Ageing is the largest risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and soft drusen and basal linear deposits are lipid-rich extracellular lesions specific to AMD. Oil red O binding neutral lipid represents a major age-related deposition in the Bruch membrane (BrM) and the first identified druse component. Decades after these seminal observations, a natural history of neutral lipid deposition has been articulated and a biochemical model proposed. Results obtained with multiple biochemical, histochemical, and ultrastructural methods, and supported indirectly by epidemiology, suggest that the RPE secretes apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoprotein particles of unusual composition into BrM, where they accumulate with age eventually forming a lipid wall, a precursor of basal linear deposit. The authors propose that constituents of these lesions interact with reactive oxygen species to form pro-inflammatory peroxidised lipids that elicit neovascularisation. Here, the authors summarise key evidence supporting both accumulation of BrM lipoproteins leading to lesion formation and lipoprotein production by the RPE. The authors update their model with genetic associations between AMD and genes historically associated with plasma HDL metabolism, and suggest future directions for research and therapeutic strategies based on an oil-spill analogy.
Commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems use global signal quality indices to quantify scan quality. Signal quality can vary throughout a scan, contributing to local retinal nerve fibre layer segmentation errors (SegE). The purpose of this study was to develop an automated method, using local scan quality, to predict SegE.
Good-quality (global signal strength (SS)≥6; manufacturer specification) peripapillary circular OCT scans (fast retinal nerve fibre layer scan protocol; Stratus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA) were obtained from 6 healthy, 19 glaucoma-suspect and 43 glaucoma subjects. Scans were grouped based on SegE. Quality index (QI) values were computed for each A-scan using software of our own design. Logistic mixed-effects regression modelling was applied to evaluate SS, global mean and SD of QI, and the probability of SegE.
The difference between local mean QI in SegE regions and No-SegE regions was −5.06 (95% CI −6.38 to 3.734) (p<0.001). Using global mean QI, QI SD and their interaction term resulted in the model of best fit (Akaike information criterion=191.8) for predicting SegE. Global mean QI≥20 or SS≥8 shows little chance for SegE. Once mean QI<20 or SS<8, the probability of SegE increases as QI SD increases.
When combined with a signal quality parameter, the variation of signal quality between A-scans provides significant information about the quality of an OCT scan and can be used as a predictor of segmentation error.
Blindness; visual impairment; maps; cartogram; number of ophthalmologists
To evaluate the effects of inferior oblique muscle recession (IOR) in cases of laterally incomitant hypertropia <10 prism dioptres (PD) in central gaze thact 2t are clinically consistent with superior oblique palsy (SOP).
We retrospectively reviewed patients with SOP and hypertropias <10 PD in central gaze who underwent graded IOR. Primary outcomes were reduction of lateral incomitance and number of overcorrections in central gaze.
Twenty-five patients were included. Mean follow-up was 13.8 months (range 1.4–66). Mean central gaze hypertropia decreased from 5.6±2.1 to 0.2±1.6 PD (p<0.001). Contralateral gaze hypertropia decreased from 15.9±7.6 to 2.3±3.3 PD (p<0.001). Lateral incomitance (central vs contralateral gaze) was 10.3±6.9 PD preoperatively and 2.0±3.0 PD postoperatively (p<0.001). There were two patients overcorrected in central gaze, and one patient overcorrected in downgaze. One patient necessitated further surgery for overcorrection.
Although small hypertropias can be treated with prisms or small, adjustable inferior rectus recessions, IOR collapses incomitance without causing much overcorrection. IOR is a reasonable treatment for small, laterally incomitant hypertropia due to SOP.
Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) develop severe keratoconjunctivitis, corneal scarring and visual loss, but the precise pathogenesis is unknown. This study evaluated the ocular surface immune cell environment, conjunctival goblet cell density and response to desiccating environmental stress of the autoimmune regulatory (Aire) gene knockout murine model of APECED.
Aire-deficient and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to desiccating stress from a drafty, low-humidity environment and pharmacological inhibition of tear secretion for 5 days. Immune cell populations (CD4+, CD8+, CD11b+, CD45+) and goblet cell density were measured in ocular surface tissues and meibomian glands, and compared with baseline values.
