BATF plays important roles in the function of the immune system. Batf null mice are deficient in both CD4+ Th17 cells and T follicular helper cells and possess an intrinsic B cell defect that leads to the complete absence of class switched Ig. In this study, Tg mice overexpressing BATF in T cells were used together with Batf null mice to investigate how altering levels of BATF expression in T cells impacts the development and function of a recently characterized population of iNKT cells expressing IL-17 (iNKT-17).
BATF has a direct impact on IL-17 expression by iNKT cells. However, in contrast to the Th17 lineage where BATF activates IL-17 expression and leads to the expansion of the lineage, BATF overexpression restricts overall iNKT cell numbers while skewing the compartment in vivo and in vitro toward an iNKT-17 phenotype.
This work is the first to demonstrate that BATF joins RORγt as the molecular signature for all IL-17 producing cells in vivo and identifies BATF as a component of the nuclear protein network that could be targeted to regulate IL-17-mediated disease. Interestingly, these studies also reveal that while the Il17a gene is a common target for BATF regulation in Th17 and iNKT-17 cells, this regulation is accompanied by opposite effects on the growth and expansion of these two cell lineages.
BATF; Activator-protein-1; iNKT cells; IL-17; Mouse models
In holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission areas such as western Kenya, severe malarial anemia [SMA, hemoglobin (Hb) < 6.0 g/dL, with any density parasitemia] is the most common clinical manifestation of severe malaria resulting in high rates of pediatric morbidity and mortality in these regions. Previous studies associated interleukin (IL)-13 with pathogenesis of different infectious diseases, including P. falciparum malaria. However, the functional roles of polymorphic variants within the IL-13 promoter in conditioning susceptibility to SMA remain largely unexplored. As such, the association between the IL-13 variants -7402 T/G (rs7719175) and -4729G/A (rs3091307) and susceptibility to SMA was determined in children (n = 387) presenting with clinical symptoms of falciparum malaria and resident in a holoendemic transmission region in western Kenya. Our results indicated no difference in the proportions of individual genotypes among children presenting with non-SMA (n = 222) versus SMA (n = 165). Similarly, there was no associations between the individual genotypes (-7402 T/G and -4729G/A) and SMA. Additional analyses, however, revealed that proportions of individuals with -7402 T/-4729A (TA) haplotype was significantly higher in children presenting with SMA than non-SMA group (P = 0.043). A further multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, demonstrated that carriage of the TA haplotype was associated with increased susceptibility to SMA (OR; 1.564, 95% CI; 1.023-2.389, P = 0.039). In addition, circulating levels of IL-13 were comparable between the clinical groups as well as across genotypes and haplotypes. Collectively, findings presented here suggest that haplotypes within the IL-13 promoter at -7402 T/G and -4729G/A may modulate SMA pathogenesis, but do not affect circulating IL-13 levels.
IL-13; Promoter polymorphisms; Haplotypes; Severe malaria anemia
Allergic sensitisation has been ascribed to a dysregulated relationship between allergen-specific Th1, Th2 and regulatory T cells. We hypothesised that the relationship between these T cell subsets could be better defined using a short-term allergen stimulation system followed by direct analysis of CD154-positive T cells. Using peripheral blood samples from birch pollinosis patients and healthy non-atopic controls, we sought to explore the frequencies and phenotype of birch-stimulated CD154-positive T helper cells following ex vivo birch allergen stimulation.
Activated CD154-positive Th1, Th2 and Tr1-like cells, that co-expressed IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-10 respectively, were identified in both birch-allergic and non-allergic participants. We observed a close correlation between Th1, Th2 and Tr1-like cell frequency in non-allergic volunteers, such that the three parameters increased together to maintain a low Th2: Th1 ratio. The relationship between Th1, Th2 and Tr1-like responses was dysregulated in birch-allergic patients, with abrogation of the IL-10 response and a higher Th2: Th1 ratio. A close correlation was observed between Th2 cell frequency and the absolute concentration of birch-specific IgE within the birch-allergic group, and we confirmed previous reports of a more differentiated T cell phenotype in allergic subjects.
