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1.  Genetic diversity of Newcastle disease virus in Pakistan: a countrywide perspective 
Virology Journal  2013;10:170.
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most deadly diseases of poultry around the globe. The disease is endemic in Pakistan and recurrent outbreaks are being reported regularly in wild captive, rural and commercial poultry flocks. Though, efforts have been made to characterize the causative agent in some of parts of the country, the genetic nature of strains circulating throughout Pakistan is currently lacking.
Material and methods
To ascertain the genetics of NDV, 452 blood samples were collected from 113 flocks, originating from all the provinces of Pakistan, showing high mortality (30–80%). The samples represented domesticated poultry (broiler, layer and rural) as well as wild captive birds (pigeons, turkeys, pheasants and peacock). Samples were screened with real-time PCR for both matrix and fusion genes (1792 bp), positive samples were subjected to amplification of full fusion gene and subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.
The deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion protein cleavage site indicated the presence of motif (112RK/RQRR↓F117) typical for velogenic strains of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis of hypervariable region of the fusion gene indicated that all the isolates belong to lineage 5 of NDV except isolates collected from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province. A higher resolution of the phylogenetic analysis of lineage 5 showed the distribution of Pakistani NDV strains to 5b. However, the isolates from KPK belonged to lineage 4c; the first report of such lineage from this province.
Taken together, data indicated the prevalence of multiple lineages of NDV in different poultry population including wild captive birds. Such understanding is crucial to underpin the nature of circulating strains of NDV, their potential for interspecies transmission and disease diagnosis and control strategies.
PMCID: PMC3681574  PMID: 23721461
Lineages; Newcastle disease virus; Pakistan; Phylogenetic analysis; Poultry
2.  Conservative management of emphysematous pyelonephritis 
Emphysematous pyelonephritis, though uncommon, is a severe necrotizing kidney infection common in patients with diabetes. Surgical treatment has been advocated as the treatment of choice in most of the patients. We present the clinical course of an elderly lady who presented with emphysematous pyelonephritis and was successfully managed with medical treatment despite the presence of adverse prognostic factors like acute renal failure and thrombocytopenia.
PMCID: PMC3313756  PMID: 22470875
Conservative treatment; diabetes; emphysematous pyelonephritis
3.  Intestinal Helminthiasis in Children of Gurez Valley of Jammu and Kashmir State, India 
This paper is a part of the helminthological studies carried out on school-going children of the Kashmir Valley and deals with the status of intestinal helminths in the children of Gurez Valley and to assess epidemiological factors associated with the extent of endemic disease so that control measures are adopted.
Material and Methods:
Stool samples were collected from 352 children from Gurez Valley. The samples were processed using Kato-Katz thick smear technique, and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites.
Of the 352 children surveyed, 75.28% had one or more types of intestinal helminthes. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was highest (71.18%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (26.42%), Enterobius vermicularis (13.92) and Taenia saginata (5.39%). Conditions most frequently associated with infection included the water source, defecation site, personal hygiene, and the extent of maternal education.
The study shows a relatively high prevalence of intestinal helminths and suggests an imperative for the implementation of control measures.
PMCID: PMC2889670  PMID: 20606959
Children; Gurez valley; Helminth infection; Prevalence rates
4.  Removal of foreign body from the trachea: An unusual method 
Tracheobronchial foreign bodies can be sometimes very difficult to remove. This may be related to the location and type of foreign body, experience of the bronchoscopist and the availability of appropriate instruments.[1] We report a case of an uncommon foreign body (artificial denture) in the trachea in an adult female following extubation after Lower Segment Caesarian Section (LSCS) in whom conventional methods to remove it failed. The foreign body was eventually removed via tracheostome using rigid bronchoscope and forceps.
PMCID: PMC3450628  PMID: 23120245
Tracheostomy; foreign body; and denture
5.  Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment 
Treatment with antipsychotics increases the risk of developing diabetes in patients of schizophrenia but this diabetogenic potential of different antipsychotics seems to be different. Moreover, there may be an independent link between schizophrenia and diabetes. So we plan to study the prevalence of glucose dysregulation in patients of schizophrenia before and after treatment with various antipsychotics.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty patients (32 males and 18 females) diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated for glucose dysregulation using oral glucose tolerance test, initially (drug naive) and after antipsychotic treatment. Age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer group of 50 subjects (35 males and 15 females) was taken for comparison. Results were interpreted using American Diabetic Association criteria.