Greater CD4+ T cell populations were observed in the conjunctival epithelium of Aire-deficient mice (p<0.001) compared with WT. Aire-deficient mice also had greater numbers of CD4+, CD8+, and CD11b+ cells in the peripheral cornea at baseline and following desiccating stress. The meibomian glands of Aire-deficient mice demonstrated greater CD4+, CD8+, CD45+ and CD11b+ cells at baseline (p<0.001) and following desiccating stress. Conjunctival goblet cell density was lower at baseline and following desiccating stress in Aire-deficient compared with WT mice (p<0.001).
Aire-deficiency leads to infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells on the ocular surface and meibomian glands, which is accompanied by goblet cell loss. Desiccating stress promotes this proinflammatory milieu. Immune-mediated mechanisms play a role in the severe blepharitis and keratoconjunctivitis in the murine model of APECED.
To evaluate the effect of topical autologous plasma on nerve morphology in patients with neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) using the confocal microscope.
Eleven eyes of six patients with neurotrophic keratopathy were evaluated for this study. Corneal fluorescein staining was done, and corneal sensitivity measurements were done with the Cochet–Bonnet and modified Belmonte gas aesthesiometers. The Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module laser scanning confocal microscope was used to image the corneal surface and subepithelial neural plexus. Four images at the level of the subepithelial nerve plexus in the central cornea were randomly selected for analysis of the corneal nerves. Topical autologous plasma was used six to eight times per day.
The best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly after plasma treatment in all patients (p=0.003). The mean corneal fluorescein staining score significantly decreased after treatment (p=0.0003). There was a significant increase in corneal sensitivity measured by Cochet–Bonnet (p<0.0001) and modified Belmonte (p=0.01) aesthesiometers. The mean number, length, width and density of subepithelial nerves increased significantly after plasma treatment (p=0.0002).
In vivo confocal microscopy examination revealed preliminary evidence for improvement of corneal nerve findings suggesting efficacy of autologous plasma treatment in neurotrophic keratopathy.
Excessive lipid accumulation in Bruch’s membrane (BrM) is a hallmark of ageing, the major risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells may utilise reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) activity to move lipid into BrM, mediated through ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI).
ABCA1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting of human RPE cell extracts. Lipid transport assays were performed using radiolabelled photoreceptor outer segments (POS). ABCA1 and SR-BI expression was examined in normal mouse eyes by immunofluorescence staining. BrMs of ABCA1 and SR-BI heterozygous mice were examined microscopically.
Human RPE cells expressed ABCA1 mRNA and protein. The ABCA1 and SR-BI inhibitor glyburide (also known as glibenclamide) abolished basal transport of POS-derived lipids in RPE cells in the presence of high-density lipoprotein. Mouse retina and RPE expressed ABCA1 and SR-BI. SR-BI was highly expressed in RPE. BrMs were significantly thickened in SR-BI heterozygous mice, but not in ABCA1 heterozygous mice.
RPE cells express ABCA1 and SR-BI. This implies a significant role for SR-BI and ABCA1 in lipid transport and RCT in the retina and RPE.
To determine whether complement factor H (CFH) genotypes have a pharmacogenetic effect on the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with ranibizumab.
A retrospective study of 156 patients with exudative AMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab monotherapy was conducted. AMD phenotypes were characterized by clinical examination, visual acuity, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and injection timing. Patients received intravitreal ranibizumab injections as part of routine ophthalmologic care and were followed for a minimum of nine months. Each patient was genotyped for the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1061170 (Y402H) in the CFH gene.
Baseline lesion size and angiographic type, as well as mean visual acuities at baseline, 6 months, and 9 months were similar among the three CFH genotypes. Over 9 months, patients with both risk alleles received approximately one more injection (p = 0.09). In a recurrent event analysis, patients homozygous for the CFH Y402H risk allele had a 37% significantly higher risk of requiring additional ranibizumab injections (p = 0.04)
In our cohort, response to treatment of AMD with ranibizumab differed according to CFH genotype, suggesting that determining patients' CFH genotype may be helpful in the future in tailoring treatment for exudative AMD with intravitreal ranibizumab.
