF, in general, was not associated with a particular genotype group.
Skinfold standards provide a useful indication of subcutaneous
fat. To evaluate skinfold thickness of 252 Cambridge infants over the
first 2 years of age, SD scores relative to the Tanner standards were
calculated, taking account of skewness in the standards. Cambridge SD
scores were low, varying according to age from −1.2 to −1.8 for
triceps and −0.6 to −1.2 for subscapular skinfolds. The Tanner
skinfold standards were last revised 30 years ago, at a time of high
prevalence of infantile obesity, and the present and other studies
indicate that infants are now thinner. There is a need for new skinfold
standards to reflect this change. Since the Cambridge infants
contributed to the recent British height and weight references, it is
suggested that their skinfold measurements could also serve as