Though the glycemic status of the patient group was comparable with healthy controls initially but antipsychotic treatment was associated with glucose dysregulation. For first 6 weeks the antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol and aripiprazole)-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with the olanzapine-treated group at the end of this study, 14 weeks.
We conclude that antipsychotic treatment of nondiabetic drug naive schizophrenia patients was associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation. For initial 6 weeks the antipsychotic-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with olanzapine at the end of study, i.e. 14 weeks. Keeping this at the back of mind we can stabilize a patient initially with a more effective drug, olanzapine, and later on shift to one with less metabolic side effects.
PMCID: PMC4244781  PMID: 25552846
Antipsychotic agents; diabetes mellitus; glucose tolerance test; schizophrenia
6.  Hysterectomy in a male? A rare case report 
Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a rare form of male pseudo-hermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in an otherwise phenotypically, as well as genotypically, normal man; only a few cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. A great variety of organs have been found in indirect inguinal hernial sacs.
We report a case of 70 year old man, father of 4 children with unilateral cryptorchidism on the right side and left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia containing uterus and fallopian tube (that is, hernia uteri inguinalis; type I male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome) coincidentally detected during an operation for an obstructed left inguinal hernia.
PMDS is usually coincidently detected during surgical operation, as was in our case. However pre-operative ultrasonography, computerized tomography and MRI allow possible pre-operative diagnosis.3
In cases of unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism associated with hernia, as in our patient's case, the possibility of PMDS should be kept in mind.
PMCID: PMC4276263  PMID: 25481861
Hysterectomy; Inguinal hernia; Male
7.  Isolation, Cytotoxicity Evaluation and HPLC-Quantification of the Chemical Constituents from Prangos pabularia 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e108713.
Phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane:methanol (1∶1) extract of root parts of Prangos pabularia led to the isolation of twelve cytotoxic constituents, viz., 6-hydroxycoumarin (1), 7-hydroxycoumarin (2), heraclenol-glycoside (3), xanthotoxol (4), heraclenol (5), oxypeucedanin hydrate (6), 8-((3,3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl)methyl)-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one (7), oxypeucedanin hydrate monoacetate (8), xanthotoxin (9), 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)oxy)-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (10), imperatorin (11) and osthol (12). The isolates were identified using spectral techniques in the light of literature. 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity screening of the isolated constituents was carried out against six human cancer cell lines including lung (A549 and NCI-H322), epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), prostate (PC-3) and Colon (HCT-116) cell lines. Osthol (12) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.2, 6.2, 10.9, 14.5, 24.8, and 30.2 µM against epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), lung (NCI-H322), lung (A549), prostate (PC-3) and colon (HCT-116) cell lines respectively. Epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 was sensitive to most of the compounds followed by lung (A549) cancer cell line. Finally a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed (RP-HPLC-DAD) and validated for the simultaneous quantification of these cytotoxic constituents in Prangos pabularia. The extract was analyzed using a reversed-phase Agilent ZORBAX eclipse plus column C18 (4.6×250 mm, 5 µm) at 250 nm wavelength using a gradient water-methanol solvent system at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The RP-HPLC method is validated in terms of recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision (intra and inter-day validation). This method, because of shorter analysis time, makes it valuable for the commercial quality control of Prangos pabularia extracts and its future pharmaceutical preparations.
PMCID: PMC4196845  PMID: 25314269
8.  Alteration of Lipid Parameters in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism 
Overt hypothyroidism is associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism, but conflicting results regarding the degree of lipid changes in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) exist.
The aim of this study was to assess differences in lipid profile parameters between subjects with and without SCH in a north Indian population.
Patients and Methods:
Serum lipid parameters of 70 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100 age and sex matched euthyroid controls were evaluated in a cross-sectional study.
