The radial spoke (RS) is a complex of at least 23 proteins that works as a mechanochemical transducer between the central‐pair apparatus and the peripheral microtubule doublets in eukaryotic flagella and motile cilia. The RS contributes to the regulation of the activity of dynein motors, and thus to flagellar motility. Despite numerous biochemical, physiological and structural studies, the mechanism of the function of the radial spoke remains unclear. Detailed knowledge of the 3D structure of the RS protein complex is needed in order to understand how RS regulates dynein activity. Here we review the most important findings on the structure of the RS, including results of our recent cryo‐electron tomographic analysis of the RS protein complex.
axoneme; cilia; cryo‐electron tomography; dynein; flagella; motility; radial spokes
SNARE complexes mediate membrane fusion in the endomembrane system. They consist of coiled-coil bundles of four helices designated as Qa, Qb, Qc and R. A critical intermediate in the fusion pathway is the trans-SNARE complex generated by the assembly of SNAREs residing in opposing membranes. Mechanistic details of trans-SNARE complex formation and topology in a physiological system remain largely unresolved. Our studies on native yeast vacuoles revealed that SNAREs alone are insufficient to form trans-SNARE complexes and that additional factors, potentially tethering complexes and Rab GTPases, are required for the process. Here we report a novel finding that a HOPS tethering complex dimer catalyzes Rab GTPase-dependent formation of a topologically preferred QbQcR-Qa trans-SNARE complex.
HOPS tethering complex dimer; QbQcR-Qa trans-SNARE complex; Rab GTPase
Kinesin-5 mechanoenzymes drive mitotic spindle dynamics as slow, processive microtubule (MT)-plus-end directed motors. Surprisingly, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-5 Cin8 was recently found to be bi-directional: it can move processively in both directions on MTs. Two hypotheses have been suggested for the mechanism of the directionality switch: (1) single molecules of Cin8 are intrinsically minus-end directed, but mechanical coupling between two or more motors triggers the switch; (2) a single motor can switch direction, and “cargo binding” i.e., binding between two MTs triggers the switch to plus-end motility. Single-molecule fluorescence data we published recently, and augment here, favor hypothesis (2). In low-ionic-strength conditions, single molecules of Cin8 move in both minus- and plus-end directions. Fluorescence photo bleaching data rule out aggregation of Cin8 while they move in the plus and in the minus direction. The evidence thus points toward cargo regulation of directionality, which is likely to be related to cargo regulation in other kinesins. The molecular mechanisms of this regulation, however, remain to be elucidated.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cin8; kinesin directionality; kinesin-5; microtubules; mitosis
Volume 1 has defined the scope of BioArchitecture. From the outset we have strived to ensure that BioArchitecture is not limited to the three major polymer systems of the cytoplasm. I am happy to say that a cursory glance at the contents of volume 1 makes it clear that we are interested in all aspects of bioarchitecture from molecules to polymers to cells to tissue to the organism.
Actin polymerization plays a major role in many cellular processes, including cell motility, vesicle trafficking, and pathogen propulsion. The transformation of the (protrusive) polymerization forces into directed motion requires that the growing filaments are positioned next to the surface. This is achieved by localization of surface actin nucleators (WASP), which then activate Arp2/3 complex to form new actin branches. Yet, the same surface-bound WASP molecule which initiates the nucleation of new actin branches, also inherently prevents the translation of the polymerization forces into motion, essentially because the WASP molecule has to be in contact with the network during the formation of the new branch. In our recent paper we show that cortactin relaxes this internal inhibition by enhancing the release of WASP-VCA molecule from the new branching site after nucleation is initiated. We show that this enhanced release has two major effects; it increases the turnover rate of branching per WASP molecule, and it decreases the friction-like force caused by the binding of the moving surface with respect to the growing actin network.
