Children who frequently eat family meals are less likely to develop risk- and behavior-related outcomes, such as substance misuse, sexual risk, and obesity. Few studies have examined sociodemographic characteristics associated with both meal frequency (i.e., number of meals) and duration (i.e., number of minutes spent at mealtimes).
We examine the association between sociodemographics and family meal frequency and duration among a sample of 85 parents in a large New England city that was recruited through the public-school system. Additionally, we examined differences in family meals by race/ethnicity and parental nativity. Unadjusted ANOVA and adjusted ANCOVA models were used to assess the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and frequency and duration of meals.
Sociodemographic characteristics were not significantly associated with the frequency of family meals; however, in the adjusted models, differences were associated with duration of meals. Parents who were born outside the U.S. spent an average of 135.0 min eating meals per day with their children compared to 76.2 for parents who were born in the U.S. (p < 0.01). Additionally, parents who reported being single, divorced, or separated on average, spent significantly more time per day eating family meals (126.7 min) compared to parents who reported being married or partnered (84.4; p = 0.02). Differences existed in meal duration by parental nativity and race/ethnicity, ranging from 63.7 min among multi-racial/other parents born in the U.S. to 182.8 min among black parents born outside the U.S.
This study builds a foundation for focused research into the mechanisms of family meals. Future longitudinal epidemiologic research on family meals may help to delineate targets for prevention of maladaptive behaviors, which could affect family-based practices, interventions, and policies.
Family meals; Sociodemographic characteristics; Parents; Children; Cultural differences
Natural isolates of C. elegans differ in their sensitivity to pheromones that inhibit exploratory behavior. Previous studies identified a QTL for pheromone sensitivity that includes alternative alleles of srx-43, a chemoreceptor that inhibits exploration through its activity in ASI sensory neurons. Here we show that the QTL is multigenic and includes alternative alleles of srx-44, a second chemoreceptor gene that modifies pheromone sensitivity. srx-44 either promotes or inhibits exploration depending on its expression in the ASJ or ADL sensory neurons, respectively. Naturally occurring pheromone insensitivity results in part from previously described changes in srx-43 expression levels, and in part from increased srx-44 expression in ASJ, which antagonizes ASI and ADL. Antagonism between the sensory neurons results in cellular epistasis that is reflected in their transcription of insulin genes that regulate exploration. These results and genome-wide evidence suggest that chemoreceptor genes may be preferred sites of adaptive variation in C. elegans.
pheromone receptor; QTL analysis; supergene; insulin signaling; C. elegans
Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.
breeding; complex traits; genomic selection; phenotypic selection; genome-wide markers
The two histone deacetylases (Hdacs), Hdac1 and Hdac2, are erasers of acetylation marks on histone tails, and are important regulators of gene expression that were shown to play important roles in hematological malignancies. However, several recent studies reported opposing tumor-suppressive or tumor-promoting roles for Hdac1 and Hdac2. Here, we investigated the functional role of Hdac1 and Hdac2 using the Eμ-myc mouse model of B cell lymphoma. We demonstrate that Hdac1 and Hdac2 have a pro-oncogenic role in both Eμ-myc tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. Hdac1 and Hdac2 promote tumorigenesis in a gene dose-dependent manner, with a predominant function of Hdac1. Our data show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 impact on Eμ-myc B cell proliferation and apoptosis and suggest that a critical level of Hdac activity may be required for Eμ-myc tumorigenesis and proper B cell development. This provides the rationale for utilization of selective Hdac1 and Hdac2 inhibitors in the treatment of hematological malignancies.
