Scleral buckling surgery and pars plana vitrectomy are competing methods in the treatment of retinal detachment. The recent development of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has dramatically improved the visualization of the photoreceptor layer relative to conventional OCT, and offers new opportunities to investigate the discordances between anatomic and functional outcomes after retinal detachment surgery. Hence, the study aim was to use SD-OCT to compare the postoperative macular recovery between scleral buckling and vitrectomy for macular-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
In this retrospective observational case series, we observed 32 patients who underwent scleral buckling surgery (group 1) and 26 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (group 2) as the primary surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. OCT was used to examine microstructural changes in the macular area.
The mean visual acuity improvement was 0.4 ± 0.8 logMAR in group 1 and 0.7 ± 0.9 logMAR in group 2. As detected by SD-OCT, subretinal fluid was present in 26 of the group 1 eyes (81.3%) and 5 of the group 2 eyes (19.2%) at 8 weeks postoperatively.
This difference was statistically significant (Fisher’s exact test, P < 0.05). Moreover, detection by SD-OCT revealed epiretinal membranes in 5 of the group 1 eyes (15.6%) and 11 of the group 2 eyes (42.3%), a difference that was statistically significant (Fisher’s exact test, P < 0.05).
Macular recovery and the mean visual acuity differed between the 2 groups of patients. With the help of SD-OCT, we observed that subretinal fluids could persist for a relatively longer period after scleral buckling. Based on our results, we conclude that primary vitrectomy surgery is a better choice for macular recovery of the macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
Optical coherence tomography; Retinal detachment; Sclera buckling; Vitrectomy surgery; Subretinal fluid
The contemporary peak of diabetes seems to be related to obesity, sedentary lifestyle and diet. Diabetic retinopathy is the most leading cause of blindness in adulthood in industrialized countries. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of a high-fat-diet (HFD) on the retina of diabetic rats.
Two groups of Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) two days after birth using 45 and 90 mg/kg, respectively. At 8 weeks the group on lower doses started to be fed on a HFD. Animals were sacrificed at 37 weeks of diabetes. A control group was made up of non-diabetic rats. Retinal flat mounts were examined using the trypsin digestion technique. Pericytes counts were compared between diabetic and control rats. Cross retinal sections were analyzed by histological techniques and immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent technique. Primary antibodies against inflammatory and proangiogenic mediators such as RAGE, GFAP, 5-LO, VEGF and TNF-α were used for immunohistochemistry and Western Blot (WB) analyses.
In the two diabetic groups we observed GFAP-positive cells with a morphology and spatial organization similar to those seen in Müller cells. Both diabetic groups had a significantly lower number of pericytes than non-diabetic animals.Increased retinal immunoreactivity of GFAP, RAGE, TNF-α, VEGF and 5-LO was seen in diabetic animals fed on HFD compared to the other groups of animals. WB analysis revealed a higher expression of 5-LO, VEGF, TNF-α and RAGE in the retina of diabetic rats on HFD than in controls and diabetics fed on a normal diet. The percentage of RAGE-stained ganglion cells and ganglion cells was found to be significantly lower in animals on a HFD than in the other animals.
Diabetic animals fed on a HFD showed an increased upregulation of inflammatory and proangiogenic markers. This animal model may be useful to study mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy and therapeutic targets.
An increase in macular thickness due to fluid accumulation in the macula in patients with diabetes mellitus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be highly reproducible in measuring macular thickness in normal individuals and diabetic patients. OCT can detect subtle changes of macular thickness. The aim of this study is to compare central macular thickness (CMT) of diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy and normal controls, in order to assess possible increased macular thickness associated with diabetes mellitus.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements were performed in 124 eyes of 62 subjects with diabetes mellitus without clinically retinopathy (study group: 39 female, 23 male, mean age: 55.06 ± 9.77 years) and in 120 eyes of 60 healthy subjects (control group: 35 female, 25 male, mean age: 55.78 ± 10.34 years). Blood biochemistry parameters were analyzed in all cases. The data for central macular thickness (at 1 mm) and the levels of the fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were compared in both groups.
The mean central macular thickness was 232.12 ±24.41 μm in the study group and 227.19 ± 29.94 μm in the control group.
The mean HbA1c level was 8.92 ± 2.58% in the study group and 5.07 ± 0.70% in the control group (p=0.001). No statistically significant relationship was found between CMT, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose level in either group (p=0.05).
Central macular thickness was not significantly thicker in patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy than in healthy subjects.