Complement Factor H; Ranibizumab; Age-Related Macular Degeneration; Pharmacogenetics
Three types of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) – primary, pigmentary, and pseudoexfoliative – are frequently encountered. The aim of this study was to compare demographic, ocular, and systemic medical information collected on people with these three OAG types at diagnosis, and determine if the OAG type affected prognosis.
Information on 607 participants of the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study was accessed. Descriptive statistics characterized their demographic, ocular, and medical status at diagnosis. Comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and chi-square or Fisher exact tests. Multinomial, mixed, and logistic regression analyses were also performed.
Relative to people with primary OAG, those with pigmentary OAG were younger, more likely to be white, less likely to have a family history of glaucoma, and were more myopic. Those with pseudoexfoliative OAG were older, more likely to be white, more likely to be female, less likely to have bilateral disease, and presented with higher IOP and better VA. The type of glaucoma was not associated with intraocular pressure or visual field progression during follow-up.
Characteristics of newly-diagnosed enrollees differed by the type of OAG. While some of these differences relate to the pathogenesis of OAG type, other differences are noteworthy for further evaluation within population-based samples of subjects with newly-diagnosed OAG.
To identify disease-causing mutations in two consanguineous Pakistani families with fundus albipunctatus.
Affected individuals in both families underwent a thorough clinical examination including funduscopy and electroretinography. Blood samples were collected from all participating members and genomic DNA was extracted. Exclusion analysis was completed with microsatellite short tandem repeat markers that span all reported loci for fundus albipunctatus. Two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated, and coding exons and exon–intron boundaries of RLBP1 were sequenced bi-directionally.
The ophthalmic examination of affected patients in both families was consistent with fundus albipunctatus. The alleles of markers on chromosome 15q flanking RLBP1 segregated with the disease phenotype in both families and linkage was further confirmed by two-point LOD scores. Bi-directional sequencing of RLBP1 identified a nonsense mutation (R156X) and a missense mutation (G116R) that segregated with the disease phenotype in their respective families.
These results strongly suggest that mutations in RLBP1 are responsible for fundus albipunctatus in the affected individuals of these consanguineous Pakistani families.
Macula; retina; choroid; angiogenesis; drugs
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques have been applied to develop a new generation of the technology, called spectral domain (SD) or Fourier domain (FD) OCT. The commercially available SD-OCT technology offers benefits over the conventional time domain (TD) OCT such as a scanning speed up to 200 times faster and higher axial resolution (3 to 6 μm). Overall, SD-OCT offers improved performance in terms of reproducibility. SD-OCT has a level of discriminating capability, between healthy and perimetric glaucoma eyes similar to that obtained with TD-OCT. Furthermore, the capabilities and features of SD-OCT are rapidly evolving, mainly due to three-dimensional imaging and image rendering. More sophisticated approaches for macular and optic disc assessment are expected to be employed in clinical practice. Analysis software should be further refined for interpretation of SD-OCT images in order to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of glaucoma diagnostics. Most importantly for SD-OCT is determination of its ability to diagnostic structural glaucomatous progression. Considering the recent launch time of the commercially available SD-OCT and slow progressing characteristic of glaucoma, we must wait for longitudinal SD-OCT data, with a long enough follow-up, to become available.
The epidemiology of microbial keratitis has been investigated in several studies by analysis of organisms cultured from corneal scrapes. However, a comparison of the frequency of different organisms causing keratitis in different parts of the world is lacking. We present a review incorporating an analysis of data from studies worldwide. The data provide a comparison of the frequency of culture-positive organisms found in different parts of the world.
The highest proportion of bacterial corneal ulcers was reported in studies from North America, Australia, the Netherlands and Singapore. The highest proportion of staphylococcal ulcers was found in a study from Paraguay whilst the highest proportion of pseudomonas ulcers was reported in a study from Bangkok. The highest proportions of fungal infections were found in studies from India and Nepal. Possible explanations for these observed geographic variations are discussed.
cornea; keratitis; eye; infection; epidemiology
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common ophthalmic disorders affecting one in approximately 5000 people worldwide. A nuclear family was recruited from the Punjab province of Pakistan to study the genetic basis of autosomal recessive RP.