The findings demonstrate an important balance between IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-10 T cell responses to birch allergen in health, where Th2 responses to allergens were frequently observed, but apparently balanced by Th1 and regulatory responses. The detection of CD154 positive T cells after short-term antigen stimulation may be a useful method for the detection of T cell responses to allergens when cost, speed and convenience are priorities.
Allergen-specific T cell; Birch pollen allergy; Ex vivo phenotyping; Flow cytometry
Bacterial DNA is well-known for its potent immunostimulatory properties which have been attributed to the abundance of CpG dinucleotides within the genomes of prokaryotes. Research has found that mammalian TLR9 is a receptor which mediates the immune response to CpG DNA; however, its functional properties in non-mammalian vertebrates are still poorly characterized. Leukocytes isolated from lower vertebrates, including teleosts, respond to CpG DNA and TLR9 has been identified in many fish species; however, the ligand-binding properties of fish TLR9 have, so far, not been studied. The fact that some vertebrates, like chicken, lack TLR9 and use an alternative molecule (TLR21) as a receptor for CpGs has questioned the functional conservation of TLR9 within vertebrates.
In the current study, TLR9 from Atlantic salmon (SsTLR9) has been found to interact with synthetic oligonucleotides via a CpG-independent but a pH-dependent mechanism. The endogenous receptor, expressed by primary mononuclear phagocytes colocalizes with CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) in vesicles that appear to be endosomes. When overexpressed in salmonid cell lines, SsTLR9 spontaneously activates ISRE-containing promoters of genes involved in the IFN response; however, the transgenic receptor fails to translocate to CpG-containing endosomes. This indicates that only specific immune cell types have the ability to relocate the receptor to the appropriate cellular compartments where it may become activated by its ligand. In addition, through co-precipitation and mass spectrometry, two salmon proteins - hnRNPA0 and NCOA5, which both contain RNA-binding domains (RRM), were found to bind CpG ODNs, suggesting they may be involved in the CpG response in salmon leukocytes.
The presented data are the first to demonstrate that the DNA-binding properties of TLR9 are conserved between teleosts and mammals. The current study also identifies additional molecules which may function as mediators of the immunostimulatory properties of foreign DNA.
Innate immunity; Toll-like receptors; CpG oligonucleotides; Teleosts; RNA recognition motifs
Blomia tropicalis is a dust mite and an important source of allergens in tropical regions. Up to now, the assays to diagnose atopy to this mite use whole body extract as antigens. However, anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies cross-react with Ascaris lumbricoides antigens, hindering the diagnosis of allergy to this mite. In this study, B. tropicalis recombinant allergens were evaluated with the purpose of developing an immunodiagnostic assay for allergy to this mite with greater specificity than those commercially available.
Two B. tropicalis allergens (Blo t 5 and Blo t 21) were cloned into a plasmidial expression vector, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Sixty-three sera containing anti-B. tropicalis extract (BtE) IgE antibodies were used to investigate IgE reactivity to the recombinant Blot 5 and 21 allergens. Inhibition assays with 20 sera pre-adsorbed with A. lumbricoides extract were performed using rBlo t 5, rBlo t 21, and BtE as antigens. All the assays were carried using indirect ELISA.
Eighty-two point nine percent and 80.0% of the sera with anti-BtE antibodies from 35 children reacted with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21, respectively, whereas 92.8% and 89.3% of the 28 sera with anti-BtE antibodies from adult asthma patients reacted with the same allergens, and 96.4% of these sera reacted with a mixture of rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21. In an inhibition ELISA, the absorption of sera by A. lumbricoides extract affected less the reaction with rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 than with BtE.
The rBlo t 5 and rBlo t 21 allergens contain important epitopes recognized by IgE antibodies of individuals allergic to B. tropicalis antigens. Moreover, the assays using the recombinant allergens had lower IgE cross-reactivity with A. lumbricoides antigens, a fact which would confers higher specificity to serodiagnostic assays than the crude mite extract. However, additional recombinant allergens should be evaluated in order to reach the same sensitivity of the commercially available assays based on mite extract.