Diabetes mellitus; Central macular thickness; Glycosylated hemoglobin; Fasting plasma glucose level
The editors of BMC Ophthalmology would like to thank all of our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 12 (2012).
The effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) against exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may be different associated with the lesion phenotype. This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of IVR between two different phenotypes of exudative AMD: typical neovascular AMD (tAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
This is a retrospective cohort study of 54 eyes from 54 subfoveal exudative AMD patients (tAMD 24, PCV 30 eyes). Three consecutive IVR treatments (0.5 mg) were performed every month, followed by re-injections as needed. Change in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were then compared between the tAMD and PCV groups over 12 months of follow-up.
The mean BCVA was significantly improved (-0.11 logMAR units) at month 3 after the initial IVR (p <0 .001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), and was sustained up to 12 months in all AMD patients (p =0.02). In the subgroup analysis, the tAMD group showed a significant improvement in their mean BCVA (-0.06, -0.17, -0.15 and -0.16 logMAR units at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively), but there was only a slight but non-significant improvement in the PCV group. The improvement in the BCVA was significantly greater in the tAMD group than in the PCV group (p = 0.043, repeated measures ANOVA) over 12 months. Both phenotypes showed significant improvements in the CRT during 12 months after the initial IVR.
IVR is an effective therapy for tAMD and PCV in the BCVA improvement in Japanese patients over 12 months of follow-up. The phenotype of tAMD showed a significantly better outcome with IVR than PCV in terms of BCVA improvement.
Intravitreal ranibizumab; Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy; Typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration; One-year outcome
Vitreo-retinal diseases are among the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. This study reports the prevalence and pattern of vitreo-retinal diseases in the Bhaktapur Glaucoma Study (BGS), a population based study conducted in Nepal.
BGS was a population based cross-sectional study involving 4800 subjects aged 40 years and over from Bhaktapur district. Subjects were selected using a cluster sampling methodology and a door-to-door enumeration. All subjects underwent a detailed ocular examination at the base hospital which included log MAR visual acuity, refraction, applanation tonometry and a dilated fundus examination. Fundus photography, optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed where indicated.
Complete data was available for 3966 (82.62%) out of the total of 4800 enumerated subjects. The mean age was 55.08 years (SD 11.51). The overall prevalence of vitreo-retinal disorders was 5.35% (95% CI, 4.67 - 6.09). Increasing age was associated with a higher prevalence of vitreo-retinal disorders (P < 0.001). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 7.69% (95% CI, 6.88 - 8.56). Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was the most common vitreo-retinal disorder with a prevalence of 1.50% (95% CI, 1.15 - 1.94), increasing significantly with age. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among the study population was 0.78% (95% CI, 0.53 - 1.11) and among the diabetic population 10.16% (95% CI, 7.01 - 14.12). The population prevalence of other retinal disorders were hypertensive retinopathy 0.88%, macular scar 0.37%, retinal vein occlusion 0.50%, macular hole 0.20%, retinitis pigmentosa 0.12%. and retinal detachment 0.10%.
The prevalence of low vision and blindness due to vitreo-retinal disorders was 1.53% (95% CI, 1.18 - 1.97) and 0.65% (95% CI, 0.43 - 0.96), respectively. The prevalence of low vision and blindness was 28.77% (95% CI, 22.78-35.37) and 12.26% (95% CI, 8.17-17.45), respectively among cases with vitreo-retinal disorders. Blindness was observed to be unilateral in 19 cases (73%), and bilateral in 7 cases (27%).
The prevalence of vitreo-retinal disorders in this Nepalese population was 5.35%, which increased significantly with age. AMD was the predominant retinal condition followed by diabetic retinopathy. One fourth of the subjects with vitreo-retinal disorder had low vision. Taking into consideration the aging population and emerging systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, vitreo-retinal disorders could be of future public health importance.
Vitreo-retinal disorders; Prevalence; Low vision; Blindness; Nepal
Capsule and pneumolysin (PLY) are two major virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of bacterial endophthalmitis. The aim of this study is to determine whether passive immunization with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax® 23; PPSV23) or PLY protects against pneumococcal endophthalmitis.
New Zealand white rabbits were passively immunized with antiserum to PLY, PPSV23, a mixture of PPSV23/PLY, or PBS (mock). Vitreous was infected with a clinical strain of S. pneumoniae. In a separate group of experiments, vancomycin was injected 4 hours post-infection (PI) for each passively immunized group. Severity of infection, bacterial recovery, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and percent loss of retinal function were determined.
