PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 26-50 (5303)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
more »
26.  MiR-130b plays an oncogenic role by repressing PTEN expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:29.
Background
Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies with high cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, and also play an important role in the development and progression of cancers. In a previous microarray study, we demonstrated that miR-130b was upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. However, the biologic functions and the molecular mechanism of miR-130b in ESCC remain to be elucidated.
Methods
qRT-PCR assays were used to quantify miR-130b expression levels in ESCC samples. Novel targets of miR-130b were identified via a bioinformatics search and confirmed using a dual-luciferase reporter system. Western blotting and qRT-PCR assays were used to quantify the expression of the target gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and the downstream effector, Akt. ESCC cells over- or underexpressing miR-130b were analyzed for in vitro biologic functions.
Results
High levels of miR-130b were identified in 20 ESCC samples following comparison with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. We confirmed that miR-130b interacted with the 3′-untranslated region of PTEN, and that an increase in the expression level of miR-130b negatively affected the protein level of PTEN. However, the dysregulation of miR-130b had no obvious impact on PTEN mRNA. As Akt is a downstream effector of PTEN, we explored if miR-130b affected Akt expression, and found that miR-130b indirectly regulated the level of phosphorylated Akt, while total Akt protein remained unchanged. Overexpression of miR-130b increased the proliferation of ESCC cells and enhanced their ability to migrate and invade. In contrast, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells were weakened when miR-130b expression was suppressed, which was reversed by PTEN-targeted siRNA.
Conclusion
The results indicate that miR-130b plays an oncogenic role in ESCC cells by repressing PTEN expression and Akt phosphorylation, which would be helpful in developing miRNA-based treatments for ESCC.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1031-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1031-5
PMCID: PMC4318221  PMID: 25637514
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; miR-130b; Oncogenic; PTEN
27.  Development of a semi-conductor sequencing-based panel for genotyping of colon and lung cancer by the Onconetwork consortium 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:26.
Background
The number of predictive biomarkers that will be necessary to assess in clinical practice will increase with the availability of drugs that target specific molecular alterations. Therefore, diagnostic laboratories are confronted with new challenges: costs, turn-around-time and the amount of material required for testing will increase with the number of tests performed on a sample. Our consortium of European clinical research laboratories set out to test if semi-conductor sequencing provides a solution for these challenges.
Methods
We designed a multiplex PCR targeting 87 hotspot regions in 22 genes that are of clinical interest for lung and/or colorectal cancer. The gene-panel was tested by 7 different labs in their own clinical setting using ion-semiconductor sequencing.
Results
We analyzed 155 samples containing 112 previously identified mutations in the KRAS, EGFR en BRAF genes. Only 1 sample failed analysis due to poor quality of the DNA. All other samples were correctly genotyped for the known mutations, even as low as 2%, but also revealed other mutations. Optimization of the primers used in the multiplex PCR resulted in a uniform coverage distribution over the amplicons that allows for efficient pooling of samples in a sequencing run.
Conclusions
We show that a semi-conductor based sequencing approach to stratify colon and lung cancer patients is feasible in a clinical setting.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1015-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1015-5
PMCID: PMC4318366  PMID: 25637035
Next-generation sequencing; Semi-conductor sequencing; Colorectal cancer; Non-small cell lung cancer; Multiplex PCR; Ion Torrent
28.  Weight and weight change following breast cancer: evidence from a prospective, population-based, breast cancer cohort study 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:28.
Background
While weight gain following breast cancer is considered common, results supporting these findings are dated. This work describes changes in body weight following breast cancer over 72 months, compares weight with normative data and explores whether weight changes over time are associated with personal, diagnostic, treatment or behavioral characteristics.
Methods
A population-based sample of 287 Australian women diagnosed with early-stage invasive breast cancer was assessed prospectively at six, 12, 18 and 72 months post-surgery. Weight was clinically measured and linear mixed models were used to explore associations between weight and participant characteristics (collected via self-administered questionnaire). Those with BMI changes of one or more units were considered to have experienced clinically significant changes in weight.