Arp2/3 complex; WASP-VCA; actin-based motility; cortactin; friction-like force; propulsion velocity
Chemotaxis is crucial for many physiological processes including the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection, trafficking of lymphocytes in the human body, and metastasis of cancer cells. A family of small proteins, chemokines, serves as the signals, and a family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) detects chemokines and direct cell migration. One of the basic questions in chemotaxis of eukaryotes is how a GPCR transduces signals to control the assembly of the actin network that generates directional force for cell migration. Over the past decade, a variety of signaling components have been implicated to transduce the GPCR signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. Studies in a lower eukaryotic organism, Dictyostelium discoideum, have allowed us to discover evolutionary conversed components involved in the GPCR-controlled actin network during chemotaxis. However, complete pathways linking GPCR to the actin network are still far from clear. Here we first summarize the previous studies on these components, and then update with our finding showing a new pathway, consisting of a GPCR, Gβγ, Elmo/Dock, Rac and Arp2/3 and actin. We suggest that this pathway serves as a direct linkage between the GPCR/G-protein, the chemoattractant sensing machinery, and the actin cytoskeleton, the machinery of cell movement during chemotaxis of eukaryotic cells.
Dictyostelium; Dock; Elmo; GPCR; actin; chemotaxis; cytoskeleton; signaling
Proper cell division requires the formation of the microtubule-based mitotic spindle, which mediates the dynamic movement and alignment of chromosomes to the metaphase plate and their equal transmission to daughter cells. Kinesins are molecular motors that utilize ATP hydrolysis to perform their functions and are instrumental in spindle assembly and function. Of the over 45 kinesins encoded in the human genome, only two are specifically enriched at the centrioles, Kif24 at the mother centriole and STARD9/Kif16a at the daughter centriole. While Kif24 possesses centriolar microtubule-depolymerizing activity and has been implicated in regulating cilia formation, our recent study implicates STARD9 in maintaining pericentriolar material (PCM) cohesion during early mitosis. However, very little is known about how STARD9 performs its function, including the mechanisms that recruit or retain STARD9 at the centrioles and how it cooperates with centrosome components to regulate PCM stability. Additionally, the signals leading to apoptosis in the absence of STARD9 remain to be explored.
Kif16a; STARD9; cancer target; cell division; centrosomes; kinesin; microtubules; mitosis; spindle assembly
Crosslinking proteins maintain organelle structure and facilitate their function through the crosslinking of cytoskeletal elements. We recently found an interaction between the giant crosslinking protein dystonin-a2 and the microtubule-associated protein-1B (MAP1B), occurring in the centrosomal region of the cell. In addition, we showed that this interaction is necessary to maintain microtubule acetylation. Loss of dystonin-a2 disrupts MT stability, Golgi organization, and flux through the secretory pathway. This, coupled to our recent finding that dystonin-a2 is critical in maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure and function, provides novel insight into the importance of dystonin in maintenance of organelle structure and in facilitating intracellular transport. These results highlight the importance of cytoskeletal dynamics in communicating signals between organelle membranes and the cytoskeleton. Importantly, they demonstrate how defects in cytoskeletal dynamics can translate into a failure of vesicular trafficking associated with neurodegenerative disease.
Golgi; cytoskeleton; dystonin; endoplasmic reticulum; neuron; transport
The accurate and timely transmission of the genetic material to progeny during successive rounds of cell division is sine qua non for the maintenance of genome stability. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a surveillance mechanism, the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), to prevent premature advance to anaphase before every chromosome is properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. The architecture of the KNL1-BubR1 complex reveals important features of the molecular recognition between SAC components and the kinetochore. The interaction is important for a functional SAC as substitution of BubR1 residues engaged in KNL1 binding impaired the SAC and BubR1 recruitment into checkpoint complexes in stable cell lines. Here we discuss the implications of the disorder-to-order transition of KNL1 upon BubR1 binding for SAC signaling and propose a mechanistic model of how BUBs binding may affect the recognition of KNL1 by its other interacting partners.
Bub1; BubR1; BubR1-Blinkin complex; BubR1-KNL1; KNL1; chromosome instability; kinetochore; mitosis; spindle assembly checkpoint; tetratricopeptide repeat motif
Maintaining the stability of the replication forks is one of the main tasks of the DNA damage response. Specifically, checkpoint mechanisms detect stressed forks and prevent their collapse. In the published report reviewed here we have shown that defective chromatin assembly in cells lacking either H3K56 acetylation or the chromatin assembly factors CAF1 and Rtt106 affects the integrity of advancing replication forks, despite the presence of functional checkpoints. This loss of replication intermediates is exacerbated in the absence of Rad52, suggesting that collapsed forks are rescued by homologous recombination and providing an explanation for the accumulation of recombinogenic DNA damage displayed by these mutants. These phenotypes mimic those obtained by a partial reduction in the pool of available histones and are consistent with a model in which defective histone deposition uncouples DNA synthesis and nucleosome assembly, thus making the fork more susceptible to collapse. Here, we review these findings and discuss the possibility that defects in the lagging strand represent a major source of fork instability in chromatin assembly mutants.
