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26.  Asbestosis as a precursor of asbestos related lung cancer: results of a prospective mortality study. 
A prospective mortality study of 839 men employed in the manufacture of asbestos cement products in 1969 examined lung cancer risk in relation to lung fibrosis seen on chest x ray film, controlling for age, smoking, and exposure to asbestos. Twenty or more years after hire, no excess of lung cancer was found among workers without radiographically detectable lung fibrosis, even among long term workers (greater than or equal to 21.5 years); nor was there a trend in risk by level of cumulative exposure to asbestos among such workers. By contrast, employees with small opacities (greater than or equal to 1/0; ILO classification) experienced a significantly raised risk of lung cancer (nine observed deaths v 2.1 expected), even though their exposures to asbestos were similar to the exposures of long term workers without opacities. In this population, excess risk of lung cancer was restricted to workers with x ray film evidence of asbestosis, a finding consistent with the view that asbestos is a lung carcinogen because of its fibrogenicity.
PMCID: PMC1035360  PMID: 2025587
27.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1035260
28.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1035184
29.  Work and pregnancy. 
PMCID: PMC1009658  PMID: 3052569
31.  Melanoma and occupation: results of a case-control study in The Netherlands. 
Several studies have reported excesses of risk of melanoma in specific industries. Data from a case-control study in The Netherlands, including 140 cases with a cutaneous melanoma and 181 controls with other types of malignancy, were used to evaluate whether the reported associations with these specific industries could be reproduced. Adjustment for characteristics of pigmentation and exposure to sunlight was made. Increased risks of cutaneous melanoma were found for subjects who had ever worked in the electronics industry (odds ratio (OR) = 2.03, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.63-6.62), in the metal industry (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 0.96-7.10), and in the transport and communication branch (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 0.84-4.35). These ORs were adjusted for age, sex, education, hair colour, tendency to burn, freckling, and exposure to sunlight. No increased risks were seen for workers in the chemical industry, the textile industry, and among health care workers. Analyses according to duration and latency of exposure did not give consistent results, but existing patterns may be obscured by the imprecision of the estimates.
PMCID: PMC1035501  PMID: 8343426
32.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1037196
33.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1061225
34.  Analysis of lung asbestos content. 
PMCID: PMC1012053  PMID: 1931721
35.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1035366
36.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1035342
37.  Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia. 
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia.
PMCID: PMC1035330  PMID: 1998605
38.  Respiratory mortality among firefighters. 
Although firefighters have been shown in some studies to suffer chronic respiratory morbidity from their occupational exposures, an increased risk for dying from non-malignant respiratory diseases has not been documented in any previous retrospective cohort mortality study. In order to assess the possibility that an unusually strong "healthy worker effect" among firefighters might mask this increased risk, a mortality analysis of firefighters was carried out in three cities in relation to the United States population and also to a comparison cohort of police officers. The firefighters were employed between 1945 and 1980 and experienced 886 deaths by 1 January 1984; compared with the United States population they had a significantly reduced risk of dying from all causes (SMR = 82, 95% confidence interval, 77-87), and from non-malignant circulatory diseases (SMR = 81, 95% confidence interval 73-89), but no significant difference in risk of non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR = 88, 95% confidence interval 66-117). Compared with police, the firefighters experienced a trend toward improved mortality outcomes for all causes investigated (SMR = 82), but they had an excess of deaths from non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR = 141). The results indicate that firefighters are probably at increased risk for dying from non-malignant respiratory diseases; this increased risk may have been missed in previous studies because of the limitations of using a general reference population.