All affected individuals underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination and the disease was characterised based upon results for fundus photographs and electroretinogram recordings. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leucocytes. Exclusion studies were performed with short tandem repeat (STR) markers flanking reported autosomal recessive RP loci. Haplotypes were constructed and results were statistically evaluated.
The results of exclusion analyses suggested that family PKRP173 was linked to chromosome 2q harbouring mer tyrosine kinase protooncogene (MERTK), a gene previously associated with autosomal recessive RP. Additional STR markers refined the critical interval and placed it in a 13.4 cM (17 Mb) region flanked by D2S293 proximally and D2S347 distally. Significant logarithm of odds (LOD) scores of 3.2, 3.25 and 3.18 at θ=0 were obtained with markers D2S1896, D2S2269 and D2S160. Sequencing of the coding exons of MERTK identified a mutation, c.718G→T in exon 4, which results in a premature termination of p.E240X that segregates with the disease phenotype in the family.
Our results strongly suggest that the nonsense mutation in MERTK, leading to premature termination of the protein, is responsible for RP phenotype in the affected individuals of the Pakistani family.
Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD), also known as familial subepithelial corneal amyloidosis, is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes progressive corneal opacity due to accumulation of amyloid fibrils in the corneal stroma. Genetic analyses have revealed that a mutation in membrane component chromosome 1 surface marker 1 gene is responsible for GDLD. However, the mechanism of amyloid formation in the corneal stroma remains unclear. The present study attempted to reveal the role of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and d-amino acids in amyloid formation in GDLD.
Informed consent was obtained from five patients with GDLD, three patients with bullous keratopathy and three patients with interstitial keratitis and all the specimens were analysed. Localisation of amyloid fibrils was analysed using Congo-red and thioflavin T staining. In addition, the localisation of AGE (Nɛ-carboxy(methyl)-l-lysine, pyrraline and pentosidine) and d-β-aspartic acid-containing proteins, a major form of d-amino acid-containing proteins, was analysed immunohistochemically.
In all GDLD specimens, strong immunoreactivity to AGE and d-β-aspartic acid-containing proteins was detected in the subepithelial amyloid-rich region. In contrast, amyloid fibrils, AGE, or d-amino acid-containing proteins were slightly detected in the corneal stroma of patients with bullous keratopathy and interstitial keratitis.
Abnormally accumulated proteins rich in AGE and d-β-aspartic acid co-localise in the amyloid lesions in GDLD. These results indicate that non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of proteins, including AGE formation and isomerisation of aspartyl residues, will be the cause as well as the result of amyloid fibril formations in GDLD.
Advanced glycation end products; biochemistry; cornead-amino acids; d-β-aspartic acid; familial subepithelial corneal amyloidosis; GDLD; gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy; M1S1; Nɛ-(carboxy)methyl-l-lysin; optics and refraction; pathology; pentosidine; physiology; pyrraline; treatment surgery; tumour-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2)
To determine to what extent subjects implanted with the Argus II retinal prosthesis can improve performance compared with residual native vision in a spatial-motor task.
High-contrast square stimuli (5.85 cm sides) were displayed in random locations on a 19″ (48.3 cm) touch screen monitor located 12″ (30.5 cm) in front of the subject. Subjects were instructed to locate and touch the square centre with the system on and then off (40 trials each). The coordinates of the square centre and location touched were recorded.
Ninety-six percent (26/27) of subjects showed a significant improvement in accuracy and 93% (25/27) show a significant improvement in repeatability with the system on compared with off (p<0.05, Student t test). A group of five subjects that had both accuracy and repeatability values <250 pixels (7.4 cm) with the system off (ie, using only their residual vision) was significantly more accurate and repeatable than the remainder of the cohort (p<0.01). Of this group, four subjects showed a significant improvement in both accuracy and repeatability with the system on.
In a study on the largest cohort of visual prosthesis recipients to date, we found that artificial vision augments information from existing vision in a spatial-motor task.