Asf1; H3K56 acetylation; Okazaki fragment; Rad27; genetic instability; homologous recombination; nucleosome assembly; replication fork
Directional cellular movement is required for various organismal processes, including immune defense and cancer metastasis. Proper navigation of migrating cells involves responding to a complex set of extracellular cues, including diffusible chemical signals and physical structural information. In tissues, conflicting gradients and signals may require cells to not only respond to the environment but also modulate it for efficient adhesion formation and directional cell motility. Recently, we found that cells endocytose fibronectin (FN) and resecrete it from a late endosomal/lysosomal (LE/Lys) compartment to provide an autocrine extracellular matrix (ECM) substrate for cell motility. Branched actin assembly regulated by cortactin was required for trafficking of FN-containing vesicles from LE/Lys to the cell surface. These findings suggest a model in which migrating cells use lysosomal secretion as a versatile mechanism to modulate the ECM environment, promote adhesion assembly and enhance directional migration.
Arp2/3 complex; branched actin; cell motility; cortactin; extracellular matrix; fibronectin; lamellipodium; late endosomal/lysosomal compartments; lysosomal secretion; migration
Dendritic spines are postsynaptic structures that receive excitatory synaptic signals from presynaptic terminals in neurons. Because the morphology of spines has been considered to be a crucial factor for the efficiency of synaptic transmission, understanding the mechanisms regulating their morphology is important for neuroscience. Actin filaments and their regulatory proteins are known to actively maintain spine morphology; recent studies have also shown an essential role of microtubules (MTs). Live imaging of the plus-ends of MTs in mature neurons revealed that MTs stochastically enter spines and mediate accumulation of p140Cap, which regulates reorganization of actin filaments. However, the molecular mechanism by which MT dynamics is controlled has remained largely unknown. A cell polarity-regulating serine/threonine kinase, partitioning-defective 1 (PAR-1), phosphorylates classical MAPs and inhibits their binding to MTs. Because the interaction of MAPs with MTs can decrease MT dynamic instability, PAR-1 is supposed to activate MT dynamics through its MAP/MT affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) activity, although there is not yet any direct evidence for this. Here, we review recent findings on the localization of PAR-1b in the dendrites of mouse hippocampal neurons, and its novel function in the maintenance of mature spine morphology by regulating MT dynamics.
dendritic spine; microtubule associated proteins; microtubule dynamics; microtubule plus-end tracking proteins; partition defective 1/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase; partitioning-defective protein–atypical protein kinase C system
The special architecture of neurons in the peripheral nervous system, with axons extending for long distances, represents a major challenge for the intracellular transport system. Two recent studies show that mutations in the small heat shock protein HSPB1, which cause an axonal type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy, affect microtubule dynamics and impede axonal transport. Intriguingly, while at presymptomatic age the neurons in the mutant HSPB1 mouse show a hyperstable microtubule network, at postsymptomatic age, the microtubule network completely lost its stability as reflected by a marked decrease in tubulin acetylation levels. We here propose a model explaining the role of microtubule stabilization and tubulin acetylation in the pathogenesis of HSPB1 mutations.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth; HSP27; HSPB1; microtubule dynamics; microtubule stabilization; neurodegeneration; peripheral nervous system; Peripheral neuropathy; tubulin acetylation
Actin filaments, an essential part of the cytoskeleton, drive various cell processes, during which they elongate, disassemble and form different architectures. Over the past 30 years, the study of actin dynamics has relied mainly on bulk solution measurements, which revealed the kinetics and thermodynamics of actin self-assembly at barbed and pointed ends, its control by ATP hydrolysis and its regulation by proteins binding either monomeric actin or filament ends and sides. These measurements provide quantitative information on the averaged behavior of a homogeneous population of filaments. They have been complemented by light microscopy observations of stabilized individual filaments, providing information inaccessible using averaging methods, such as mechanical properties or length distributions. In the past ten years, the improvement of light microscopy techniques has allowed biophysicists to monitor the dynamics of individual actin filaments, thus giving access to the length fluctuations of filaments or the mechanism of processive assembly by formins. Recently, in order to solve some of the problems linked to these observations, such as the need to immobilize filaments on a coverslip, we have used microfluidics as a tool to improve the observation, manipulation and analysis of individual actin filaments. This microfluidic method allowed us to rapidly switch filaments from polymerizing to depolymerizing conditions, and derive the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis on a single filament from the kinetic analysis of its nucleotide-dependent disassembly rate. Here, we discuss how this work sets the basis for future experiments on actin dynamics, and briefly outline promising developments of this technique.
