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1.  Extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor: An uncommon variant 
Odontogenic cysts comprise a diverse group of exceptional lesions derived from epithelial elements of the tooth-forming apparatus. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor is a rare odontogenic lesion, which represents about 2% of all odontogenic tumors and cysts. It may occur in a central (intraosseous) or peripheral (extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor [ECCOT]) location. ECCOT in contrast to central, tends to affect the older patients, commonly located in the anterior lower jaw, is less aggressive and the recurrence is rare. Here, we report clinico-pathological and radiographic features of ECCOT located in relation to 48 (posterior lower jaw) measuring about 1 cm in the greatest diameter in a 17-year-old male.
doi:10.4103/0975-5950.127662
PMCID: PMC3961906  PMID: 24665187
Extraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor; odontogenic cyst; odontogenic tumor
2.  Coping Profiles Common to Older African American Cancer Survivors: Relationships to Quality of Life 
Journal of pain and symptom management  2010;10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.04.013.
Context
Cancer survivors employ distinct sets of coping behaviors that vary in their associations with psychological health and quality of life. However, existing research has largely focused on white and middle class subjects.
Objectives
This study explores whether clusters with differing coping profiles could be identified among older African American cancer survivors and whether these profiles varied on cultural factors and physical, psychological, and relationship well-being.
Methods
Four hundred forty-nine older African American cancer survivors recruited from outpatient oncology clinics completed a questionnaire booklet containing the Ways of Helping Questionnaire (WHQ), the Brief Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS), the Religious Involvement Scale, Mutuality Scale, and the Short Form 12 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-12). A k-means cluster analysis was conducted using the WHQ.
Results
Four distinct coping profiles were identified and labeled High Coping, Low Encouraging Healthy Behaviors, Low Coping and Strong/Distracting Behaviors. Coping profiles were associated with participant’s gender, age, and living alone. Controlling for these demographic differences, coping profiles were associated with religiosity, experiences with racism, and physical, psychological and relationship well-being.
Conclusions
The findings from this study lend support for examining coping profiles and health outcomes among African American cancer survivors. This research also suggests that these profiles vary on cultural factors. This information should prove useful to researchers as they develop culturally appropriate interventions for this underserved population.
doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.04.013
PMCID: PMC3029503  PMID: 20832984
cancer; African Americans; coping profiles; cluster analysis; religious involvement; experienced racism; quality of life
3.  Demographic and microbial characteristics of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases diagnosed in Malatya, Turkey, 2001-2007 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:154.
Background
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) has an increasing rate in Turkey. The reason remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the demographic and microbial characteristics of EPTB in the Turkish population would extend the knowledgebase of EPTB and allow us to develop better strategies to control tuberculosis (TB).
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated clinical and laboratory data of 397 bacteriologically-confirmed TB cases diagnosed during an eight year-period using by chi-square analysis and multivariate logistic regression model.
Results
Of the 397 study patients, 103 (25.9%) had EPTB and 294 (74.1%) had pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The most commonly seen two types of EPTB were genitourinary TB (27.2%) and meningeal TB (19.4%). TB in bone/joints, pleural cavity, lymph nodes, skin, and peritoneal cavity occurred at a frequency ranging from 9.7% to 10.7%. The age distribution was significantly different (P < 0.01) between PTB and EPTB, with patients older than 45 years tending to have an increased risk of EPTB. Furthermore, the distribution of different types of EPTB differed significantly among age groups (P = 0.03). Meningeal and bone and/or joint TB were more commonly observed among the male patients, while lymphatic, genitourinary, and peritoneal TB cases were more frequently seen among females. Unique strain infection was statistically significantly associated with EPTB (OR: 2.82, 95% CI [1.59, 5.00])
Conclusions
EPTB accounted for a significant proportion of TB cases in Malatya, Turkey between 2001 and 2007. The current study has provided an insight into the dynamics of EPTB in Malatya, Turkey. However, the risk factors for having EPTB in Malatya, Turkey remain to be assessed in future studies using population-based or randomly selected sample.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-154
PMCID: PMC3060117  PMID: 21385458
4.  Integration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing and Genotyping with Epidemiological Data Analysis To Gain Insight into the Epidemiology of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Malatya, Turkey▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(9):3301-3305.