Passive immunization with each antiserum significantly lowered clinical severity compared to mock immunization (PPSV23 = 9.19, PPSV23/PLY = 10.45, PLY = 8.71, Mock = 16.83; P = 0.0467). A significantly higher bacterial load was recovered from the vitreous of PLY passively immunized rabbits 24 hours PI (7.87 log10 CFU) compared to controls (7.10 log10 CFU; P = 0.0134). Retinas from immunized rabbits were more intact. Vitreous of PLY (2.88 MPO untis/mL) and PPSV23/PLY (2.17) passively immunized rabbits had less MPO activity compared to controls (5.64; P = 0.0480), and both passive immunizations (PLY = 31.34% loss of retinal function, PPSV23/PLY = 27.44%) helped to significantly preserve retinal function compared to controls (64.58%; P = 0.0323). When vancomycin was administered 4 hours PI, all eyes were sterile at 24 hours PI. A significantly lower clinical severity was observed for rabbits administered the combination immunization (5.29) or PPSV23 (5.29) with vancomycin treatment compared to controls (17.68; P = 0.0469).
Passive immunization with antisera to these antigens is effective in reducing clinical severity of pneumococcal endophthalmitis in rabbits. Addition of vancomycin to immunization is effective at eliminating the bacteria.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; Bacterial endophthalmitis; Capsule; Pneumolysin; Vaccination
A prospective, non-randomised, transversal and comparative study, carried out in INOVA Vision Institute and Autonomous University of Aguascalientes. Pterygium is an important illness that affects 22% people from tropic and equatorial zones. Is an inflammatory process caused by UV rays, and it has a behavior similar to a neoplasm. For this study was taken into consideration 191 samples from the INOVA Vision Institute, Aguascalientes, Mexico. Include 73 pterygia samples, which were obtained during resection under sterile conditions. 44 normal conjunctiva samples were obtained from the same patients when harvesting the conjunctival autograft, or from other patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction from the superior bulbar region. Tears from patients with pterygium (n = 50) and normal volunteers (n = 24) were obtained using a calibrated glass micro capillary tube. The surgical conjunctiva and pterygia samples were subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Tears were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
This was a prospective, non-randomised study involving 191 biological samples taken from patients with pterygium and normal volunteers, whom were operated under local anaesthesia by either complete resection of the lesion with primary closure, or resection with conjunctival autograft. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. Sections were routinely stained with hematoxylin and eosin. HCC expression was evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and by western blotting. All tears samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
Expression levels and distribution patterns of HCC in normal conjunctiva and pterygium. Higher levels of HCC mRNAs and proteins were detected in pterygium compared with a normal conjunctiva. Immunohistochemistry revealed that HCC was localized in the apical cells of the epithelium in the normal conjunctiva. In contrast, HCC was detected in all extension of epithelial tissue, from apical to basal cells in pterygia. The concentration of HCC protein in tears was higher in patients with pterygium versus controls.
HCC may play an important role in protecting normal conjunctiva, and regulating inflammatory conditions of the anterior ocular surface.
Pterygium; Human cystatin C; Proliferation
To investigate the outcome and prognostic factors for corneal graft recovery after severe corneal graft rejection following penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) treated with topical and systemic steroids.
Fifty-eight eyes in 58 patients with severe corneal graft rejection following PKP were treated with topical and systemic steroids. Factors affecting the reversibility and maintenance of graft transparency were analyzed.
Graft transparency was restored in 37 of 58 eyes (63.8%). Clarity of the graft was maintained in 25 of 37 eyes after transparency was restored, while corneal decompensation developed at a mean of 6.0 ± 4.3 months in the remainder. The interval between rejection and treatment with systemic steroids was shorter in cases that recovered graft transparency (OR, 0.88, 95% CI. 0.80–0.97, P = 0.0093). Corneal decompensation after the recovery of corneal transparency tend to occur in cases of regraft (OR, 0.09, 95% CI. 0.01–0.54, P = 0.0091).
Severe corneal graft rejection after PKP was reversible in approximately two-thirds of the cases, with graft transparency being maintained in two-thirds of them when treated with both topical and systemic steroids. Early treatment confers a benefit in terms of the recovery of graft transparency.
Penetrating keratoplasty; Rejection; Systemic steroid; Risk factor; Success rate
The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults.
Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive.
Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p = 0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p = 0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.1-14.7; p = 0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.9; p < 0.001). Glaucoma subjects were also more likely than suspects to report a greater number of driving limitations (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 1.3-16.8; p = 0.02). The likelihood of reporting more limitations increased with the VF loss severity (OR = 1.6 per 5 dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD; 95% CI = 1.1-2.4; p = 0.02). Neither glaucoma nor VF MD was associated with other driver preference (p > 0.1 for both).
Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety.
The relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) changes and hemodialysis has been evaluated for several decades. However, no report on an IOP rise in uveitis patients during hemodialysis has been previously documented. This report describes the case of an uveitis patient with repetitive IOP spikes associated with severe ocular pain during hemodialysis sessions, which resolved after glaucoma filtering surgery.
A 47-year-old male with diabetes and hypertension had complained of recurrent ocular pain in the left eye during hemodialysis sessions. A slit-lamp examination showed diffuse corneal epithelial edema with several white keratic precipitates and inflammatory cells (Grade 3+) in the anterior chamber of the left eye. No visible neovascularization or synechiae were visible on the iris or angle. Topical glaucoma eye-drops and intravenous mannitol before hemodialysis did not prevent subsequent painful IOP spikes in the left eye. At the end of hemodialysis, IOP averaged ~40 mmHg. After trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in the left eye, his IOP stabilized in the low-teens (range, 10–14 mmHg) and no painful IOP spikes occurred during hemodialysis over the first postoperative year.
We present a case of recurrent painful IOP spikes during hemodialysis in a patient with unilateral anterior uveitis unresponsive to conventional medical treatment prior to hemodialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of repetitive symptomatic IOP rise during hemodialysis in an uveitic glaucoma patient. This case highlights the importance of the awareness of the possibility that IOP may rise intolerably during hemodialysis in uveitis patients with a compromised outflow facility.
Hemodialysis; Intraocular pressure (IOP); Trabeculectomy; Uveitis
It is unclear how retinal ischemia influences the changes of visual acuity, macular sensitivity, macular thickness, and macular volume after the performance of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular edema in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).
Ten patients (10 eyes) with CRVO and macular edema underwent PPV. Retinal ischemia was evaluated from the area of capillary nonperfusion on fluorescein angiography, and the patients were classified into ischemic or nonischemic groups. Microperimetry was performed with a Micro Perimeter 1. Macular thickness and volume were measured by optical coherence tomography.
In both groups, the mean macular thickness within the central 4°, 10°, and 20° fields decreased significantly from baseline to 3 and 6 months after PPV (all P < 0.05). In the ischemic group, the mean macular sensitivity within the central 4°, 10°, and 20° fields increased from baseline to 3 and 6 months after PPV, but no significant difference was observed.
These results suggest that PPV may be effective for improving macular thickness, volume, and sensitivity in patients with macular edema secondary to ischemic CRVO, although there was no significant difference.
Cataract and glaucoma are both common comorbidities among older patients. Combining glaucoma surgery with minimal invasive phacoemulsification (phaco) is a considerable option to treat both conditions at the same time, although the combination with filtration surgery can produce a strong inflammatory response. Combined non-penetrating procedures like canaloplasty have shown to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) comparable to trabeculectomy without the risk of serious bleb-related complications. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the outcomes of phacotrabeculectomy and phacocanaloplasty.
Thirty-nine eyes with concomitant cataract and glaucoma who underwent phacotrabeculectomy (n = 20; 51.3%) or phacocanaloplasty (n = 19; 48.7%) were included into this trial on reduction of IOP, use of medication, success rate, incidence of complications and postsurgical interventions. Complete success was defined as IOP reduction by 30% or more and to 21 mmHg or less (definition 1a) or IOP to less than 18 mmHg (definition 2a) without glaucoma medication.
Over a 12-month follow-up, baseline IOP significantly decreased from 30.0 ± 5.3 mmHg with a mean of 2.5 ± 1.2 glaucoma medications to 11.7 ± 3.5 mmHg with a mean of 0.2 ± 0.4 medications in eyes with phacotrabeculectomy (P < .0001). Eyes with phacocanaloplasty had a preoperative IOP of 28.3 ± 4.1 mmHg and were on 2.8 ± 1.1 IOP-lowering drugs. At 12 months, IOP significantly decreased to 12.6 ± 2.1 mmHg and less glaucoma medications were necessary (mean 1.0 ± 1.5 topical medications; P < .05). 15 patients (78.9%) with phacotrabeculectomy and 9 patients (60.0%) in the phacocanaloplasty group showed complete success according to definition 1 and 2 after 1 year (P = .276). Postsurgical complications were seen in 7 patients (36.8%) of the phacocanaloplasty group which included intraoperative macroperforation of the trabeculo-Descemet membrane (5.3%), hyphema (21.1%) and bleb formation (10.5%). Although more complications were observed in the phacotrabeculectomy group, no statistically significant difference was found.