Blomia tropicalis; Recombinant allergens; Immunodiagnosis; Cross-reactivity; Ascaris lumbricoides; Sensitivity; Specificity
An in silico study was carried out to identify antigens for their possible collective use as vaccine candidates against diseases caused by different classes of pathogenic mycobacteria with significant clinical relevance. The genome sequences of the relevant causative agents were used in order to search for orthologous genes among them. Bioinformatics tools permitted us to identify several conserved sequences with 100% identity with no possibility of cross-reactivity to the normal flora and human proteins. Nine different proteins were characterized using the strain H37Rv as reference and taking into account their functional category, their in vivo expression and subcellular location. T and B cell epitopes were identified in the selected sequences. Theoretical prediction of population coverage was calculated for individual epitopes as well as their combinations. Several identical sequences, belonging to six proteins containing T and B cell epitopes which are not present in selected microorganisms of the normal microbial flora or in human proteins were obtained.
Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms) is a nonpathogenic mycobacteria of rapid growth, which shares many characteristics with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the major causative agent of tuberculosis. MTB has several cell wall glycolipids in common with Ms, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and the induction of a protective immune response against MTB infection in some animal models. In this study, the humoral immune response and cross reactivity against MTB, of liposomes containing a mixture of cell wall glycolipids of Ms and commercial lipids was evaluated, in order to study its possible use as a component of a vaccine candidate against tuberculosis. Liposomes containing total lipids extracted from Ms, distearoyl phosphatidyl choline and cholesterol were prepared by the dehydration-rehydration technique. Balb/c mice were immunized with the liposomes obtained and the antibody response and cross reactivity against MTB were tested by ELISA. Total lipids extract from Ms showed the presence of several polar glycolipids in common with MTB, such as phosphatidylinositol mannosides. Liposomes that contained glycolipids of Ms were capable of inducing a specific IgG antibody response that allowed the recognition of surface antigens of MTB. The results of this study demonstrated the presence of immunogenic glycolipids in Ms, which could be included to enhance the protective effects of subunit vaccine formulations against tuberculosis.
The development of molecules specific for M. tuberculosis-infected cells has important implications, as these tools may facilitate understanding of the mechanisms regulating host pathogen interactions in vivo. In addition, development of new tools capable to targeting M. tuberculosis-infected cells may have potential applications to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). Due to the lack of CD1b polymorphism, M. tuberculosis lipid-CD1b complexes could be considered as universal tuberculosis infection markers. The aim of the present study was to display on the PIII surface protein of m13 phage, a human αβ single-chain T-cell receptor molecule specific for CD1b:2-stearoyl-3-hydroxyphthioceranoyl-2´-sulfate-α-α´-D-trehalose (Ac2SGL) which is a complex presented by human cells infected with M. tuberculosis. The results showed the pIII fusion particle was successfully displayed on the phage surface. The study of the recognition of the recombinant phage in ELISA and immunohistochemistry showed the recognition of CD1b:Ac2SGL complexes and cells in human lung tissue from a tuberculosis patient respectively, suggesting the specific recognition of the lipid-CD1b complex.
The development of a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine has become one of the main objectives of the scientific community. Protein antigens have been widely explored as subunit TB vaccines, however lipid antigens could be equally important to be used or included in such a vaccine. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of a liposome formulation composed of an extract of lipids from Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms) as a TB vaccine candidate. We evaluated the immunogenicity of this formulation as well as the cross reactive response against antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) in BALB/c mice. We determined the anti-liposome IgG response in sera from TB patients and from healthy subjects who displayed a positive (PPD+) or negative (PPD-) tuberculin skin test. A significant increase in anti-liposome IgG (p<0.05) was detected in animals immunized with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) compared with all groups, and in the group immunized with liposomes from Ms (LMs) compared to animals immunized with either LMs adjuvanted with aluminium (LMs-A) or the negative control group (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) respectively. With respect to the cross reactive response against a cocktail of cell wall antigens (CWA) from MTb, significantly higher IgG levels were observed in animals immunized with BCG and LMs compared to negative controls and either, aluminium-adjuvanted liposomes (LMs-A) or montanide (LMs-M) (p<0.05). Furthermore, the anti-liposome IgG response was significantly superior in sera from pulmonary TB patients compared to PPD+ and PPD- healthy subjects (p<0.001) suggesting the expression of these antigens in vivo during active MTb infection. The results obtained provide some evidence for the potential use of liposomes containing total lipid extracts of Ms as a TB vaccine candidate.