Results
More than half (57%) of participants were overweight or obese at 6 months post-surgery, and by 72 months post-surgery 68% of women were overweight or obese. Among those who gained more weight than age-matched norms, clinically significant weight gain between 6 and 18 months and 6 and 72 months post-surgery was observed in 24% and 39% of participants, respectively (median [range] weight gain: 3.9 kg [2.0-11.3 kg] and 5.2 kg [0.6-28.7], respectively). Clinically-significant weight losses were observed in up to 24% of the sample (median [range] weight loss between 6 and 72 months post-surgery: −6.4 kg [−1.9--24.6 kg]). More extensive lymph node removal, being treated on the non-dominant side, receiving radiation therapy and lower physical activity levels at 6 months was associated with higher body weights post-breast cancer (group differences >3 kg; all p < 0.05).
Conclusions
While average weight gain among breast cancer survivors in the long-term is small, subgroups of women experience greater gains linked with adverse health and above that experienced by age-matched counterparts. Weight change post-breast cancer is a contemporary public health issue and the integration of healthy weight education and support into standard breast cancer care has potential to significantly improve the length and quality of cancer survivorship.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1026-2
PMCID: PMC4318545  PMID: 25637285
Breast cancer; Body weight; Longitudinal cohort study; Public health
29.  Association of PALB2 sequence variants with the risk of familial and early-onset breast cancer in a South-American population 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:30.
Background
Germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of familial breast cancer (BC) in several populations. Nevertheless its contribution in the South-American population is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in the Chilean population.
Methods
100 Chilean BRCA1/2-negatives familial BC cases were included for the PALB2 mutation analysis. We use conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing. Using a case-control design, we studied the identified variants in 436 BC cases and 809 controls to evaluate their possible association with BC risk.
Results
No pathogenic mutations were detected. We identified three variants, the variant c.1861C > A not previously described was found in one of the 436 cases and none of the 809 controls. The bioinformatic analyses indicate that this variant probably is not pathogenic. PALB2 c.1676A > G (rs152451A/G) and c.2993C > T (rs45551636C/T) variants were significantly associated with increased BC risk only in cases with a strong family history of BC (OR = 1.9 [CI 95% 1.3-2.8] p < 0.01 and OR = 3.3 [CI 95% 1.4-7.3] p < 0.01, respectively). The rs152451A/G-rs45551636C/T composite genotype produce increase of the BC risk in cases with a strong family history of BC (OR = 3.6 [CI 95% 1.7-8.0] p = 0.003). The rs152451-G/rs45551636-C and rs152451-G/rs45551636-T haplotypes were associated with an increased BC risk only in cases with a strong family history of BC (OR = 1.6 [CI 95% 1.0-2.5] p = 0.05 and OR = 3.7 [CI 95% 1.8-7.5] p < 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion
Our results suggest that PALB2 c.1676A > G and c.2993C > T play roles in BC risk in women with a strong family history of BC.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1033-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1033-3
PMCID: PMC4323211  PMID: 25636233
Familial breast cancer; PALB2; BRCA1/2-negative families; South-American population
30.  Prognostic survival model for people diagnosed with invasive cutaneous melanoma 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:27.
Background
The ability of medical practitioners to communicate risk estimates effectively to patients diagnosed with melanoma relies on accurate information about prognostic factors and their impact on survival. This study reports the development of one of the few melanoma prognostic models, called the Melanoma Severity Index (MSI), based on population-based cancer registry data.
Methods
Data from the Queensland Cancer Registry for people (20–89 years) diagnosed with a single invasive melanoma between 1995 and 2008 (n = 28,654; 1,700 melanoma deaths). Additional clinical information about metastasis, ulceration and positive lymph nodes was manually extracted from pathology forms. Flexible parametric survival models were combined with multivariable fractional polynomial for selecting variables and transformations of continuous variables. Multiple imputation was used for missing covariate values.