Mean serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and very low-density cholesterol (VLDL) were significantly higher in patients with SCH than controls (P < 0.05). Mean TC, TG and low-density cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were higher in patients with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 10 mU/L than those with serum TSH equal to or less than 10 mU/L, but this difference was not statistically significant. No association was found between serum high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and serum TSH level.
High TC, TG and VLDL were observed in our patients with SCH.
PMCID: PMC4166037  PMID: 25237326
Hypothyroidism; Lipids; Hypothyroidism
9.  Familial Characteristics of Street Children in Tehran, Iran 
Objective: The phenomenon of street children is one of the most important concerns facing global community. Identifying risk factors in such children could lead to crucial investigations to find their essential needs by intervention programs. The present study examined the family profile of street children in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: The sample consisted of 576 street children who were evaluated by 15 examiners. Using multi-stage sampling, twenty-seven different areas of Tehran were divided into 5 clusters and the children were selected randomly from each cluster. The two questionnaires applied included a demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire about high-risk behaviors such as substance use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, etc.
Results: There was a statistical significant association between the length of work time and two variables: sex and economic status of family (p < 0.05). Incarceration history of street children who had lost both their parents and their parents had been divorced was significantly higher than others (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The street children's lifestyle is a risk factor for affecting them to variety types of socio-mental problems. Statistical significant association between parental divorces or the loss of both parents with a history of conviction mentions the important role of parents in transmitting moral and social values to children.
PMCID: PMC4105609  PMID: 25053962
amilial Characteristics; Iran; Street Children; Tehran
10.  Hypokalemic quadriparesis and rhabdomyolysis as a rare presentation of distal renal tubular acidosis 
Distal renal tubular acidosis is a syndrome of abnormal urine acidification and is characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypercalciurea, nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. Despite the presence of persistent hypokalemia, acute muscular paralysis is rarely encountered in males. Here, we will report an eighteen year old male patient who presented with flaccid quadriparesis and was subsequently found to have rhabdomyolysis, severe short stature, skeletal deformities and primary distal renal tubular acidosis.
PMCID: PMC4154290  PMID: 25250276
Nephrocalcinosis; Hypokalemia; Rhabdomyolysis; Short stature; Renal tubular acidosis
11.  Correlation of transrectal ultrasonographic findings with histo pathology in prostatic cancer 
To estimate the incidence of hyperechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, prostatic cancer in TRUS (transrectal ultrasound guided) guided prostatic specimens.
Materials and Methods:
Four hundred and ninety three patients with raised serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and abnormal DRE findings were subjected to TRUS-Guided prostate biopsy. Lateralized sextant biopsy plus prostatic cores from suspicious areas were obtained.
Out of 493 patients who were enrolled in the study, 65 (13.18) patients showed hyperechoic lesions on TRUS and 211 (42.79) patients had hypoechoic lesions on TRUS.
Our study has revealed that hyperechoic lesions on transrectal ultrasonography have more chances of prostatic cancer as reported in previous literature, so we suggest that we should take additional biopsy of hyperechoic lesions and perhaps it should be part of the standard protocol in patients suspected cancer prostate.
PMCID: PMC4089113  PMID: 25013831
Pca; prostatic cancer; serum prostatic specific antigen; serum psa; transrectal ultrasonography; transrectal ultrasound guided
12.  Malaria Situation in an Endemic Area, Southeastern Iran 
Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County.
The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006–2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5.
A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%).
Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activities for health education and awareness.
PMCID: PMC4289514  PMID: 25629068
Malaria situation; Jask County; Iran
13.  The Diagnostic Efficacy of Adenosine Deaminase in Tubercular Effusion 
Oman Medical Journal  2013;28(6):417-421.
This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of adenosine deaminase in tubercular effusions.
This study was conducted at the Department of General Medicine and Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, SKIMS, for a period of two years between November 2008 and November 2010. A total of 57 patients presenting with pleural effusions during the two-year study period, who presented with clinical manifestations suggestive of tuberculosis (i.e., the presence of productive cough, low-grade fever, night sweats, weight loss, and chest pain, especially if these symptoms last 34 weeks) were included in the study. If the patients presented with less than two of these symptoms, and especially if the clinical manifestations were of <4 weeks duration, they were excluded from the study.