PMCID: PMC1035207  PMID: 2383515
39.  Coalmining, emphysema, and compensation. 
PMCID: PMC1035202  PMID: 2143415
40.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1035124
41.  Ventilatory function in rubber processing workers: acute changes over the workshift. 
When considering rubber tyre manufacturing from an occupational health viewpoint, three areas may be identified in which exposure to respirable materials are potentially harmful: the processing, curing, and talc areas. A study of the ventilatory function of the entire work force employed in the processing area in a rubber tyre manufacturing plant was undertaken to determine whether an acute reduction in lung function occurs over the course of their working shift (the plant worked a three shift system) and whether a chronic exposure to the occupational airborne contaminants causes permanent changes in lung function. The ventilatory function was measured at the worksite at the beginning and immediately after the end of the workshift. No evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was found and in most cases no significant decline in FEV1 was observed. Only one of the 79 individuals showed a moderate obstruction, measured by the ratio FEV1/FVC which gave the value of 0.55, with no variation over the shift. For non-smokers, the FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75% were lower in those exposed for more than five years than in those exposed for five years or less. A similar pattern was also observed in the FVC and FEV1 of the smokers. None of these differences was statistically significant. Within each exposure group the pulmonary function of the smokers was lower than that of the non-smokers, but the only significant difference was found in the values of FEF25-75%. Only one man showed a decline in the FEV1/FVC ratio over the shift, but during each shift, a decrease in all the lung function tests was observed. The decrease was smallest during the first of the three shifts. These results are thought to support the hypothesis that there are acute adverse effects over an eight hour shift. Further investigations are needed to discover whether these acute changes in lung function result from a chemical stimulation or irritant receptors in the airways.
PMCID: PMC1007787  PMID: 3814549
42.  Radiographic abnormalities and mortality in subjects with exposure to crocidolite. 
Plain chest radiographs from a one in six random sample of the workforce of the asbestos industry at Wittenoom, Western Australia between 1943 and 1966 have been classified for degree of profusion and pleural thickening by two independent observers according to the 1980 UICC-ILO Classification of Radiographs for the pneumoconioses to clarify the effect of degree of radiological abnormality on survival. A total of 1106 subjects were selected. Each subject's age, cumulative exposure to crocidolite, and time since first exposure were determined from employment records, the results of a survey of airborne concentrations of fibres > 5 mu in length conducted in 1966, and an exposure rating by an industrial hygienist and an ex-manager of the mine and mill at Wittenoom. By the end of 1986 193 subjects had died. Conditional logistic regression was used to model the relative risk of death in five separate case-control analyses in which the outcomes were deaths from: (1) all causes, (2) malignant mesothelioma, (3) lung cancer, (4) asbestosis, and (5) other causes excluding cancer and asbestosis. Up to 20 controls per case were randomly chosen from all men of the same age who were not known to have died before the date of death of the index case. After adjustment for exposure and time since first exposure, there were significant and independent effects of radiographic profusion and pleural thickening on all cause mortality. The effect of profusion was largely a result of the effect on mortality from malignant mesothelioma and asbestosis but not lung cancer. The effect of pleural thickening was greatest on mortality from other causes, mainly ischaemic heart disease. This study has shown that degree of radiographic abnormality has an independent effect on mortality from malignant mesothelioma, asbestosis, and all causes even after allowing for the effects of age, degree of exposure, and time since first exposure.
PMCID: PMC1035519  PMID: 8217849
43.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1061305
44.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1039319
45.  Subclinical impairment of colour vision among workers exposed to styrene. 
The effects of exposure to styrene were studied among 60 men aged 20 to 56 (mean 29.5) employed in shipbuilding. Exposure was due to the handling of glass reinforced polyester materials. The study was cross sectional and the workers were compared with a control group matched for age, social and occupational state, and ethnic origin. During the study, the mean atmospheric exposure to styrene was 24.3 ppm. Mean urinary elimination was 230 mg/g creatinine for mandelic acid and 57.4 mg/g creatinine for phenylglyoxylic acid. The Farnsworth 100 hue test showed no significant differences between the exposed and control groups for error scores. A significant difference was found, however, for the number of subjects with errors axis in the red-green, or blue-yellow ranges, or both, which was larger among the exposed workers (32/60 v 20/60 for the controls (p < 0.05)). Psychometric tests were also conducted, using the World Health Organisation (WHO) neurobehavioural core test battery. Of the seven tests it included, anomalies were only found for the aiming test. These results suggest that exposure to moderate styrene concentrations of the order of 25 ppm can lead to impairment of colour vision.