Results
The MSI contained the variables thickness (transformed, explained 40.6% of variation in survival), body site (additional 1.9% in variation), metastasis (1.8%), positive nodes (0.7%), ulceration (1.3%), age (1.1%). Royston and Sauerbrei’s D statistic (measure of discrimination) was 1.50 (95% CI = 1.44, 1.56) and the corresponding RD2 (measure of explained variation) was 0.47 (0.45, 0.49), demonstrating strong explanatory performance. The Harrell-C statistic was 0.88 (0.88, 0.89). Lacking an external validation dataset, we applied internal-external cross validation to demonstrate the consistency of the prognostic information across geographically-defined subsets of the cohort.
Conclusions
The MSI provides good ability to predict survival for melanoma patients. Beyond the immediate clinical use, the MSI may have important public health and research applications for evaluations of public health interventions aimed at reducing deaths from melanoma.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1024-4
PMCID: PMC4328047  PMID: 25637143
Melanoma; Survival; Prognostic model; Thickness; Population-based; Risk
31.  Caveolin-1 accumulation in the tongue cancer tumor microenvironment is significantly associated with poor prognosis: an in-vivo and in-vitro study 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:25.
Background
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) may be upregulated by hypoxia and acts in a tumor-dependent manner. We investigated CAV1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its association with clinical outcomes, and studied in vitro possible ways for CAV1 accumulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME).
Methods
TSCC cases (N = 64) were immunohistochemically stained for CAV1. Scores were separately assessed in the tumor and TME and plotted for association with recurrence and survival (univariate analysis with log-rank test). In vitro studies were performed on a 3D myoma organotypic model, a mimicker of TME. Prior to monoculturing HSC-3 tongue cancer cells, the model underwent modifications in oxygenation level (1%O2 hypoxia to upregulate CAV1) and/or in the amount of natural soluble factors [deleted by 14-day rinsing (rinsed myoma, RM), to allow only HSC-3-derived factors to act]. Controls included normoxia (21%O2) and naturally occurring soluble factors (intact myoma, IM). HSC-3 cells were also co-cultured with CaDEC12 cells (fibroblasts exposed to human tongue cancer). CAV1 expression and cellular distribution were examined in different cellular components in hypoxic and rinsed myoma assays. Twist served as a marker for the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Exosomes isolated from HSC-3 media were investigated for containing CAV1.
Results
Expression of CAV1 in TSCC had a higher score in TME than in the tumor cells and a negative impact on recurrence (p = 0.01) and survival (p = 0.003). Monocultures of HSC-3 revealed expression of CAV1 mainly in the TME-like myoma assay, similar to TSCC. CAV1+, alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) + and Twist + CAF-like cells were observed surrounding the invading HSC-3, possibly reflecting EMT. RM findings were similar to IM, inferring action of HSC-3 derived factors, and no differences were seen when hypoxia was induced. HSC-3-CaDEC12 co-cultures revealed CAV1+, αSMA+ and cytokeratin-negative CAF-like cells, raising the possibility of CaDEC12 cells gaining a CAF phenotype. HSC-3-derived exosomes were loaded with CAV1.
Conclusions
Accumulation of CAV1-TME in TSCC had a negative prognostic value. In vitro studies showed the presence of CAV1 in cancer cells undergoing EMT and in fibroblasts undergoing trans-differentiation to CAFs. CAV1 delivery to the TME involved cancer cell-derived exosomes.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1030-6
PMCID: PMC4318139  PMID: 25633184
Tongue cancer; Caveolin-1; Survival; Myoma organotypic model; Tumor microenvironment; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Exosomes; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
32.  Cell fusion between gastric epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells results in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:24.
Background
The discovery of cancer stem cells and tumor heterogeneity prompted the exploration of additional mechanisms aside from genetic mutations for carcinogenesis and cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cell fusion between mesenchymal stem cells and the gastric epithelial cells in tumorigenesis.
Methods
Cell fusion between cord blood mesenchymal stem cells and human gastric epithelial cells was performed in vitro. Cell scratch and transwell assays were performed to determine migration and invasion abilities of the hybrids. The expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins and genes were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and real time quantitative PCR. Tumorigenesis of the hybrids was evaluated through in vivo inoculation in nude mice.