The only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) is Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), which has inconsistent efficacy to protect against the disease in adults. M. tuberculosis (MTB) cell wall components have been implicated in the pathogenicity of TB and therefore have been a prime target for the identification and characterization of cell wall proteins with potential application in vaccine development. In this regard, proteoliposomes (PLs) derived from mycobacteria containing lipids and cell wall proteins could be potential vaccine candidates against TB. In the present study PLs derived from BCG were prepared. These homogeneous population of spherical microparticles was then immunized into Balb/c mice. Sera of immunized animals showed high IgG response and strong cross-reactivity against different MTB antigens.These results showed that BCG PLs could be potential vaccine candidates against TB.
Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guèrin (rBCG) expressing three T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Ag85B antigen (P1, P2, P3) fused to the Mtb8.4 protein (rBCG018) or a combination of these antigens fused to B cell epitopes from ESAT-6, CFP-10 and MTP40 proteins (rBCG032) were used to immunize Balb/c mice. Total IgG responses were determined against Mtb8.4 antigen and ESAT-6 and CFP-10 B cell epitopes after immunization with rBCG032. Mice immunized with rBCG032 showed a significant increase in IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies against ESAT-6 and MTP40 (P1) B cell epitopes and IgG3 against both P1 and P2 B cell epitopes of MPT40. Splenocytes from mice immunized with rBCG018 proliferated against Ag85B P2 and P3 T cell epitopes and Mtb8.4 protein whereas those from mice-immunized with rBCG032 responded against all Ag85B epitopes and the ESAT-6 B cell epitope. CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes from mice immunized with rBCG018 produced primarily Th1 type cytokines in response to the T cell epitopes. Similar pattern of recognition against the T cell epitopes were obtained with rBCG032 with the additional recognition of ESAT-6, CFP-10 and one of the MTP40 B cell epitopes with the same pattern of cytokines. This study demonstrates that rBCG constructs expressing either T or T and B cell epitopes of MTB induced appropriate immunogenicity against MTB.
The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m2 area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFNγ and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated.
Immunoglobulin A is the most abundant isotype in secretions from mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and in external secretions such as colostrum, breast milk, tears and saliva. The high concentration of human secretory IgA (hsIgA) in human colostrum strongly suggests that it should play an important role in the passive immune protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections.
Materials and methods
Human secretory IgA was purified from colostrum. The reactivity of hsIgA against mycobacterial antigens and its protective capacity against mycobacterial infection was evaluated.
The passive administration of hsIgA reduces the pneumonic area before challenge with M. tuberculosis. The intratracheal administration of M. tuberculosis preincubated with hsIgA to mice greatly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and diminished lung tissue injury.
HsIgA purified from colostrum protects against M. tuberculosis infection in an experimental mouse model.
TB, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the major global infectious diseases. For the pandemic control, early diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is fundamental. With the advent of bioinformatics’ tools, the identification of several proteins involved in the pathogenesis of TB (TB) has been possible. In the present work, the MTB genome was explored to look for molecules with possible antigenic properties for their evaluation as part of new generation diagnostic kits based on the release of cytokines. Seven proteins from the MTB proteome and some of their combinations suited the computational test and the results suggested their potential use for the diagnosis of infection in the following population groups: Cuba, Mexico, Malaysia and sub-Saharan Africa. Our predictions were performed using public bioinformatics tools plus three computer programs, developed by our group, to facilitate information retrieval and processing.