In this study, our aim was to determine the predominant genotypes among the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains circulating in Zhejiang Province. In addition, we also sought to determine the potential associations between MTB genotypes and susceptibility to first-line drugs. Out of these isolates, 673 (71.6%) were classified into the Beijing genotype, while the other 267 (28.4%) were from non-Beijing families. The highest proportion of Beijing genotype was found in Huzhou (80.0%) and the lowest in Lishui (48.3%). Statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of Beijing genotype among different regions (χ2 = 17.57, P = 0.04). In addition, the overall proportions of drug resistance to INH, RIF, SM, and EMB were 13.2% (124/940), 21.8% (75/940), 3.4% (32/940), and 5.9% (55/940) in Zhejiang, respectively. Further comparison revealed that there was no significant difference in drug susceptibility profiles between Beijing and non-Beijing strains (P > 0.05). In conclusion, we describe the genetic diversity and drug susceptibility pattern of MTB in Zhejiang for the first time. Our data demonstrate that Beijing genotype is the predominant lineage in Zhejiang, while the distribution of Beijing-genotype strains shows geographic diversity. In addition, no correlation is observed between Beijing genotype and anti-TB drug resistance.
The innate immune system has evolved to detect and destroy invading pathogens before they can establish systemic infection. To successfully eradicate pathogens, including viruses, host innate immunity is activated through diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which detect conserved viral signatures and trigger the production of type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines to mediate viral clearance. Viral persistence requires that viruses co-opt cellular pathways and activities for their benefit. In particular, due to the potent antiviral activities of IFN and cytokines, viruses have developed various strategies to meticulously modulate intracellular innate immune sensing mechanisms to facilitate efficient viral replication and persistence. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of viral immune evasion strategies with a specific focus on how Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) effectively targets host PRR signaling pathways.
cytokines; KSHV; immune evasion strategy; innate immune response; PRRs; type I IFN
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized tissue requiring adequate blood supply for successful regeneration. In this study, we investigated the functional role of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) as a perivascular source for in vivo formation of vessel-like structures. Primarily isolated SHEDs showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics including the expression of surface antigens and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Moreover, SHEDs were positive for NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), and CD146 as pericyte markers. To prove feasibility of SHEDs as perivascular source, SHEDs were transplanted into immunodeficient mouse using Matrigel with or without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transplantation of SHEDs alone or HUVECs alone resulted in no formation of vessel-like structures with enough red blood cells. However, when SHEDs and HUVECs were transplanted together, extensive vessel-like structures were formed. The presence of murine erythrocytes within lumens suggested the formation of anastomoses between newly formed vessel-like structures in Matrigel plug and the host circulatory system. To understand underlying mechanisms of in vivo angiogenesis, the expression of angiogenic cytokine and chemokine, their receptors, and MMPs was compared between SHEDs and HUVECs. SHEDs showed higher expression of VEGF, SDF-1α, and PDGFRβ than HUVECs. On the contrary, HUVECs showed higher expression of VEGF receptors, CXCR4, and PDGF-BB than SHEDs. This differential expression pattern suggested reciprocal interactions between SHEDs and HUVECs and their involvement during in vivo angiogenesis. In conclusion, SHEDs could be a feasible source of perivascular cells for in vivo angiogenesis.
in vivo angiogenesis; mesenchymal stem cell; pericyte; SHEDs; tissue engineering
Despite significant progress made in recent decades in preventing childhood lead poisoning in the United States through the control or elimination of lead sources in the environment, it continues to be an issue in many communities, primarily in low-income communities with a large percentage of deteriorating housing built before the elimination of lead in residential paint. The purpose of this study is to determine whether state laws aimed at preventing childhood lead poisoning are also effective in preventing recurring lead poisoning among children previously poisoned.
An evaluation was conducted to determine whether laws in two representative states, Massachusetts and Ohio, have been effective in preventing recurrent lead poisoning among children less than 72 months of age previously poisoned, compared to a representative state (Mississippi) which at the time of the study had yet to develop legislation to prevent childhood lead poisoning.
Compared to no legislation, unadjusted estimates showed children less than 72 months old, living in Massachusetts, previously identified as being lead poisoned, were 73% less likely to develop recurrent lead poisoning. However, this statistically significant association did not remain after controlling for other confounding variables. We did not find such a significant association when analyzing data from Ohio.
While findings from unadjusted estimates indicated that state lead laws such as those in Massachusetts may be effective at preventing recurrent lead poisoning among young children, small numbers may have attenuated the power to obtain statistical significance during multivariate analysis. Our findings did not provide evidence that state lead laws, such as those in Ohio, were effective in preventing recurrent lead poisoning among young children. Further studies may be needed to confirm these findings.
