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1.  Six-Month Sleep–Wake Organization and Stability in Preschool-Age Children With Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development 
Behavioral sleep medicine  2011;9(2):92-106.
This study examined sleep–wake patterns in 3 matched comparison groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism (AUT), children with developmental delay (DD) without AUT, and children who are developing typically (TYP). Sleep was assessed via actigraphy and parent-report diaries for 7 consecutive 24-hr periods across 3 time points: at enrollment (n = 194), 3 months later (n = 179), and 6 months after enrollment (n = 173). At each recording period, children in the AUT group slept less per 24-hr period, on average, and were less likely to awaken at night than children in the other two groups. In contrast, children in the DD group had more frequent and longer duration nighttime awakenings than children in the AUT group. Overall, children in the 2 neurodevelopmentally disordered groups demonstrated more night-to-night variability in their sleep–wake measures than children in the TYP group.
doi:10.1080/15402002.2011.557991
PMCID: PMC3498819  PMID: 21491232
2.  Nighttime sleep-wake patterns and self-soothing from birth to one year of age: a longitudinal intervention study 
Background
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the longitudinal development of sleep-wake patterns of solitary-sleeping infants from 1 to 12 months of age, (2) identify effects on sleep patterns and on self-soothing behaviors of introducing a novel sleep aid, and (3) identify predictive factors of self-soothing at 12 months using a transactional model as a guide.
Methods
Eighty infants’ nighttime sleep-wake patterns and associated variables were studied at 5 times across the first year of life using videosomnography and questionnaires.
Results
Sleep-wake state developmental changes, as reported in investigations of infant sleep, were replicated, although a great deal of individual variability in the development of all sleep-related variables was noted. No major effects on sleep or on self-soothing behavior were evident from the introduction of the novel sleep aid. Three variables were identified as significant predictors of self-soothing at 12 months: decreasing amounts of time spent out of crib across the first year, high levels of quiet sleep at birth, and longer parental response times to infant awakenings at 3 months.
Conclusions
These data lend preliminary support for the transactional model and suggest that infant and parental factors interact to influence the development of self-soothing.
PMCID: PMC1201415  PMID: 12236607
Infancy; normal development; parent-child interaction; paediatrics; sleep; temperament; AS: active sleep; AW: wakefulness; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; GLM: general linear modeling; LSP: longest sleep period; OOC: out of crib; PSOCS: Parenting Sense of Competence Scale; QS: quiet sleep; RSA: representational sleep aid; SC: sham control; SS: self-soothed; TST: total sleep time
3.  Secretin and Sleep in Children with Autism 
The objectives of this pilot study were 1) to examine possible effects of secretin infusions on sleep-wake state organization in children with autism, and 2) to assess the feasibility of home recordings using time-lapse videosomnography in children with autism. Participants were a subset of subjects from two double blind, placebo-control, multi-center clinical trials. One trial, the UC Irvine study, assessed the effects of porcine secretin vs. saline infusions on children’s behavior, language and IQ. The UC Davis trial assessed the effects of synthetic human secretin vs. saline infusions on behavior, language and gastrointestinal function. The sleep study enrolled some of the children from each of the two trials to observe possible secretin effects on sleep. To examine sleep, the UC Irvine trial used the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire and daily sleep diaries, whereas the UC Davis study used home-recorded time-lapse videosomnography. Because of the small sample size, the results from both trials are preliminary. They suggest that secretin, porcine or synthetic, does not improve sleep-wake state organization dramatically.
PMCID: PMC1201388  PMID: 12462350
autism; sleep; secretin
4.  A Comparison of the Sleep–Wake Patterns of Cosleeping and Solitary-Sleeping Infants 
This study examined whether 3–15 month-old cosleeping infants displayed differences in time spent in active versus quiet sleep, and in the number/duration of nighttime awakenings when compared with solitary-sleeping infants; and also whether they spent the majority of the night sleeping face-to-face, as previously reported. Nine cosleeping and nine solitary-sleeping infants were matched on age, gender, ethnicity, maternal age, and family SES. Video recordings of nighttime sleep yielded percentage of time in active sleep, quiet sleep, and awake, number of awakenings, and the percentage of time cosleeping infants and mothers spent face-to-face. Across age, cosleeping infants had more awakenings per night (mean 5.8(1.50) versus 3.2(1.95); t = 3.16, p = .006). The percent of the nighttime spent awake did not differ between groups, suggesting that cosleeping infants had shorter awakenings. Cosleeping infants spent 40% of the night face-to-face with their mothers.