Phacocanaloplasty offers a new alternative to phacotrabeculectomy for treatment of concomitant glaucoma and cataract, although phacotrabeculectomy yielded in better results in terms of IOP maintained without glaucoma medications.
Non-penetrating glaucoma surgery; Phacotrabeculectomy; Phacocanaloplasty; Canaloplasty; Trabeculectomy
Meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) is a rare complication associated with hematologic and solid tumors. MC develops when malignant cells gain access to the leptomeningeal space, producing several clinical symptoms. Loss of vision and ocular motility deficit are the most frequent ocular symptoms reported. Fundus examination usually appears normal, although optic nerve alterations like optic atrophy or papilledema have been described. MC diagnosis is usually completed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Indicated treatment for MC usually involves intrathecal chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy, although survival rate is extremely low.
A 66-year old man with stage IV metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, presented to the Ophthalmology Department with a two-month history of double vision, soft headaches and dizziness episodes. The patient presented a best visual corrected acuity of 0.7 in his right eye and 0.8 in his left eye. Diplopia was corrected with 6-prism diopters base-out prism in right eye. Funduscopy showed a bilateral papilledema, juxtapapillary exudates and splinter hemorrhages. Brain MRI showed a diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement in cortical sulcus. Lumbar puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology revealed malignant cells compatible with a diagnosis of MC. Intrathecal chemotherapy was administered.
MC is a serious complication of systemic cancer patients, involving a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is extremely important, although treatment is frequently aimed to reduce the symptoms and extend survival. Eye symptoms may be the chief complaint, so MC should be considered in any patient with vision loss or diplopia accompanied by neurologic symptoms and in the absence of an intraocular cause, especially in the context of systemic cancer.
To report a case of spontaneous malignant glaucoma in an Asian female. To propose the term “positive vitreous pressure glaucoma” to reflect the pathophysiology, treatment and prognosis of the condition.
A 56-year old Chinese female was diagnosed of primary angle closure glaucoma and had bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy one year ago. She presented with spontaneous onset of malignant glaucoma involving the left eye. The condition was treated successfully; the final best corrected visual acuity was 0.67 (decimal notation).
This case highlights that acute angle closure attack can occur in an eye with patent peripheral iridotomy. Early recognition and treatment is essential for good visual prognosis.
This report describes a recurrent orbital glomus tumor in an Asian patient.
A healthy 50-year-old Korean man had progressive right exophthalmos and a soft mass on his right lower lid for 6 months. We evaluated the mass using CT and MRI, and performed excisional biopsy and pathologic examination. Pathologically, the mass was a glomus tumor. Although proptosis of the right eye decreased, one month after surgery it increased to almost the same level as before surgery.
This is the first report of an Asian patient with an orbital glomus tumor that demonstrated rapid re-growth after incision without pain or visual problems.
Orbital glomus tumor; Asian patients; Recur; Rapid growth; Painless
To investigate the effects of microvascular compromise on the expression of oxidative proteins in the optic nerve head.
Endothelin-1 (0.1 μg/day) was delivered to the perineural region of the anterior optic nerve by osmotically driven minipumps for two, four, and eight weeks in ten rabbits, respectively. As a control, a balanced salt solution was delivered for two and eight weeks in five rabbits, respectively. Expression of oxyproteins in the cornea, vitreous, retina, and optic nerve head for each time period was determined using the OxyBlot protein oxidation detection kit. Retina was stained with H&E and TUNEL for histological examination.
There was a significant increase in the expression of oxyproteins in the optic nerve head after two weeks of endothelin-1 administration (p < 0.001, Mann Whitney U test). In contrast, there was no expression of oxyproteins in the cornea, retina, or vitreous. The number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, inner nuclear layer, and outer nuclear layer decreased remarkably with time in the endothelin-1-treated group. Furthermore, the inner and outer nuclear layers, as well as the inner and outer plexiform layers, became thinner over time.
Administration of endothelin-1 to the microvasculature of the optic nerve leads to increased expression of oxyproteins in the optic nerve head and loss of retinal ganglion cells.