Clinical trials registry no
Retinal endothelial cells are crucially involved in the genesis of diabetic retinopathy which is treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Of these, ranibizumab can completely restore VEGF-induced effects on immortalised bovine retinal endothelial cells (iBREC). In most experiments supporting diabetic retinopathy therapy with bevacizumab, only non-retinal EC or retinal pigment epithelial cells have been used. Also, bevacizumab but not ranibizumab can accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells.
To investigate the effects of bevacizumab on VEGF-induced changes of iBREC properties and potential uptake and accumulation of both inhibitors.
Uptake of VEGF inhibitors by iBREC with or without pretreatment with VEGF165 was visualised by immunofluorescence staining and western blot analyses. Measured transendothelial resistance (TER) of iBREC (±VEGF165) showed effects on permeability, indicated also by the western blot-determined tight junction protein claudin-1. The influence of bevacizumab on proliferation and migration of iBREC was studied in the presence and absence of VEGF165.
Bevacizumab strongly inhibited VEGF-stimulated and basal migration, but was less efficient than ranibizumab in inhibiting VEGF-induced proliferation or restoring the VEGF-induced decrease of TER and claudin-1. This ability was completely lost after storage of bevacizumab for 4 weeks at 4°C. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab were detectable in whole cell extracts after treatment for at least 1 h; bevacizumab accumulated during prolonged treatment. Ranibizumab was found in the membrane/organelle fraction, whereas bevacizumab was associated with the cytoskeleton.
Both inhibitors had similar effects on retinal endothelial cells; however, some differences were recognised. Although barrier properties were not affected by internalised bevacizumab in vitro, potential adverse effects due to accumulation after repetitive intravitreal injections remain to be investigated.
Retinal endothelial cells; VEGF inhibition; diabetic macular oedema; diabetic retinopathy; biochemistry; diagnostic tests/investigation; macula; neovascularisation; retina
The aim of this study was to describe an automated method for extracting quantitative measures of foveal morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the human retina.
We performed a methodological study and retrospective investigation of selected cases. Sixty-five human subjects were included: 61 healthy subjects and four female carriers of blue-cone monochromacy (BCM). Thickness data from B-scans traversing the foveal pit were fitted to a mathematical model designed to capture the contour of the foveal surface. From this model, various metrics of foveal morphology were extracted (pit depth, diameter and slope).
Mathematical descriptions of foveal morphology enabled quantitative and objective evaluation of foveal dimensions from archived OCT data sets. We found a large variation in all aspects of the foveal pit (depth, diameter and slope). In myopes and BCM carriers, foveal pits were slightly less deep and had a more shallow slope, although these differences were not significant.
Offline analysis of OCT data sets enables quantitative assessment of foveal morphology. The algorithm works on the Stratus™ and Cirrus™ macular thickness protocols, as well as the Spectralis® and Bioptigen© radial-line scan protocols, and can be objectively applied to existing data sets. These metrics will be useful in following changes associated with diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity and high myopia, as well as in studying normal postnatal development of the human fovea.
To examine the practical improvement in image quality afforded by a broadband light source in a clinical setting and to define image quality metrics for future use in evaluating spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images.
A commercially available SD-OCT system, configured with a standard source as well as an external broadband light source, was used to acquire 4 mm horizontal line scans of the right eye of 10 normal subjects. Scans were averaged to reduce speckling and multiple retinal layers were analysed in the resulting images.
For all layers there was a significant improvement in the mean local contrast (average improvement by a factor of 1.66) when using the broadband light source. Intersession variability was shown not to be a major contributing factor to the observed improvement in image quality obtained with the broadband light source. We report the first observation of sublamination within the inner plexiform layer visible with SD-OCT.
The practical improvement with the broadband light source was significant, although it remains to be seen what the utility will be for diagnostic pathology. The approach presented here serves as a model for a more quantitative analysis of SD-OCT images, allowing for more meaningful comparisons between subjects, clinics and SD-OCT systems.
Cornea; lens and zonules
To investigate age-related lesions in the far-anterior retina that migrate from the ciliary body (CB) and how they affect the neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE).