doi:10.1007/s10578-004-1879-0
PMCID: PMC1201416  PMID: 15577276
cosleeping; infants; sleep
5.  A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Young Children’s Sleep Patterns Using a Developmental Classification System 
Behavioral sleep medicine  2005;3(1):44-61.
Sixty-eight families participated in a longitudinal study that included video observations of sleep during the 1st year of life and annual follow-up phone interviews until the children were 4 years of age. Results revealed that approximately 19% of children have a sleep problem at 2 years of age, defined either by research criteria or parental report, and that sleep problems diminished over time. Approximately 25% of children were reported to be cosleeping at each follow-up interview, but only a third of the parents reported this behavior to be problematic. A subgroup of infants (33%), who were considered stable, non-self-soothers in the 1st year, were more likely to have a sleep onset problem and be cosleeping at the 2-year follow-up assessment.
doi:10.1207/s15402010bsm0301_6
PMCID: PMC1201412  PMID: 15639757
6.  Six-Month Sleep–Wake Organization and Stability in Preschool-Age Children With Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development 
This study examined sleep–wake patterns in 3 matched comparison groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism (AUT), children with developmental delay (DD) without AUT, and children who are developing typically (TYP). Sleep was assessed via actigraphy and parent-report diaries for 7 consecutive 24-hr periods across 3 time points: at enrollment (n = 194), 3 months later (n = 179), and 6 months after enrollment (n = 173). At each recording period, children in the AUT group slept less per 24-hr period, on average, and were less likely to awaken at night than children in the other two groups. In contrast, children in the DD group had more frequent and longer duration nighttime awakenings than children in the AUT group. Overall, children in the 2 neurodevelopmentally disordered groups demonstrated more night-to-night variability in their sleep–wake measures than children in the TYP group.
doi:10.1352/1944-7558-116.2.142
PMCID: PMC3283033  PMID: 21381949
7.  Daytime Sleep and Parenting Interactions in Infants Born Preterm 
Objective
Following a transactional perspective, this longitudinal study assessed concurrent and time-lagged associations between infant daytime sleep behaviors and maternal play interactions within a sample of infants born preterm.
Method
Data were collected from 134 families recruited from 3 Wisconsin NICUs. Multiple methods were used to collect data at infant NICU discharge and when infants were 4, 9, and 24 months postterm, including parent-report infant sleep logs, family sociodemographic assets and a 15 minute video-taped play session.
Results
Within time points, infants who napped more had mothers who were rated as more positive and communicative or less negative during play interactions at 4, 9 and 24 months compared to infants who napped less. Time-lagged findings indicated that infants who took more naps experienced more optimal maternal interactive behaviors later in development than infants who took fewer naps. Additionally, mothers who expressed more negative affect at 4 months or 9 months predicted more infant daytime sleep later in development.
Conclusion
Previous studies document that nighttime parent-child interactions influence nighttime sleep. This study presents the natural extension that daytime sleep influences daytime interactions. The present study draws attention to the understudied area of daytime naps in young children and provides support for the longitudinal bi-directional processes between sleep and parenting interactions.
doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181fa57e4
PMCID: PMC3072039  PMID: 20978444
Preterm; Sleep; Parenting
8.  Use of Sleep Aids During the First Year of Life 
Pediatrics  2002;109(4):594-601.
Objective.
In an attempt to foster self-soothing during the night, a novel sleep aid infused with maternal odor was introduced to 4 groups of infants ranging in age from 3 to 12 months. Infants’ use of parent-provided sleep aids also was examined.
Methodology.
Nighttime sleep and waking behaviors were videotaped for 2 consecutive nights on 3 occasions over a 3-month interval. Using all-night video recording, the study examined the infant’s use of a novel sleep aid and parent-provided sleep aids during sleep onset and after nighttime awakenings.