Proteoliposomes purified from the Outer Membrane of Neisseria meningitidis B, have been successfully used as core for adjuvants and vaccine formulations. We have tried to increase their structural definition and to conserve their efficacy and stability avoiding the addition of the aluminum hydroxide to the final formulation. Liposomal particle systems were prepared from components of defined molecular structure, such as a Neisseria meningitidis B protein complex, extracted and purified without forming vesicle structures. Liposomes were prepared from a mixture of dioleoyl phosphatidyl serine and cholesterol, using the classical dehydration-rehydration method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the liposomes. BALB/c mice were used for animal testing procedures. Analysis of specific IgG response, serum bactericidal activity as well as DTH reaction was carried out. Isolation and purification of mRNA and real-time PCR, was performed to determine the dominating Th lymphokine pattern. The new antimeningococcal formulation without aluminum hydroxide prepared with components of defined molecular structure assembled itself into Neoproteoliposomes (NPL) ranging from 50 to 70 nm in diameter. The extraction and purification of selected membrane proteins to provide the antigen for this new formulation (PD-Tp), as well as the NPL-formulation favors a Th1 response pattern, suggested by the higher percentages of DTH, increased expression of proinflamatory lymphokine mRNAs when administered by intramuscular and intranasal routes. It stimulates a systemic bactericidal antibody response against Neisseria meningitidis B and immunologic memory similar to the Cuban VA-MENGOC-BC® vaccine, even at lower dosages and is less reactogenic at the injection site in comparison with the formulation with aluminum hydroxide. This new adjuvant formulation could be applicable to the development of new and improved vaccines against meningococcal disease, and eventually as modulators of the immune response against other diseases.
Whooping cough remains a health problem despite high vaccination coverage. It has been recommended that development of new strategies provide long-lasting immunity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of proteoliposomes (PL) extracted from Bordetella pertussis as a vaccine candidate against whooping cough. The size of the B. pertussis PL was estimated to be 96.7±50.9 nm by Scanning Correlation Spectroscopy and the polydispersity index was 0.268. Western blots using monoclonal antibodies revealed the presence of pertussis toxin, pertactin, and fimbriae 3. The Limulus Amebocyte Lisate (LAL) assay showed endotoxin levels lower than those reported for whole cell pertussis licensed vaccines, while the Pyrogen Test indicated 75 ng/mL/Kg. The PL showed high protection capacity in mouse challenge models. There was 89.7% survival in the intracerebral challenge and total reduction of the number of CFU in the intranasal challenge. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed between mice immunized with B. pertussis PL and the Cuban DTwP vaccine, whichever challenge model used. These results encouraged us to continue the development of the B. pertussis PL as a component of a new combined vaccine formulated with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids or as a booster dose for adolescents and adults.
The proteoliposome derived from Vibrio cholerae O1 (PLc) is a nanoscaled structure obtained by a detergent extraction process. Intranasal (i.n) administration of PLc was immunogenic at mucosal and systemic level vs. V. cholerae; however the adjuvant potential of this structure for non-cholera antigens has not been proven yet. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of coadministering PLc with the Vi polysaccharide antigen (Poli Vi) of S. Typhi by the i.n route. The results showed that Poli Vi coadministered with PLc (PLc+Poli Vi) induce a higher IgA response in saliva (p<0.01) and faeces (p<0.01) than Poli Vi administered alone. Likewise, the IgG response in sera was higher in animals immunised with PLc+Poli Vi (p<0.01). Furthermore, IgG induced in sera of mice immunised with PLc+Poli Vi was similar (p>0.05) to that induced in a group of mice immunised by the parenteral route with the Cuban anti-typhoid vaccine vax-TyVi®, although this vaccine did not induce a mucosal response. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that PLc can be used as a mucosal adjuvant to potentiate the immune response against a polysaccharide antigen like Poli Vi.
Oral bovine colostrum prophylaxis accelerates the recovery of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In the present study the beneficial effects on acute intestinal inflammation of two major colostral components, secretory immunoglobulin A and lactoferrin, were investigated. Outbred NMRI mice received whole bovine colostrum (BC, 20 mg/kg body weight), colostral bovine lactoferrin (bLf, 150 mg/kg), or secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, 1–2 mg/kg body weight) daily by oral gavage, either two weeks before induction of colitis (prophylaxis) or after disease establishment (therapy). Bovine serum albumin (BSA, 150 mg/kg body weight) and immunoglobulin G (IgG, 1 and 2 mg/kg body weight) served as protein controls. Colitis was induced by providing 5% DSS solution ad libitum for seven days.