actin assembly dynamics; microfluidics; single filament; TIRF microscopy
Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C or C-protein) is a protein of the thick (myosin-containing) filaments of striated muscle thought to be involved in the modulation of cardiac contraction in response to β-adrenergic stimulation. The mechanism of this modulation is unknown, but one possibility is through transient binding of the N-terminal end of MyBP-C to the thin (actin-containing) filaments. While such binding has been demonstrated in vitro, it was not known until recently whether such a link between thick and thin filaments also occurred in vivo. Here we review a recent paper in which electron microscopy (EM) is used to directly demonstrate MyBP-C links between myosin and actin filaments in the intact sarcomere, suggesting a possible physical mechanism for modulating filament sliding. Molecular details of MyBP-C binding to actin have recently been elucidated by EM of isolated filaments: the results suggest that MyBP-C might contribute to the modulation of contraction in part by competing with tropomyosin for binding sites on actin. New results on the structure and dynamics of the MyBP-C molecule provide additional insights into the function of this enigmatic molecule.
C-protein; cardiac muscle regulation; electron tomography; sarcomere structure; thick filament structure
Synaptic function in the central nervous system (CNS) is highly dependent on a dynamic actin cytoskeleton in both the pre- and the postsynaptic compartment. Remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton is controlled by tropomyosins, a family of actin-associated proteins which define distinct actin filament populations. Here we show that TPM3 and TPM4 gene products localize to the postsynaptic region in mouse hippocampal neurons. Furthermore our data confirm previous findings of isoform segregation to the pre- and postsynaptic compartments at CNS synapses. These data provide fundamental insights in the formation of functionally distinct actin filament populations at the pre- and post-synapse.
actin cytoskeleton; central nervous system; postsynapse; tropomyosin
Actin is one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryote cells, which forms a double stranded filament. The actin filament is not only a main component of the cytoskeleton, but also acts as a motor protein which moves toward one specific end, the barbed end, driven by polymerization at the barbed end and depolymerization at the other end, the pointed end, without any associated proteins. This motor activity is referred to as “treadmilling” and it represents the simplest motor system known, consisting of only one 42 kDa protein, actin. Here we report the minimum requirements of the actin-like motor system elucidated by computer simulations: (1) Nucleotide binding and ATPase activity in the filament; (2) Polarity in the rates of polymerization and depolymerization between the two ends; and (3) The dependence of the subunit-subunit interactions on the bound nucleotide. These requirements are simple and this knowledge should facilitate the development of artificial molecular motor systems in the future.