Lead; Childhood lead poisoning; Lead law; Blood lead levels
Brandi et al. clarify data about the localization of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in cancer patients receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. They discuss methodology, differences between antibodies, and recommendations for further study.
The role of Notch signaling in osteoclast differentiation is controversial with conflicting experimental evidence indicating both stimulatory and inhibitory roles. Differences in experimental protocols and in vivo versus in vitro models may explain the discrepancies between studies. In this study, we investigated cell autonomous roles of Notch signaling in osteoclast differentiation and function by altering Notch signaling during osteoclast differentiation using stimulation with immobilized ligands Jagged1 or Delta-like1 or by suppression with γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT or transcriptional inhibitor SAHM1. Stimulation of Notch signaling in committed osteoclast precursors resulted in larger osteoclasts with a greater number of nuclei and resorptive activity whereas suppression resulted in smaller osteoclasts with fewer nuclei and suppressed resorptive activity. Conversely, stimulation of Notch signaling in osteoclast precursors prior to induction of osteoclastogenesis resulted in fewer osteoclasts. Our data support a mechanism of context-specific Notch signaling effects wherein Notch stimulation inhibits commitment to osteoclast differentiation, but enhances the maturation and function of committed precursors.
Osteoclasts; Notch signaling; Bone resorption; Osteoclast fusion; Osteoclast commitment
CD47, a self-recognition marker, plays an important role in both innate and adaptive immune response. To explore the potential role of CD47 in activation of autoreactive T and B cells and the production of autoantibodies in autoimmune disease, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we have generated CD47 knockout Faslpr (CD47−/−–Faslpr) mice and examined histopathologic changes in the kidneys, cumulative survival rates, proteinuria, extent of splenomegaly and autoantibodies, serum chemistry and immunologic parameters. In comparison with Faslpr mice, CD47−/−–Faslpr mice exhibit a prolonged lifespan and delayed autoimmune nephritis including glomerular cell proliferation, basement membrane thickening, acute tubular atrophy and vacuolization. CD47−/−–Faslpr mice have lower levels of proteinuria, associated with reduced deposition of complement C3 and C1q, and IgG but not IgM in the glomeruli, compared to the age-matched Faslpr mice. Serum levels of antinuclear antibodies and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies are significantly lower in CD47−/−–Faslpr mice than in Faslpr mice. CD47−/−–Faslpr mice also display less pronounced splenomegaly than Faslpr mice. The mechanistic studies further suggest that CD47 deficiency impairs the antigenic challenge-induced production of IgG but not IgM, and that this effect is associated with reduction of T follicular cells and impairment of germinal center development in lymphoid tissues. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CD47 deficiency ameliorates lupus nephritis in Faslpr mice via suppression of IgG autoantibody production.
CD47; autoimmunity; antibody production; T follicular cell
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Intensive research over the past two decades has led to the feasibility of using ESC-differentiated cells (ESC-DCs) in regenerative medicine. However, increasing evidence indicates that ESC-DCs generated by current differentiation methods may not have equivalent cellular functions to their in vivo counterparts. Recent studies have revealed that both human and mouse ESCs as well as some types of ESC-DCs lack or have attenuated innate immune responses to a wide range of infectious agents. These findings raise important concerns for their therapeutic applications since ESC-DCs, when implanted to a wound site of a patient, where they would likely be exposed to pathogens and inflammatory cytokines. Understanding whether an attenuated immune response is beneficial or harmful to the interaction between host and grafted cells becomes an important issue for ESC-based therapy. A substantial amount of recent evidence has demonstrated that the lack of innate antiviral responses is a common feature to ESCs and other types of pluripotent cells. This has led to the hypothesis that mammals may have adapted different antiviral mechanisms at different stages of organismal development. The underdeveloped innate immunity represents a unique and uncharacterized property of ESCs that may have important implications in developmental biology, immunology and in regenerative medicine.