Compared to BSA, BC therapy improved occult blood, stool consistency, and clinical recovery from colitis but did not prevent initial weight loss. In contrast, administration of bLf did not influence the course of colitis in either the prophylactic or the therapeutic setting. Therapeutic application of sIgA promoted weight gain in the recovery phase of colitis but failed to improve other clinical parameters. Prophylactically-fed sIgA influenced immune cell redistribution, normalized peripheral blood CD11c+CD83+ mature dendritic cells, modulated colonic immune cell infiltration, and altered the numbers of both DSS-induced regulatory γδ TCR+ T cells and CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid suppressor cells in the lymph nodes and spleens of mice.
These data demonstrated the potential of colostrum in disease recovery and epithelial homeostasis following intestinal injury. Colostral sIgA failed to improve acute disease activity but promoted weight gain and modulated immune cell responses that are involved in the genesis of colitis.
DSS-colitis; Recovery; Colostrum; Secretory immunoglobulin A; Bovine lactoferrin; γδ- T-cells; Myeloid-derived suppressor cells; Outbred NMRI mice
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is frequently associated with collagen
diseases. The prognosis of acute-onset diffuse ILD (AoDILD) occurring in
collagen disease patients is very poor. Here, we investigated serum
biomarker profiles of AoDILD to find markers predicting outcome in patients
with collagen diseases.
A solid-phase antibody array was used for screening 274 biomarkers in pooled
sera from collagen disease patients in the AoDILD state and in the stable
state. Biomarkers in individual sera were detected without pooling by
The serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, tissue inhibitor of
metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, osteopontin, interleukin (IL)-2 receptor α
(IL-2Rα), and IL-1 receptor antagonist were significantly increased in
AoDILD, but TIMP-2, MMP-3, and eotaxin 2 levels were decreased. The MMP-3 to
MMP-1 ratio was reduced in AoDILD state. This tendency was also observed in
RA patients with AoDILD. Moreover, serum IL-6 level was significantly
increased in the AoDILD state in patients with acute exacerbation of ILD
(AE-ILD). Serum TIMP-1 and IL-2Rα levels were significantly increased
in the AoDILD state in patients with drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD), whereas
TIMP-2, MMP-3, and eotaxin 2 levels were decreased. The MMP-3 to MMP-1 ratio
was reduced in AoDILD state in patients with DI-ILD. The serum TIMP-3,
MMP-9, osteopontin, IL-2Rα, MMP-1, and MMP-8 levels were significantly
increased in the AoDILD state in patients who subsequently died, whereas
TIMP-2 and MMP-3 levels were decreased in those who survived. The MMP-3 to
MMP-1 ratio was reduced in AoDILD state in patients who died, but not in
those who survived.
Serum biomarker profiles could represent prognosis markers for AoDILD in
Collagen disease; Biomarker; Cytokine; Interstitial lung disease
Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21 days and ended with the patients’ discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters.
We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P < 0.0001) with a sensitivity of 89.2% and a specificity of 76.4%, particularly within the first 48 hours after SIRS onset. Regarding the discriminative power for infection, the IG count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48 hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality.
The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good marker to discriminate infected and non-infected patients very early during SIRS. However, the IG count is not suitable as a prognostic marker for mortality. Routine and serial measurement of IGs may provide new possibilities for rapid screening of SIRS patients on ICU with suspected infections.
Glucocorticoids are widely regarded as the most effective treatment for asthma. However, the direct impact of glucocorticoids on the innate immune system and antibacterial host defense during asthma remain unclear. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this process is critical to the clinical application of glucocorticoids for asthma therapy. After sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA), BALB/c mice were treated with inhaled budesonide and infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The number of viable bacteria in enflamed lungs was evaluated, and levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in serum were measured. A lung epithelial cell line was pretreated with budesonide. Levels of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) were measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Intracellular bacteria were observed in lung epithelial cells.