Results.
Results indicated that infants of different ages differed in the types of sleep aids used when falling asleep either at the beginning of the night or after awakenings in the middle of the night. More 3-month-olds used their thumbs/fingers/hands, whereas more 6-month-olds used soft objects. The 6-month-olds were most likely to use the novel sleep aid. Almost all of the infants at all 4 ages used some type of object during the night. Intra-individual analyses showed that infants tended to change their pattern of sleep aid use over the 3-month study period.
Conclusions.
The data provide evidence that infants during the first year of life use sleep aids frequently and interchangeably rather than a specific favorite object.
PMCID: PMC1351014  PMID: 11927702
9.  Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders 
Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), ages 2–11 years, using sleep diaries, the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and the Parenting Events Questionnaire. Two time periods were sampled to assess short-term stability of sleep–wake patterns. Before data collection, slightly more than half of the parents, when queried, reported a sleep problem in their child. Subsequent diary and CSHQ reports confirmed more fragmented sleep in those children who were described by their parents as having a sleep problem compared to those without a designated problem. Interestingly, regardless of parental perception of problematic sleep, all children with PDD exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. The results demonstrate that sleep problems identified by the parent, as well as fragmentation of sleep patterns obtained from sleep diary and CSHQ data, exist in a significant proportion of children with PPD.
PMCID: PMC1201413  PMID: 12553592
Sleep; autism; neurodevelopmental disorder; night waking; behavior
10.  Night Waking, Sleep-Wake Organization, and Self-Soothing in the First Year of Life 
Few objective data are available regarding infants’ night waking behaviors and the development of self-soothing during the first year of life. This cross-sectional study examined 80 infants in one of four age groups (3, 6, 9, or 12 mo) for four nights by using videosomnography to code nighttime awakenings and parent-child interactions. A large degree of variability was observed in parents’ putting the infant to bed awake or asleep and in responding to vocalizations after nighttime awakenings. Most infants woke during the night at all ages observed. Younger infants tended to require parental intervention at night to return to sleep, whereas older infants exhibited a greater proportion of self-soothing after nighttime awakenings. However, even in the 12-month-old group, 50% of infants typically required parental intervention to get back to sleep after waking. Results emphasize the individual and contextual factors that effect the development of self-soothing behavior during the first year of life.
PMCID: PMC1201414  PMID: 11530895
11.  Respiration During Sleep in Children 
Western Journal of Medicine  1978;128(6):477-481.
In 22 children (11 boys and 11 girls), aged 9 to 13 years, respiration was monitored during one night of sleep. No child had a significant history of breathing problems during sleep. Sleep was recorded using standard techniques (electroencephalography, electrooculography, electromyography), and respiration was measured with nasal thermistors and abdominal or thoracic strain gauges. Respiratory pauses (five seconds or longer) were determined for all sleep stages. Respiratory rate was scored only in the first and last sleep cycles and during ten waking minutes before sleep onset. Respiratory rate was significantly affected by wakefulness or stage of sleep: highest in wakefulness and stage 1, lowest in stage 2 of the last sleep cycle. Regularity of respiratory rate showed a similar effect. Variance of respiratory rate was significantly lower in girls than boys. Respiratory pauses during sleep were seen in every child, ranging from 3 to 40 pauses per night (average, 17.2 for boys and 18.0 for girls). Significantly greater numbers of pauses per minute were seen in stage 1 and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than in stages 2, 3 and 4. The longest respiratory pause was 25 seconds. The conclusion is made that a small number of respiratory pauses during sleep are normal in children of this age.
PMCID: PMC1238185  PMID: 664649
12.  Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children 
We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases (baseline, 3 months later, 6 months later). There were modest increases in waking cortisol and sAA levels in AUT relative to TYP, but the increases were not statistically significant. Important differences were observed in cortisol and sAA variability between AUT and TYP. There was also a graded response among AUT by functional status—cortisol and sAA secretion levels were higher when IQ was lower.
doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1522-z
PMCID: PMC3602445  PMID: 22477468
Autism; Children; Salivary cortisol; Salivary alpha-amylase; Diurnal; Variability

Results 1-13 (13)