actin; computer simulation; electron microscopy; motor; treadmilling
During animal development, microtubules (MTs) play a major role in directing cellular and subcellular patterning, impacting cell polarization and subcellular organization, thereby affecting cell fate determination and tissue architecture. In particular, when progenitor cells divide asymmetrically along an anterior-posterior or apical-basal axis, MTs must coordinate the position of the mitotic spindle with the site of cell division to ensure normal distribution of cell fate determinants and equal sequestration of genetic material into the two daughter cells. Emerging data from diverse model systems have led to the prevailing view that, during mitotic spindle positioning, polarity cues at the cell cortex signal for the recruitment of NuMA and the minus-end directed MT motor cytoplasmic dynein.1 The NuMA/dynein complex is believed to connect, in turn, to the mitotic spindle via astral MTs, thus aligning and tethering the spindle, but how this connection is achieved faithfully is unclear. Do astral MTs need to search for and then capture cortical NuMA/dynein? How does dynein capture the astral MTs emanating from the correct spindle pole? Recently, using the classical model of asymmetric cell division—budding yeast S. cerevisiae—we successfully demonstrated that astral MTs assume an active role in cortical dynein targeting, in that astral MTs utilize their distal plus ends to deliver dynein to the daughter cell cortex, the site where dynein activity is needed to perform its spindle alignment function. This observation introduced the novel idea that, during mitotic spindle orientation processes, polarity cues at the cell cortex may actually signal to prime the cortical receptors for MT-dependent dynein delivery. This model is consistent with the observation that dynein/dynactin accumulate prominently at the astral MT plus ends during metaphase in a wide range of cultured mammalian cells.
cytoplasmic dynein; dynein pathway; dynein targeting; spindle orientation
Early morphogenic movements are an important feature of embryonic development in vertebrates. During zebrafish gastrulation, epiboly progression is driven by the coordinated remodeling of the YSL microtubule network and F-actin cables. We recently described the implication of Nrz, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog, in the control of the YSL cytoskeleton dynamics. Nrz knock-down induces premature actin-myosin ring formation leading to margin constriction, epiboly arrest and embryo lethality. At the molecular level, the Nrz protein controls the actin-myosin dynamics through IP3R-dependent calcium levels variation. Here, we discuss these novel findings and propose a model in which reversible phosphorylation of the Nrz/IP3R complex modulates the permeability of the IP3R calcium channel and thus may explain the Nrz-dependent control of IP3R opening required for proper epiboly completion.
Bcl-2; IP3R; Nrz; actin cytoskeleton; calcium; phosphorylation; zebrafish
In many tissues microtubules reorganize into non-centrosomal arrays in differentiated cells. In the epidermis, proliferative basal cells have a radial array of microtubules organized around a centrosome, while differentiated cells have cortical microtubules. The desmosomal protein desmoplakin is required for the microtubules to organize around the cell cortex. Furthermore, the centrosomal and/or microtubule-associated proteins ninein, Lis1, Ndel1, and CLIP170 are recruited to the cell cortex, where they have been implicated in the cortical organization of microtubules. Recently, it has been shown that in Lis1-null epidermis, microtubules are disorganized in the differentiated layers of the epidermis. Furthermore, Lis1-null mice die perinatally due to dehydration. This is due, in part, to the unexpected desmosome phenotype observed in Lis1-null skin. Upon loss of Lis1, desmosomal proteins become less stable. Here, we propose that Lis1 may regulate desmosomal stability through its binding partners Nde1/Ndel1 and dynein.
Lis1; desmoplakin; desmosome; epidermis; microtubule
In exocrine organs such as the salivary glands, fluids and proteins are secreted into ductal structures by distinct mechanisms that are tightly coupled. In the acinar cells, the major secretory units of the salivary glands, fluids are secreted into the acinar canaliculi through paracellular and intracellular transport, whereas proteins are stored in large granules that undergo exocytosis and fuse with the apical plasma membranes releasing their content into the canaliculi. Both secretory processes elicit a remodeling of the apical plasma membrane that has not been fully addressed in in vitro or ex vivo models. Recently, we have studied regulated exocytosis in the salivary glands of live rodents, focusing on the role that actin and myosin plays in this process. We observed that during exocytosis both secretory granules and canaliculi are subjected to the hydrostatic pressure generated by fluid secretion. Furthermore, the absorption of the membranes of the secretory granules contributes to the expansion and deformation of the canaliculi. Here we suggest that the homeostasis of the apical plasma membranes during exocytosis is maintained by various strategies that include: (1) membrane retrieval via compensatory endocytosis, (2) increase of the surface area via membrane folds and (3) recruitment of a functional actomyosin complex. Our observations underscore the important relationship between tissue architecture and cellular response, and highlight the potential of investigating biological processes in vivo by using intravital microscopy.