embryonic stem cells; innate immunity; antiviral response; type I interferons; regenerative medicine
The objective of this study was to develop a new high-efficiency dry powder inhaler (DPI) that can effectively aerosolize large masses (25–100 mg) of spray dried powder formulations. The DPI was designed to implement a concept similar to a fluidized bed for aerosolization using small mixing balls made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) along with a larger, hollow dosing sphere filled with the powder. The performance of the fluidized bed DPI was compared, based on emitted dose (ED) and aerosolization efficiency, to other recently developed capsule-based DPIs that were designed to accommodate smaller powder masses (~2–20 mg). The inhalers were tested with spray dried excipient enhanced growth formulations that contained an antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) and hygroscopic excipient (mannitol). The new fluidized bed design produced an ED of 71% along with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 1.53 µm and fine particle fractions (FPFs) less than 5 µm and 1 µm of 93% and 36%, respectively, when used to deliver a 100 mg loaded mass of EEG powder with the advantage of not requiring multiple capsules. Surprisingly, performance of the device was further improved by removing the mixing balls from the inhaler and only retaining the dose containment sphere.
High efficiency dry powder inhaler; high-dose DPI; inhaled antibiotics; inhaled surfactants; inhaled clearance enhancers; excipient enhanced growth formulation; fluidized bed DPI
Neural activity is closely coupled with energy metabolism but details of the association remain to be identified. One basic area involves the relationships between neural activity and the main supportive substrates of glucose and lactate. This is of fundamental significance for the interpretation of non-invasive neural imaging. Here, we use microelectrodes with high spatial and temporal resolution to determine simultaneous co-localized changes in glucose, lactate and neural activity during visual activation of the cerebral cortex in the cat. Tissue glucose and lactate concentration levels are measured with electrochemical microelectrodes while neural spiking activity and local field potentials are sampled by a microelectrode. These measurements are performed simultaneously while neurons are activated by visual stimuli of different contrast levels, orientations, and sizes. We find immediate decreases in tissue glucose concentration and simultaneous increases in lactate during neural activation. Both glucose and lactate signals return to their baseline levels instantly as neurons cease firing. No sustained changes or initial dips in glucose or lactate signals are elicited by visual stimulation. However, co-localized measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neural activity demonstrate a clear delay in the CBF signal such that it does not correlate temporally with the neural response. These results provide direct real-time evidence regarding the coupling between co-localized energy metabolism and neural activity during physiological stimulation. They are also relevant to a current question regarding the role of lactate in energy metabolism in the brain during neural activation.
glucose; lactate; metabolism; neural; visual cortex
Haem-regulated eIF2α kinase (HRI) is essential for the regulation of globin gene translation and the survival of erythroid precursors in iron/haem deficiency. This study found that that in iron deficiency, fetal definitive erythropoiesis is inhibited at the basophilic erythroblast stage with increased proliferation and elevated apoptosis. This hallmark of ineffective erythropoiesis is more severe in HRI deficiency. Microarray gene profiling analysis showed that HRI was required for adaptive gene expression in erythroid precursors during chronic iron deficiency. The number of genes with expression affected more than twofold increased, from 213 in iron deficiency and 73 in HRI deficiency, to 3135 in combined iron and HRI deficiencies. Many of these genes are regulated by Gata1 and Fog1. We demonstrate for the first time that Gata1 expression in developing erythroid precursors is decreased in iron deficiency, and is decreased further in combined iron and HRI deficiencies. Additionally, Fog1 expression is decreased in combined deficiencies, but not in iron or HRI deficiency alone. Our results indicate that HRI confers adaptive gene expression in developing erythroblasts during iron deficiency through maintaining Gata1/Fog1 expression.
iron and haem; erythroid differentiation; eIF2α kinase; Gata1 and Fog1; gene expression
Altered thyroid hormone metabolism characterized by a low triiodothyronine (T3), so‐called low‐T3 syndrome, is a common finding in patients with severe systemic diseases. Additionally, subclinical thyroid dysfunction, defined as abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal thyroxine (T4), causes left ventricular dysfunction. Our objective was to identify the prevalence and prognostic impact of low‐T3 syndrome and subclinical thyroid dysfunction in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).