Results
Hybrids expressed the phenotypes of both donor cells. Aneuploidy was observed in 84.1% of cells. The hybrids showed increased proliferation, migration and invasion abilities compared with the parental cells. In addition, the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin in the hybrids was significantly higher than that of the epithelial cells, and the mRNA expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes, Twist and Slug, in the hybrids was also increased compared with that of the parental epithelial cells. Furthermore, the hybrids formed masses of epithelial origin with glandular structures in BALB/c nude mice.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that cell fusion between gastric epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells may result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1027-1
PMCID: PMC4318156  PMID: 25633122
Cell fusion; Carcinogenesis; Mesenchymal stem cells; Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
33.  Bilateral Diffuse Uveal Melanocytic Proliferation (BDUMP) associated with B-cell lymphoma: report of a rare case 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:23.
Background
Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a paraneoplastic ocular syndrome occurring in patients with systemic, often occult but advanced carcinoma and is the hallmark of poor prognosis. Ocular signs precede manifestation of systemic carcinoma by 3–12 months, highlighting the need for appropriate index of suspicion and prompt evaluation. Treatment options for BDUMP are limited. Investigations are aimed at finding the occult primary malignancy, which can be challenging. Modalities for treatment of the ocular findings include corticosteroids, surgery, external beam radiotherapy, and treatment of the underlying malignant neoplasm. However, it is uncertain whether earlier intervention for the systemic malignancy will impact survival, as this paraneoplastic phenomenon is thought to occur in advanced malignancy.
Case presentation
We report a unique rare atypical case with BDUMP causing visual loss in a 62-year-old female as the presenting sign of central nervous system (CNS) B-cell lymphoma. Multiple grey or grey brown subretinal lesions with pigment clumps were present in both eyes on fundoscopy and multimodal imaging demonstrated multiple discrete lesions at the level of retinal pigment epithelium. Neuroimaging revealed presence of brainstem and cerebellopontine lesions suggestive of CNS lymphoma, which was further confirmed on biopsy.
Conclusion
In the current atypical case, prompt diagnosis and immediate referral was key, with detailed systemic evaluation by an internist and oncologist. The reported case is distinct for the reason that BDUMP occurred secondary to primary CNS lymphoma, a hitherto unreported association.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1020-8
PMCID: PMC4320603  PMID: 25633015
Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation; BDUMP; B-cell lymphoma
34.  TOX3 is expressed in mammary ER+ epithelial cells and regulates ER target genes in luminal breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:22.
Background
A breast cancer susceptibility locus has been mapped to the gene encoding TOX3. Little is known regarding the expression pattern or biological role of TOX3 in breast cancer or in the mammary gland. Here we analyzed TOX3 expression in murine and human mammary glands and in molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and assessed its ability to alter the biology of breast cancer cells.
Methods
We used a cell sorting strategy, followed by quantitative real-time PCR, to study TOX3 gene expression in the mouse mammary gland. To study the expression of this nuclear protein in human mammary glands and breast tumors, we generated a rabbit monoclonal antibody specific for human TOX3. In vitro studies were performed on MCF7, BT474 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines to study the effects of TOX3 modulation on gene expression in the context of breast cancer cells.
Results
We found TOX3 expression in estrogen receptor-positive mammary epithelial cells, including progenitor cells. A subset of breast tumors also highly expresses TOX3, with poor outcome associated with high expression of TOX3 in luminal B breast cancers. We also demonstrate the ability of TOX3 to alter gene expression in MCF7 luminal breast cancer cells, including cancer relevant genes TFF1 and CXCR4. Knockdown of TOX3 in a luminal B breast cancer cell line that highly expresses TOX3 is associated with slower growth. Surprisingly, TOX3 is also shown to regulate TFF1 in an estrogen-independent and tamoxifen-insensitive manner.
