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1.  The role of hepcidin, ferroportin, HCP1, and DMT1 protein in iron absorption in the human digestive tract 
Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny  2014;9(4):208-213.
Iron is found in almost all foods, so dietary iron intake is related to energy intake. However, its availability for absorption is quite variable, and poor bioavailability is a major reason for the high prevalence of nutritional iron deficiency anaemia. Absorption occurs primarily in the proximal small intestine through mature enterocytes located at the tips of the duodenal villi. Two transporters: Hem Carrier Protein 1 (HCP1) and Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT1) appear to mediate the entry of most if not all dietary iron into these mucosal cells. Absorption is regulated according to the body's needs. The results of studies suggest that iron absorption is regulated by the control of iron export from duodenal enterocytes to the circulating transferrin pool by ferroportin. Hepcidin, a 25-amino acid polypeptide, which is synthesised primarily in hepatocytes, reduces the iron absorption from the intestine by binding to the only known cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, causing it to be degraded. Therefore, hepcidin is now considered to be the most important factor controlling iron absorption.
PMCID: PMC4178046  PMID: 25276251
iron; bioavailability; hepcidin; ferroportin; HCP1; DMT1
2.  Decreased serum prohepcidin concentration in patients with polycythemia vera*  
Objective: Iron deficiency is a common complication in patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Hepcidin is a principal regulator of iron homeostasis. The aim of our study was to assess prohepcidin, a hepcidin precursor, and other iron status parameters in the serum of PV patients. Methods: The study was performed in 60 patients (F/M 26/34) aged 38~84 (66±10) years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers, age and sex matched. The following parameters were determined in blood serum samples: prohepcidin concentration, iron content, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TfS), and concentrations of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Results: All PV patients showed significantly lower levels of prohepcidin, higher levels of sTfR and TIBC compared to the control group. 40% of the patients from the study group showed concentrations of ferritin below the normal range and significantly lower levels of serum iron and TfS, and significantly higher levels of sTfR, UIBC and TIBC in comparison with the rest of the study group. In this group of patients, prohepcidin concentrations were significantly lower than those in other patients. Conclusion: The results indicate that PV patients suffer from iron metabolism disorders. The decreased serum level of prohepcidin in PV patients may be a result of iron deficiency.
PMCID: PMC2772882  PMID: 19882752
Polycythemia vera (PV); Iron metabolism; Prohepcidin; Hepcidin

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