One eye from three healthy subjects aged 87, 92 and 93 years were used. Retinae were photographed, embedded in resin and then sectioned at 2 μm.
Multiple elliptically shaped lesions were present in the CB. Larger lesions extended into the peripheral retina. Lesions resulted from deposits that had lenticular qualities. These develop centrally along Bruch's membrane sweeping away the RPE, such that piles of RPE cells were present around the deposits that resulted in retinal atrophy. The internal composition of the deposits revealed large numbers of spherical bodies, unlike those seen in drusen. RPE cells adjacent to these deposits and their underlying lesions became highly irregular, with melanin granules spacing themselves out within the cell and adopting similar orientations. This is a highly distinctive feature.
These far-anterior deposits were different in nature from drusen in terms of morphology, composition and origin. They swept away the RPE, exposing the Bruch's membrane and isolating the retina, leading to atrophy. They appeared to originate from the CB and progressed centrally. The deposits may have developed from the ciliary muscle, which would account for their elongated orientation. Their impact on melanin distribution in RPE cells was unexpected and unusual, implying that they release a signal that influences melanin organisation.
Lesions/deposits; far-peripheral retina; RPE; retina; ciliary body; degeneration; pathology
To determine the relationship between retinal ischaemia and the presence of macular oedema (DMO) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) imaging.
A retrospective review of 122 eyes of 70 treatment-naïve diabetic patients who underwent diagnostic UWFA using the Optos 200Tx imaging system. Two independent, masked graders quantified the area of retinal ischaemia. Based on clinical examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT), each patient was given a binary classification as either having DMO or no DMO. McNemar's test (with Yates' correction as indicated) and a two-sample test of proportions were used to determine the relationship between DMO and ischaemia for binary and proportional data, respectively. Linear and logistic models were constructed using generalised estimating equations to test relationships between independent variables, covariates and outcomes while controlling for inter-eye correlation, age, gender, haemoglobin A1c, mean arterial pressure and dependence on insulin.
Seventy-six eyes (62%) exhibited areas of retinal ischaemia. There was a significant direct correlation between DMO and peripheral retinal ischaemia as seen on UWFA (p<0.001). In addition, patients with retinal ischaemia had 3.75 times increased odds of having DMO compared with those without retinal ischaemia (CI 1.26 to 11.13, p<0.02).
Retinal ischaemia is significantly correlated with DMO in treatment-naïve patients with DR. UWFA is a useful tool for detecting peripheral retinal ischaemia, which may have direct implications in the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment such as targeted peripheral photocoagulation.
Ultra-wide field imaging; fluorescein angiography; diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; diabetic macular oedema; retina; epidemiology; retina
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ranibizumab as either monotherapy or combined with laser therapy, compared with laser monotherapy, in the treatment of diabetic macular oedema (DME) causing visual impairment from a UK healthcare payer perspective.
A Markov model simulated long-term outcomes and costs of treating DME in one eye (BCVA ≤75 letters) based on data from the RESTORE Phase III trial. Outcomes measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were simulated for a 15-year time horizon based on 12-month follow-up from RESTORE and published long-term data. Costs included treatment, disease monitoring, visual impairment and blindness (at 2010 price levels).
Ranibizumab monotherapy resulted in a 0.17 QALY gain at an incremental cost of £4191 relative to laser monotherapy, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £24 028. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed a 64% probability of being cost-effective at a threshold of £30 000 per QALY. Combined ranibizumab and laser therapy resulted in a 0.13 QALY gain at an incremental cost of £4695 relative to laser monotherapy (ICER £36 106; 42% probability of ICER <£30 000).
Based on RESTORE 1-year follow-up data, ranibizumab monotherapy appears to be cost-effective relative to laser monotherapy, the current standard of care. Cost-effectiveness of combination therapy is less certain. Ongoing studies will further inform on disease progression and the need for additional ranibizumab treatment.
Ranibizumab; diabetic macular oedema; visual impairment; cost-effectiveness; macula; treatment medical; clinical trial; epidemiology; public health; vision; retina