The mean adenosine deaminase activity level in all the 57 patients was 109 U/L while the mean adenosine deaminase activity levels in pleural TB patients was 80 U/, and 64 U/L in the controls (p=0.381). Considering 40 U/L as the cut off, the results were positive in 35 out of 39 tuberculosis patients and 9 out of 18 controls. The sensitivity of adenosine deaminase for tubercular effusions worked out to be 90%, with only 50% specificity.
This study suggests that the estimation of adenosine deaminase activity in pleural fluid is a rapid diagnostic tool for differentiation of tubercular and non tubercular-effusions. The sensitivity and specificity of adenosine deaminase for tubercular effusions in this study was 90% and 50% respectively.
PMCID: PMC3815859  PMID: 24223245
Adenosine Deaminase (ADA); Pleural effusion; Acid fast bacillus staining (AFB staining)
14.  Comparing Aortic Valve Replacement through Right Anterolateral Thoracotomy with Median Sternotomy 
Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR) is usually done through median sternotomy. The present study aimed to compare the right anterolateral thoracotomy and median sternotomy approaches for AVR.
Materials and Methods
The present prospective study was conducted on 60 patients who had aortic valve disease and were subjected to AVR. Thirty patients underwent aortic valve replacement via right anterolateral thoracotomy (study group) and thirty patients via median sternotomy (control group). Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney U test and Fischer’s Exact test. Statistical Package SPSS ­17 was used for data analysis.
The mean length of the incision was 18.7±1.8 cm in the patients who had undergone AVR through median sternotomy, while 7.8±0.9 cm in the study group patients. Besides, the mean bypass time was 121.8±18.6 minutes for the patients who had undergone AVR through median sternotomy, while 122.1±20.8 minutes for the study group. In addition, the mean aortic cross clamp time was 67.7±13.4 minutes for the patients who had undergone AVR through median sternotomy, while 68.0±8.9 minutes for the study group. The mean operating time was 181.6±31.5 minutes for the patients who had undergone AVR through median sternotomy, while 190.8±29.8 minutes for the study group. Patient satisfaction with respect to cosmesis was higher in the study group. Only 50% of the patients who had undergone AVR through median sternotomy in comparison to 73.3% of those in the study group were satisfied with the cosmesis.
The right anterolateral thoracotomy approach for aortic valve replacement proved to be easy to perform whilst maintaining the maximum security for the patients. Besides its better cosmetic result especially in female patients, this approach proved to have several advantages.
PMCID: PMC3987439  PMID: 24757629
Thoracotomy; Sternotomy; Aortic Valve
15.  Colonized Aedes albopictus and its sexual performance in the wild: implications for SIT technology and containment 
Parasites & Vectors  2013;6:206.
Mating is a physiological process of crucial importance underlying the size and maintenance of mosquito populations. In sterile and incompatible insect technologies (SIT and IIT), mating is essential for mass production, persistence, and success of released individuals, and is a central parameter for judging the effectiveness of SIT/IIT programs. Some mosquitoes have an enormous reproductive potential for both themselves and pathogens and mating may contribute to persistence of infection in nature. As Aedes albopictus can transmit flaviviruses both sexually and horizontally, and as infected insects are usually derived from laboratory colonies, we investigated the implications of mating between a long-term laboratory colony of Ae. albopictus and wild populations.
Through a series of mating experiments, we examined the reproductive outcomes of sexual cross-affinity between laboratory-raised and wild adults of Ae. albopictus.
The results indicated appreciable mating compatibility between laboratory-reared and wild adults, and equivalent levels of egg production among reciprocal crosses. We also observed comparable larval eclosion in lab females mated with wild males, and increased adult longevity in female offspring from wild females|×|laboratory males crosses.
Taken together, these data suggest that Ae. albopictus can preserve its reproductive fitness over a long period of time in the laboratory environment and has valuable attributes for SIT application. These observations together with the ability to successfully inseminate heterospecific females indicate the potential of Ae. albopictus to act as an ecological barrier if non-sterilized males are massively released in areas occupied by Aedes aegypti. The observed substantial reproductive fitness combined with the capability to reproduce both, itself and viruses illustrates the potential of Ae. albopictus to pose a serious threat if infected and released accidentally.