actin; cytoskeleton; exocrine glands; exocytosis; intravital microscopy; membrane tension; myosin; salivary glands; secretion
Cellular functions are intimately associated with rapid changes in membrane shape. Different mechanisms interfering with the lipid bilayer, such as the insertion of proteins with amphipatic helices or the association of a protein scaffold, trigger membrane bending. By exerting force on membranes, molecular motors can also contribute to membrane remodeling. Previous studies have shown that actin and myosin 1 participate in the invagination of the plasma membrane during endocytosis while kinesins and dynein with microtubules provide the force to elongate membrane buds at recycling endosomes and at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Using live cell imaging we have recently shown that a myosin 1 (myosin 1b) regulates the actin dependent post-Golgi traffic of cargo and generates force that controls the assembly of F-actin foci and promotes with the actin cytoskeleton the formation of tubules at the TGN. Our data provide evidence that actin and myosin 1 can regulate membrane remodeling of organelles as well as having an unexpected role in the spatial organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we discuss our results together with the role of actin and other myosins that have been implicated in the traffic of cargo.
Myosins; actin; membrane remodeling; membrane traffic; trans-Golgi network
Accurate segregation of genetic material into two daughter cells is essential for organism reproduction, development, and survival. The cell assembles a macromolecular structure called the mitotic spindle, which is composed of dynamic microtubules (MTs) and many associated proteins that assemble the spindle and drive the segregation of the chromosomes. Members of the kinesin superfamily of MT associated proteins use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to help organize the spindle, to transport cargo within the spindle, and to regulate spindle MT dynamics. The Kinesin-8 and Kinesin-13 families are involved in controlling mitotic spindle morphology, spindle positioning, and chromosome movement. While both kinesin families are MT destabilizing enzymes, it is unclear whether their mechanisms of MT destabilization are mechanistically similar or how they act to destabilize MTs. Recently, three groups identified an additional MT binding domain within the tail of Kinesin-8s that is essential for their roles in regulating MT dynamics and chromosome positioning.
depolymerase; kinesin-8; microtubule dynamics; mitosis; spindle assembly
Various microscopic techniques have been developed to understand the mechanisms that spatiotemporally control actin filament dynamics in live cells. Kinetic data on the processes of actin assembly and disassembly on F-actin have been accumulated. However, the kinetics of cytoplasmic G-actin, a key determinant for actin polymerization, has remained unclear because of a lack of appropriate methods to measure the G-actin concentration quantitatively. We have developed two new microscopic techniques based on the fluorescence decay after photoactivation (FDAP) time-lapse imaging of photoswitchable Dronpa-labeled actin. These techniques, sequential FDAP (s-FDAP) and multipoint FDAP, were used to measure the time-dependent changes in and spatial distribution of the G-actin concentration in live cells. Use of s-FDAP provided data on changes in the G-actin concentration with high temporal resolution; these data were useful for the model analysis of actin assembly processes in live cells. The s-FDAP analysis also provided evidence that the cytoplasmic G-actin concentration substantially decreases after cell stimulation and that the extent of stimulus-induced actin assembly and cell size extension are linearly correlated with the G-actin concentration before cell stimulation. The advantages of using s-FDAP and multipoint FDAP to measure spatiotemporal G-actin dynamics and the roles of G-actin concentration and ADF/cofilin in stimulus-induced actin assembly and lamellipodium extension in live cells are discussed.
Dronpa; G-actin; cell migration; lamellipodium; microscopic imaging; multipoint FDAP; photoactivation; sequential FDAP (s-FDAP)
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics lie at the heart of cell mechanosensing signaling. In fibroblast cells, two perinuclear acto-myosin structures, the actin cap and the transmembrane actin-associated nuclear (TAN) line, are components of a physical pathway transducing extracellular physical signals to changes in nuclear shape and movements. We recently demonstrated the existence of a previously uncharacterized third apical perinuclear actin organization in epithelial cells that forms during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by TGFβ (TGFβ). A common regulatory mechanism for these different perinuclear actin architectures has emerged with the identification of a novel family of actin bundling proteins, the Refilins. Here we provide updates on some characteristics of Refilin proteins, and we discuss potential function of the Refilins in cell mechanosensing signaling.
EMT; Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition; FAM101A; FAM101B; Filamin; LINC complex; RefilinA; RefilinB; TAN lines; actin cap