PMCID: PMC1012141  PMID: 1419854
46.  Histological type of lung carcinoma in asbestos cement workers and matched controls. 
Histological types of lung carcinoma were examined in a case series of workers exposed to asbestos cement dust (n = 29) and matched controls (n = 87). The proportion of adenocarcinomas was 31% among the exposed subjects and 15% among the controls (mid-p = 0.05). Among workers with high exposure the proportion of adenocarcinoma was even higher (45%, 5/11; mid-p = 0.03). The proportion of peripheral tumours tended to be higher among exposed cases than controls (24 v 12%, mid-p = 0.12). Lobe of origin did not differ, however, between exposed cases and controls. Thus the study indicates an association between the degree of exposure to asbestos and adenocarcinoma of the lung, and a peripheral rather than central localisation of the tumours, but with virtually the same distribution of lobe of origin as in the general population.
PMCID: PMC1039307  PMID: 1390268
47.  Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the metal industry: a case-control study. 
The association between nasal cancer and work in the metal industry was investigated in a case-control study located in the province of Brescia, north eastern Italy. Thirty five cases of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who were resident in the province of Brescia and diagnosed or treated by the ear, nose, and throat department and the radiotherapy unit (Centro Alte Energie) of the Brescia Hospital in the years 1980-9 were included in the study. Controls (102) were patients affected by benign and malignant neoplasms of the head and neck who were resident in the Brescia Province and matched the cases by age and sex. All the subjects were interviewed by telephone. Metal workers showed an increased risk of nasal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.48-20); a higher risk was associated with work in foundries (OR 5.9; 90 CI 0.77-46). Work in wood, leather, and textile industries was also associated with increased risk of nasal cancer.
PMCID: PMC1012093  PMID: 1554616
48.  A nested case-control study of lung cancer among silica exposed workers in China. 
In an attempt to assess whether silica induces lung cancer, a nested case-control study of 316 male lung cancer cases and 1352 controls was carried out among pottery workers and tungsten, copper-iron, and tin miners from five provinces in south central China. Exposure to dust and silica for each study subject was evaluated quantitatively by cumulative exposure measures based on historical industrial hygiene records. Measurements on confounders such as inorganic arsenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and radon were also collected from the worksites. Information on cigarette smoking was obtained by interviews of the subjects or their next of kin. A significant trend of increasing risk of lung cancer with exposure to silica was found for tin miners, but not for miners working in tungsten or copper-iron mines. Concomitant and highly correlated exposures to arsenic and PAHs among tin miners were also found. Risk of lung cancer among pottery workers was related to exposure to silica, although the dose-response gradient was not significant. Risks of lung cancer were significantly increased among silicotic subjects in iron-copper and tin mines, but not in pottery factories or tungsten mines. The results of this study provide only limited support for an aetiological association between silica and lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC1012089  PMID: 1313281
49.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC1039223
50.  Diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate among polyvinylchloride compounding workers. 
The diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was studied in 24 mixers and 24 non-mixers in three polyvinylchloride (PVC) compounding plants and 24 non-PVC controls from a marine police workshop. The three groups (all men) were matched for age, race, and smoking. The mean respirable dust concentration (essentially PVC dust) was 1.6 mg/m3 for mixers and 0.4 mg/m3 for nonmixers. The mean diurnal variation in PEFR of the mixers was 6.5%. This was significantly higher than the 4.8% for non-mixers and 4.3% for the non-PVC controls. Six mixers had a diurnal variation of more than 15% on at least one day compared with none among the other two groups. Twenty nine per cent of mixers complained of wheezing compared with 4% of non-mixers and none among non-PVC workers. These differences were significant. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) for the mixers was 10% below the predicted values whereas that of non-PVC workers was 2% below predicted values. The study indicates a significant acute airway constriction from occupational exposure to PVC dust.
PMCID: PMC1035370  PMID: 2025595

Results 26-50 (5460)