Conclusions
These results demonstrate that high expression of this protein likely plays a crucial role in breast cancer progression. This is in sharp contrast to previous studies that indicated breast cancer susceptibility is associated with lower expression of TOX3. Together, these results suggest two different roles for TOX3, one in the initiation of breast cancer, potentially related to expression of TOX3 in mammary epithelial cell progenitors, and another role for this nuclear protein in the progression of cancer. In addition, these results can begin to shed light on the reported association of TOX3 expression and breast cancer metastasis to the bone, and point to TOX3 as a novel regulator of estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1018-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1018-2
PMCID: PMC4324787  PMID: 25632947
TOX3; Luminal B breast cancer; TFF1; HMG-box factor; ER target gene activation; Mammary epithelial progenitor
35.  Antihormonal agents as a strategy to improve the effect of chemo-radiation in cervical cancer: in vitro and in vivo study 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:21.
Background
Over the past few years, the concurrent use of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy has dramatically improved the local response and increased overall survival in early-stage cervical cancer. However, for the advanced stages of the disease this standard treatment has proved insufficient. We investigated the capacity of Mifepristone and ICI 182,780, which are anti-progestin and anti-estrogen drugs, respectively, to act as chemo-radiosensitizing agents in cervical cancer cells and cervix xenografts.
Methods
The effect of chemo-radiation alone or combined with Mifepristone or ICI 182,780 was evaluated in HeLa cells and with tumor growth in cervix xenografts. After concomitant chemo-radiotherapy, the effect of each of these antihormonal agents on apoptosis (determined by Annexing V assay) and the cell cycle phases were determined by flow cytometry. The expression of angiogenic factor VEGF in tumor samples was determined using quantitative RT-PCR analysis of VEGF gene expression.
Results
Compared to radiation alone or radiation/cisplatin therapy, there was significantly higher cytotoxicity and a greater antitumoral effect with the combined application of radiation/cisplatin and Mifepristone or ICI 182,780. Analyses of the apoptosis and cell cycle demonstrated changes only with ICI, not with Mifepristone, when was applied in combination with radiation/cisplatin. The analysis of VEGF mRNA expression levels in tumors at the end of the study demonstrated a significant inhibition, compared to radiation only or the radiation/cisplatin treatment, after concurrent chemo-radiotherapy and each one of the antihormonal drugs.
Conclusion
Mifepristone and ICI 182,780 may be potentially promising chemo-radiosensitizing compounds to be used in combination with ionizing irradiation and cisplatin in the treatment of patients with advanced cervical cancer.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1016-4
PMCID: PMC4311459  PMID: 25622528
Cervical cancer; Mifepristone; ICI 182,780; Cisplatin; Radiosensitizing
36.  Methylation and expression of the tumour suppressor, PRDM5, in colorectal cancer and polyp subgroups 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:20.
Background
PRDM5 is an epigenetic regulator that has been recognized as an important tumour suppressor gene. Silencing of PRDM5 by promoter hypermethylation has been demonstrated in several cancer types and PRDM5 loss results in upregulation of the Wnt pathway and increased cellular proliferation. PRDM5 has not been extensively investigated in specific subtypes of colorectal cancers. We hypothesized it would be more commonly methylated and inactivated in serrated pathway colorectal cancers that are hallmarked by a BRAF V600E mutation and a methylator phenotype, compared to traditional pathway cancers that are BRAF wild type.
Methods
Cancer (214 BRAF mutant, 122 BRAF wild type) and polyp (59 serrated polyps, 40 conventional adenomas) cohorts were analysed for PRDM5 promoter methylation using MethyLight technology. PRDM5 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in cancers and polyps. Mutation of PRDM5 was analysed using cBioPortal’s publicly available database.