Methods and results
We examined 274 ADHF patients who were not receiving thyroid medication or amiodarone on admission (70 ± 15 years, 156 male), who underwent thyroid function tests. Euthyroidism was defined as TSH of 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L; subclinical hypothyroidism as TSH of 4.5 to 19.9 mIU/L; and subclinical hyperthyroidism as TSH < 0.45 mIU/L, with normal free T4 level for the last two. Additionally, low‐T3 syndrome was defined as free T3 < 4.0 pmol/L among euthyroidism subjects. On admission, 188 patients (69%) showed euthyroidism, 58 (21%) subclinical hypothyroidism, 5 (2%) subclinical hyperthyroidism, and 95 (35%) low‐T3 syndrome. Cox proportional hazards models revealed that higher TSH, but not free T3 and free T4, was independently associated with composite cardiovascular events, including cardiac death and re‐hospitalization for heart failure. Indeed, subclinical hypothyroidism was an independent predictor (hazard ratio: 2.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.44 to 3.67; P < 0.001), whereas low‐T3 syndrome and subclinical hyperthyroidism were not.
Subclinical hypothyroidism on admission was an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in ADHF patients, suggesting a possible interaction between thyroid dysfunction and the pathophysiology of ADHF.
Acute decompensated heart failure; Thyroid hormones; Subclinical thyroid dysfunction
Drug development is originally carried out on a trial and error basis and it is cost-prohibitive. To minimize the trial and error risks, drug design is needed. One of the compound development processes to get a new drug is by designing a structure modification of the mother compound whose activities are recognized. A substitution of the mother compounds alters the physicochemical properties: lipophilic, electronic and steric properties. In Indonesia, one of medical treatments to cure cancer is through chemotherapy and hydroxyurea. Some derivatives, phenylthiourea, phenylurea, benzoylurea, thiourea and benzoylphenylurea, have been found to be anticancer drug candidates. To predict the activity of the drug compound before it is synthesized, the in-silico test is required. From the test, Rerank Score which is the energy of interaction between the receptor and the ligand molecule is then obtained. Hydroxyurea derivatives were synthesized by modifying Schotten-Baumann’s method by the addition of benzoyl group and its homologs resulted in the increase of lipophilic, electronic and steric properties, and cytotoxic activity. Synthesized compounds were 1-(benzoyloxy)urea and its derivatives. Structure characterization was obtained by the spectrum of UV, IR, H NMR, C NMR and Mass Spectrometer. Anticancer activity was carried out using MTT method on HeLa cells. The Quantitative Structure-Cytotoxic Activity Relationships of 1-(benzoyloxy)urea compound and its derivatives was calculated using SPSS. The chemical structure was described, namely: ClogP, π, σ, RS, CMR and Es; while, the cytotoxic activity was indicated by log (1 / IC50). The results show that the best equation of Quantitative Structure-Cytotoxic Activity Relationships (QSAR) of 1- (benzoyloxy)urea compound and its derivatives is Log 1/IC50 = - 0.205 (+ 0.068) σ – 0.051 (+ 0.022) Es – 1.911 (+ 0.020)
Physicochemical parameters; cytotoxic activity; 1- (benzoyloxy)urea; QSAR.
We examined the extent and nature of the psychological difficulty experienced by athletic adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), correlates of that difficulty and coping mechanisms.
A survey assessed athletic history and psychological impact of exercise restrictions. LASSO penalised linear regression identified factors associated with psychological difficulty. Semistructured interviews provided deeper insight into the nature and origins of psychological difficulty.
54 individuals (33% female, mean age 55.9) completed the survey. The majority were recreational athletes at the time of restriction (67%). There was a drop in athleticism after diagnosis, including time spent exercising (p=0.04) and identification as an athlete (p=0.0005). Most respondents (54%) found it stressful and/or difficult to adjust to exercise restrictions. Greater psychological morbidity was associated with history of elite or competitive athletics, athletic identity and decrease in time spent exercising. 16 individuals (44% female, mean age 52.4) were interviewed. Long-term effects included weight gain and uncertainty about exercising safely. The role of exercise in interviewees' lives contracted significantly after restriction, from multiple functions (eg, social, stress relief, fitness) to solely health maintenance. Interviewees reported a unique form of social support: having family and friends participate with them in lower intensity exercise. Lack of understanding from family or friends and avoiding exercise completely were detrimental to coping.