PMCID: PMC3726284  PMID: 23856274
Aedes albopictus; Laboratory strain; Wild strain; Mating affinity; Containment
16.  Comparison of Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis: Experience from A Single Center 
Cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones is mainly performed after the acute cholecystitis episode settles because of the fear of higher morbidity and conversion from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy during acute cholecystitis.
To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and to compare the results with delayed cholecystectomy.
Materials and Methods:
This was a prospective and randomized study. For patients assigned to early group, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed as soon as possible within 72 hours of admission. Patients in the delayed group were treated conservatively and discharged as soon as the acute attack subsided. They were subsequently readmitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy 6-12 weeks later.
There was no significant difference in the conversion rates, postoperative analgesia requirements, or postoperative complications. However, the early group had significantly more blood loss, more operating time, and shorter hospital stay.
Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 72 hours of onset of symptoms has both medical as well as socioeconomic benefits and should be the preferred approach for patients managed by surgeons with adequate experience in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
PMCID: PMC3759068  PMID: 24020050
Acute cholecystitis; Cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic
17.  Leksell Gamma Knife : An Effective Non Invasive Treatment for Rare Case of Nelson’s Syndrome 
Nelson’s syndrome nowadays a rare entity results from an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)–secreting pituitary adenoma in patients with refractory Cushing's disease after a therapeutic bilateral adrenal gland removal. We report a case of 25 year old female with cushing’s disease who was initially managed with medical treatment, but in view of severe persistent hyper cortisol state was subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy following which she developed Nelson’s syndrome after a gap of six years, which was difficult to diagnose because of limited investigations available. Patient was managed with stereotactic radiosurgery (gamma knife surgery).
PMCID: PMC3860107  PMID: 24348593
Nelson’s Syndrome; Cushing’s Disease; Adrenalectomy
18.  Baseline Susceptibility of Different Geographical Strains of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos in Malarious Areas of Irana 
Malaria still remains a public health problem in Iran. There are different vector control interventions such as insecticide spraying. The present study was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi larvae to temephos as a national plan for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistance
Eight different localities in two main malarious provinces were determined as field collecting sites. Mosquitoes were collected from the field and reared in an insectray. Susceptibility assays were carried out according to the WHO method. The laboratory reared susceptible Beech-Lab strain was used for comparison. Data were analyzed using Probit analysis to determine LC50 and LC90 values.
Susceptibility of An. stephensi to temephos indicated that the LC50 ranged from 0.0022 mg/l to 0.0141 mg/l. Although all field strains were susceptible to temephos, considerable variations in temephos resistance ratios of field strains were noticed from all the localities studied in comparison with the susceptible strain. A low level of resistance ratio was noticed in An. stephensi populations except for the Chabahar strain (RR= 4.27 fold). All field-collected An. stephensi populations exhibited homogeneity to the larvicide except for Bandar Abbas and Hormoodar village strains (P> 0.05%).
Due to intensive use of temephos in the neighboring countries and occurrence of resistant to this insecticide in the main malaria vector in the region, insecticide resistance gene may evolve in the populations of An. stephensi. If temephos be applied as a larvicide it should be used judiciously for resistance management, as rotation strategy.
PMCID: PMC3684497  PMID: 23785695
Anopheles stephensi; Temephos; Susceptibility; Iran; Larvicide resistance
19.  Fat embolism syndrome in long bone trauma following vehicular accidents: Experience from a tertiary care hospital in north India 
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a clinical problem arising mainly due to fractures particularly of long bones and pelvis. Not much literature is available about FES from the Indian subcontinent.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-five patients referred/admitted prospectively over a 3-year period for suspected FES to a north Indian tertiary care center and satisfying the clinical criteria proposed by Gurd and Wilson, and Schonfeld were included in the study. Clinical features, risk factors, complications, response to treatment and any sequelae were recorded.