Inhaled budesonide enhanced lung infection in allergic mice exposed to P. aeruginosa and increased the number of viable bacteria in lung tissue. Higher levels of IL-4 and lower levels of IFN-γ were observed in the serum. Budesonide decreased the expression of CRAMP, increased the number of internalized P. aeruginosa in OVA-challenged mice and in lung epithelial cell lines. These data indicate that inhaled budesonide can suppress pulmonary antibacterial host defense by down-regulating CRAMP in allergic inflammation mice and in cells in vitro.
Inhaled budesonide suppressed pulmonary antibacterial host defense in an asthmatic mouse model and in lung epithelium cells in vitro. This effect was dependent on the down-regulation of CRAMP.
Allergic airway inflammation; Antibacterial host defense; Cathelicidin; Budesonide
Macrophages have heterogeneous phenotypes and complex functions within both innate and adaptive immune responses. To date, most experimental studies have been performed on macrophages derived from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum. However, differences among macrophages from these particular sources remain unclear. In this study, the features of murine macrophages from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum were compared.
We found that peritoneal macrophages (PMs) appear to be more mature than bone marrow derived macrophages (BMs) and splenic macrophages (SPMs) based on their morphology and surface molecular characteristics. BMs showed the strongest capacity for both proliferation and phagocytosis among the three populations of macrophage. Under resting conditions, SPMs maintained high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α), whereas BMs produced high levels of suppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β). However, SPMs activated with LPS not only maintained higher levels of (IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α) than BMs or PMs, but also maintained higher levels of IL-10 and TGF-β.
Our results show that BMs, SPMs and PMs are distinct populations with different biological functions, providing clues to guide their further experimental or therapeutic use.
Macrophage; Bone marrow; Spleen; Peritoneum
Hoxa9 is a homeodomain transcription factor important for the generation of Flt3+hiIL-7R- lymphoid biased-multipotential progenitors, Flt3+IL-7R+ common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), and B cell precursors (BCP) in bone marrow (BM). In addition to B-cell, Flt3+IL-7R+ CLPs possess NK and DC developmental potentials, although DCs arise from Flt3+IL-7R- myeloid progenitors as well. In this study, we investigated the requirement for Hoxa9, from Flt3+ or Flt3- progenitor subsets, in the development of NK and DC lineage cells in BM. Flt3+IL-7R+Ly6D- CLPs and their Flt3+IL-7R+Ly6D+ B lineage-restricted progeny (BLP) were significantly reduced in hoxa9−/− mice. Interestingly, the reduction in Flt3+IL-7R+ CLPs in hoxa9−/− mice had no impact on the generation of NK precursor (NKP) subsets, the differentiation of NKP into mature NK cells, or NK homeostasis. Similarly, percentages and numbers of common dendritic progenitors (CDP), as well as their plasmacytoid or conventional dendritic cell progeny in hoxa9−/− mice were comparable to wildtype. These findings reveal distinct requirements for Hoxa9 or Hoxa9/Flt3 molecular circuits in regulation of B versus NK and DC development in BM.
Hoxa9; Flt3; IL-7R; B-cell; NK-cell; DC; Development
It has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection induces the production of endogenous lipids required for effective viral production, and the cluster of differentiation (CD)1 molecule CD1d is downregulated by HIV-1 infection. However, the role of endogenous lipid presentation and the implications of CD1 downregulation by HIV-1 infection have not yet been characterized.
In this study, we observed downregulation of both CD1c and CD1d expression through a Vpu-dependent and Nef-independent mechanism, and the concomitant HIV-1-induced production of host cholesterol decreased the extent of CD1c and CD1d modulation. While the modest downregulation of CD1c by HIV-1 infection decreased the ability of CD1c-restricted T cells to respond and secrete interferon-γ, the cholesterol upregulation in the same cells by HIV-1 infection appears to limit the downregulation of CD1c.
The two conflicting HIV-1-mediated changes in CD1c expression appear to minimize the modulation of CD1c expression, thus leading the host to maintain a CD1c-restricted T-cell response against HIV-1.
CD1c; Phosphatidylcholine; Cholesterol; T cell; HIV-1; Vpu