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) presents a major challenge to global TB control. To gain a better understanding of drug-resistant TB epidemiology in Malatya, Turkey, we conducted the present study using 397 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected from Malatya, Turkey, in recent years (2000-2007). Resistance to any anti-TB drug was found in 29% (114 of 397) of the study isolates, while the multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was ∼4.5% (18 of 397). Resistances to isoniazid (15.5%) and streptomycin (13.4%) were about twice as high as resistance to rifampin (RMP) (6.3%) and ethambutol (EMB) (6.0%). Importantly, 28% (7 of 25) of the RMP-resistant isolates were non-MDR isolates, as when a significant proportion of RMP-resistant isolates in a population are non-MDR, the predictive value of molecular detection of RMP resistance for MDR can be significantly reduced. Both identical and varied drug resistance patterns were seen in the same genotyping-defined clusters, suggesting that both primary and acquired resistance have contributed to the drug-resistant TB epidemic in Malatya, Turkey. In addition, drug-resistant cases were found to be more likely to be males (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.82 [1.13, 2.94]), suggesting a potential role of gender in the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB in the study population. This study demonstrates that the integration of drug susceptibility testing with genotyping and epidemiological data analysis represents a useful approach to studying the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02459-09
PMCID: PMC2937685  PMID: 20660214
5.  Perceptions of Support Among Older African American Cancer Survivors 
Oncology nursing forum  2010;37(4):484-493.
Purpose/Objectives
To explore the perceived social support needs among older adult African American cancer survivors.
Research Approach
Qualitative design using grounded theory techniques.
Setting
Outpatient oncology clinics in the southeastern United States.
Participants
Focus groups with 22 older adult African American cancer survivors.
Methodologic Approach
Purposeful sampling technique was used to identify focus group participants. In-depth interviews were conducted and participants were interviewed until informational redundancy was achieved.
Main Research Variables
Social support needs of older adult African American patients with cancer.
Findings
Social support was influenced by (a) symptoms and treatment side effects, (b) perceptions of stigma and fears expressed by family and friends, (c) cultural beliefs about cancer, and (d) desires to lessen any burden or disruption to the lives of family and friends. Survivors navigated within and outside of their networks to get their social support needs met. In some instances, survivors socially withdrew from traditional sources of support for fear of being ostracized. Survivors also described feeling hurt, alone, and socially isolated when completely abandoned by friends.
Conclusions
The support from family, friends, and fellow church members is important to positive outcomes among older African American cancer survivors. However, misconceptions, fears, and negative cultural beliefs persist within the African American community and negatively influence the social support available to this population.
Interpretations
Early identification of the factors that influence social support can facilitate strategies to improve outcomes and decrease health disparities among this population.
doi:10.1188/10.ONF.484-493
PMCID: PMC2948788  PMID: 20591808
6.  Predictors of Depression Among Older African American Cancer Patients 
Cancer nursing  2010;33(2):156-163.
Background
Depression is becoming an increasing concern in cancer patients because of its impact on quality of life. Although risk factors of having depression have been examined in the literature, there has been no research examining these factors in older African American cancer patients.
Objective
This study explores the demographic and illness-related risk factors in older African American cancer patients.
Methods
Two hundred eighty-three patients were recruited from outpatient oncology clinics. These older African American patients completed a questionnaire that included the Geriatric Depression Scale as well as sociodemographic characteristics and medical information. χ2 Tests, trend tests, and logistic regression were used to identify the demographic and illness-related factors that predict depression in the sample.
Results
The overall prevalence of depression in the sample was 27.2%. Younger age (<65 years), employment status, proximity to family, and multiple symptoms due to cancer or treatment were independent predictors of depression.
Conclusion
This study represents the first attempt to describe the risk factors of depression within older African American cancer patients. Findings indicate a high prevalence of depression in African American cancer patients which can be attributed to identifiable risk factors.
Implications for Practice
An understanding of the risk factors associated with depression can be used to identify those cancer patients at risk for depression and initiate early interventions to improve psychological outcomes and lessen the potential burden of cancer on these patients.
doi:10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181bdef76
PMCID: PMC2844350  PMID: 20142741
African Americans; Cancer; Depression

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