The patients (all male) presented with acute onset breathlessness, 36-120 hours following major bone trauma due to vehicular accidents. Associated features included features of cerebral dysfunction (n = 24, 69%), petechial rash (14%), tachycardia (94%) and fever (46%). Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 80% cases, thrombocytopenia in 91%, anemia in 94% and hypoalbuminemia in 59%. Bilateral alveolar infiltrates were seen on chest radiography in 28 patients and there was evidence of bilateral ground glass appearance in 5 patients on CT. Eleven patients required ventilatory assistance whereas others were treated with supportive management. Three patients expired due to associated sepsis and respiratory failure, whereas others recovered with a mean hospital stay of 9 days. No long term sequelae were observed.
FES remains a clinical challenge and is a diagnosis of exclusion based only on clinical grounds because of the absence of any specific laboratory test. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis and initiating supportive management in patients with traumatic fractures, especially in those having undergone an invasive orthopedic procedure.
PMCID: PMC3669567  PMID: 23741088
Accidents; ARDS; fat embolism syndrome; trauma
20.  Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia 
To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence.
Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed.
The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32 109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22 618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS.
Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city.
PMCID: PMC3609246  PMID: 23569860
Aedes aegypti; Larval indices; Environmental factors; Dengue incidence
21.  Cleidocranial Dysplasia: A Rare Cause of Disproportionate Severe Short Stature 
Oman Medical Journal  2012;27(5):408-410.
Skeletal dysplasia is an uncommon cause of short stature in children. An 11-year-old girl was evaluated for severe short stature in a tertiary care hospital. Clinical examination revealed severe disproportionate short stature and classical triad of multiple supernumerary teeth, and complete absence of clavicles and open sagittal sutures and fontanelles. Skeletal survey confirmed these findings, in addition to other features associated with the syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3472580  PMID: 23074552
Short stature; Skeletal dysplasia; Cleidocranial dysplasia
22.  Extraction of DNA suitable for PCR applications from mature leaves of Mangifera indica L.*  
Good quality deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the pre-requisite for its downstream applications. The presence of high concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, proteins, and other secondary metabolites in mango leaves poses problem in getting good quality DNA fit for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications. The problem is exacerbated when DNA is extracted from mature mango leaves. A reliable and modified protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for DNA extraction from mature mango leaves is described here. High concentrations of inert salt were used to remove polysaccharides; Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and β-mercaptoethanol were employed to manage phenolic compounds. Extended chloroform-isoamyl alcohol treatment followed by RNase treatment yielded 950‒1050 µg of good quality DNA, free of protein and RNA. The problems of DNA degradation, contamination, and low yield due to irreversible binding of phenolic compounds and coprecipitation of polysaccharides with DNA were avoided by this method. The DNA isolated by the modified method showed good PCR amplification using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. This modified protocol can also be used to extract DNA from other woody plants having similar problems.
PMCID: PMC3323937  PMID: 22467363
Extraction buffer; Mango; Polyphenols; DNA isolation; Simple sequence repeat (SSR); Secondary metabolites
24.  Functional Residues in Proteins 
Journal of Amino Acids  2011;2011:606354.
PMCID: PMC3268028  PMID: 22312465
25.  Evaluating a conservative approach to managing liver injuries in Kashmir, India 
There has been a steep rise in incidence of liver injury in the past few years because of increase in incidence of road traffic accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of non-operative management of liver injury due to blunt abdominal trauma.
Materials and Methods:
All patients with liver injury from blunt trauma abdomen were studied between January 2000 and January 2010. A total of 152 patients with liver injury were put on conservative management. Hundred and three (67.77%) patients were males and 49 (32.23%) were females with an age range of 15-60 years (32.8 years). Most of the injuries were because of road traffic accidents (81.57%). Liver injuries were graded according to Moore's classification using computed tomography. Patients with Grade V and VI were excluded from the study. Patients who were unstable hemodynamically on admission were also excluded from the study.
There was no mortality in our series. Eight patients needed exploration because they developed hemodynamic instability. Four of the patient developed post-operative liver abscess which was treated conservatively.
Non-operative management of liver injury due to blunt trauma abdomen is a safe, effective and treatment modality of choice in hemodynamically stable Moore's grade I to Grade IV injury.
PMCID: PMC3214505  PMID: 22090742
Computed tomography; liver injury; Moore's grade

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