Athletic adults with HCM experience multifaceted, lasting difficulty adjusting to exercise recommendations. These data can guide clinicians in identifying patients at highest risk for distress and in helping to bolster coping and adaptation.
Introduction: Minimal important difference (MID) score is an important measure for surgical clinical research and impacts on treatment decisions. Our approach considered patient satisfaction as the relevant anchor criteria. The aims of this study were: determine after surgery MID for three relevant questionnaires: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), and Short Form 12 (SF-12); and assess the correlation between these scores and patient reported satisfaction.
Methods: Adult patients where surgery was indicated for any hand/wrist conditions. Study was conducted in a teaching hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Participants responded to DASH, SF-12, MHQ, and a Likert satisfaction scale before and three months after a procedure. Satisfaction was considered as the anchor for determining MID after a procedure. The correlation between satisfaction and the instruments were measured. Two statistical approaches were utilized for determining MIDs and were used for consistency and generalizability purposes. For MID determination, receiver operating curves were utilized and MID cut-offs were followed by sensitivity and specificity measures.
Results: Fifty patients were included with no follow-up losses. MID for DASH was 18.8 and 15.4. MID for MHQ was 14.7 for both approaches. Data from SF-12 was not reliable after statistical analyses and demonstrated poor correlation with patient satisfaction. MID for DASH and MHQ were found and demonstrated larger standards than literature-reported patients when surgery was not the main intervention. DASH and MHQ had moderate correlation with patient reported satisfaction. SF-12 MID was not reliable and had poor correlation to patient satisfaction. These data suggests that ambulatory hand surgery patients may have greater expectations regarding improvement than other patients.
Minimal important difference; DASH; MHQ; SF-12; Hand surgery
The aim of this study was to compare the non-linear properties of the four competitive swim strokes. Sixty-eight swimmers performed a set of maximal 4 × 25 m using the four competitive swim strokes. The hip's speed-data as a function of time was collected with a speedo-meter. The speed fluctuation (dv), approximate entropy (ApEn) and the fractal dimension by Higuchi's method (D) were computed. Swimming data exhibited non-linear properties that were different among the four strokes (14.048 ≤ dv ≤ 39.722; 0.682 ≤ ApEn ≤ 1.025; 1.823 ≤ D ≤ 1.919). The ApEn showed the lowest value for front-crawl, followed by breaststroke, butterfly, and backstroke (P < 0.001). Fractal dimension and dv had the lowest values for front-crawl and backstroke, followed by butterfly and breaststroke (P < 0.001). It can be concluded that swimming data exhibits non-linear properties, which are different among the four competitive swimming strokes.
swimming; non-linear parameters; variability; predictability; complexity; human movement
The dynamic nature of actin polymers is modulated to facilitate a diverse range of cellular processes. These dynamic properties are determined by different isoforms of tropomyosin which are recruited to distinct subpopulations of actin polymers to differentially regulate their functional properties. This makes tropomyosin an attractive target for labelling discrete actin populations. We have assessed the effect of different fluorescent labelling strategies for this protein. Although tropomyosin–fluorescent fusions decorate actin in vivo, they are either nonfunctional or perturb regulation of actin nucleation and cell cycle timings. Thus, conclusions and physiological relevance should be carefully evaluated when using tropomyosin fusions.
acetylation; actin cytoskeleton; Cdc8; fission yeast; Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Knowledge of medicinal plants is not only one of the main components in the structure of knowledge in local medical systems but also one of the most studied resources. This study uses a systematic review and meta-analysis of a compilation of ethnobiological studies with a medicinal plant component and the variable of gender to evaluate whether there is a gender-based pattern in medicinal plant knowledge on different scales (national, continental, and global). In this study, three types of meta-analysis are conducted on different scales. We detect no significant differences on the global level; women and men have the same rich knowledge. On the national and continental levels, significant differences are observed in both directions (significant for men and for women), and a lack of significant differences in the knowledge of the genders is also observed. This finding demonstrates that there is no gender-based pattern for knowledge on different scales.