Ischemia; Optic nerve; Oxyproteins; Oxyblot
Intraocular pressure (IOP) in the developing eye of a child is not always easy to measure and there is no technique that is known to be the most accurate for the young eye. Measurements are needed on many cohorts of children with different tonometers to determine how the values correlate between instruments, whether corneal parameters affect readings and whether correlations between age and IOP values can be discerned. The aim of this study was to undertake a comparative analysis of three different tonometers on a group of healthy children to see whether differences exist and whether these may be related to central corneal thickness and/or radius of curvature. In addition, the study adds to the relatively small body of literature on IOP in the growing eye which will collectively allow trends to be identified and ultimately norms to be established.
IOP was measured on 115 eyes in a group of Polish children, aged between 5–17 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.3 ± 3.0 years) using three different tonometers: non-contact (NCT), the ICare and Goldmann applanation (GAT). Readings obtained were compared between instruments and with central corneal thickness and radius of curvature.
The ICare tonometer provided statistically higher IOP values (16.9 ± 3.4 mmHg) than the GAT (14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg) regardless of corneal thickness and whether or not a correction factor was applied. A correlation was found between central corneal thickness (CCT) and IOP values obtained with all three tonometers but only the IOP values detected with the ICare tonometer showed a statistically significant correlation with radius of curvature (p < 0.004). No correlations with age or gender were found for IOP values measured with any of the instruments.
IOP measurements on children vary significantly between instruments and correlations are affected by the corneal thickness. Further studies on children are needed to determine which instrument is most appropriate and to derive a normative IOP scale for the growing eye.
Cornea; Child; Paediatric Ophthalmology; Intraocular pressure; Tonometry
Corneal ulceration leading to perforation is associated with infectious and non-infectious destructive conditions in the cornea. The fibrinolytic (plasminogen/plasmin) system is considered to contribute to tissue remodeling in the wound healing process and it is believed to play an important role in proteolysis and fibrosis. To determine the localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), u-PA receptor (u-PAR) and α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) in the tissue of a corneal perforation, we investigated immunohistochemical expressions of u-PA, u-PAR, α2AP, CD68, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in a patient with corneal perforation that developed from an ulcer of no clear cause.
The patient was a 77-year-old woman who presented with a perforated corneal ulcer in her right eye. The cause of her corneal ulcer was unknown. Double immunohistochemistry was performed for the combinations of u-PA with u-PAR, CD68 or α-SMA and α2AP with CD68 or α-SMA to detect the localization of u-PA and α2AP. u-PA and u-PAR co-localization was seen in the corneal ulceration area. u-PA was mainly observed in CD68-positive cells and in some α-SMA positive cells. On the other hand, α2AP was not expressed in CD68-positive cells, but was expressed in α-SMA positive cells.
We identified expression of the u-PA/u-PAR complex and α2AP in a patient with a corneal ulcer. These two molecules are believed to play a crucial role in inflammatory cell recruitment, ECM synthesis and degradation during corneal wound healing.
u-PA; u-PAR; Corneal wound healing; α2-antiplasmin; Corneal perforation
Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only causal risk factor for glaucoma that can be therapeutically manipulated to change the course of the disease process. Though Goldman applanation tonometry (GAT) is the “gold standard” for IOP measurement, readings of IOP with GAT are affected by central corneal thickness (CCT). The aim of this study is to determine the impact of CCT on IOP among Ethiopian glaucoma patients.
It was a multicenter cross-sectional study and all glaucoma patients visiting their respective eye clinic during the study period were included. A total of 199 randomly selected glaucomatous eyes from 199 patients aged 18 years and above were employed. The CCT was measured by OcuScan™ RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometer. Linear regression and bivariate correlation analysis were carried out and level of significance was taken at 5%.
The mean IOP was 19.46(±7.05) mmHg and mean CCT was 508.07(±33.26) μm. The mean IOP for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), ocular hypertension (OHT), normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) and primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCAG) patients was 19.22 mmHg, 21.39 mmHg, 14.33 mmHg, 33.25 mmHg and 14.75 mmHg respectively. The mean CCT values were 502.24 μm (POAG), 524.32 μm (OHT), 500.75 μm (NTG), 579.00 μm (PXG) and 530.25 μm (PCAG). Age of the patient and glaucoma surgery had an influence on corneal thickness. A positive relationship was found between CCT and IOP (p < 0.001).
The mean CCT of Ethiopian glaucoma patients is thin in comparison to other ethnic groups and patients with OHT have thicker corneas than POAG patients. Hence determination of CCT for each patient is necessary in the up-to-date glaucoma management.
Intraocular pressure; Central corneal thickness; Glaucoma; Pachymeter