Results
BRAF mutant cancers had significantly more frequent PRDM5 promoter methylation than BRAF wild type cancers (77/214,36% vs 4/122,3%; p<0.0001). Serrated type polyps had a lower methylation rate than cancers but were more commonly methylated than conventional adenomas (6/59,10% vs 0/40,0%). PRDM5 methylation was associated with advanced stages of presentation (p<0.05) and the methylator phenotype (p=0.03). PRDM5 protein expression was substantially down-regulated in both BRAF mutant and wild type cancer cohorts (92/97,95% and 39/44,89%). The polyp subgroups showed less silencing than the cancers, but similar rates were found between the serrated and conventional polyp cohorts (29/59, 49%; 23/40, 58% respectively). Of 295 colorectal cancers, PRDM5 was mutated in only 6 (2%) cancers which were all BRAF wild type.
Conclusions
Serrated pathway colorectal cancers demonstrated early and progressive PRDM5 methylation with advancing disease. Interestingly, PRDM5 protein expression was substantially reduced in all polyp types and more so in cancers which also indicates early and increasing PRDM5 down-regulation with disease progression. Methylation may be contributing to gene silencing in a proportion of BRAF mutant cancers, but the large extent of absent protein expression indicates other mechanisms are also responsible for this. These data suggest that PRDM5 is a relevant tumour suppressor gene that is frequently targeted in colorectal tumourigenesis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1011-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1011-9
PMCID: PMC4318154  PMID: 25613750
PRDM5; Colorectal cancer; BRAF V600E mutation
37.  The novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) hepatonomide, exhibits potent antitumor activity due to cytochrome-c-release-mediated apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma cells 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:19.
Background
Epigenetic modifications play a critical role in the regulation of all DNA-based processes, such as transcription, repair, and replication. Inappropriate histone modifications can result in dysregulation of cell growth, leading to neoplastic transformation and cell death. Renal tumors have been shown to have a higher global methylation percentage and reduced histone acetylation. Preclinical models have revealed that histone gene modifiers and epigenetic alterations play important roles in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumorigenesis. Recently, a novel HDAC inhibitor, N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) heptanomide (HNHA), has been introduced as an example of a new class of anti-cancer agents. The anti-cancer activity of HNHA and the underlying mechanisms of action remain to be clarified.
Methods
The MTS assay using a panel of RCC cells was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative effects of HNHA. The established HDAC inhibitors, SAHA and TSA, were used for comparison. Western blotting analysis was performed to investigate the acetylation of histone H3 and the expression of apoptotic markers in vitro and in vivo. Subcellular fractionation was performed to evaluate expression of Bax and cytochrome c in the cytosol and mitochondria, and also translocation of cytochrome c from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. A confocal microscopic evaluation was performed to confirm inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and the nuclear translocation of cytochrome c in RCC cells.
Results
In this study, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing activity of HNHA in cultured kidney cancer cells. Apoptosis in the HNHA-treated group was induced significantly, with marked caspase activation and Bcl-2 suppression in RCC cells in vitro and in vivo. HNHA treatment caused cytochrome c release from mitochondria, which was mediated by increased Bax expression and caspase activation. HNHA also induced nuclear translocation of cytochrome c, suggesting that HNHA can induce caspase-independent nuclear apoptosis in RCC cells. An in vivo study showed that HNHA had greater anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic effects on RCC xenografts than the established HDAC inhibitors.
Conclusions
HNHA has more potent anti-tumor activity than established HDAC inhibitors. Its activities are mediated by caspase-dependent and cytochrome-c-mediated apoptosis in RCC cells. These results suggest that HNHA may offer a new therapeutic approach to RCC.
doi:10.1186/s12885-014-1003-1
PMCID: PMC4318161  PMID: 25613585
HNHA; Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor; Renal cell carcinoma (RCC); Cytochrome c; Apoptosis
38.  Downregulation of EphA5 by promoter methylation in human prostate cancer 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:18.
Background
EphA5 is a member of the Eph/ephrin family and plays a critical role in the regulation of carcinogenesis. A significant reduction of EphA5 transcripts in high-grade prostate cancer tissue was shown using a transcriptomic analysis, compared to the low-grade prostate cancer tissue. As less is known about the mechanism of EphA5 downregulation and the function of EphA5, here we investigated the expression and an epigenetic change of EphA5 in prostate cancer and determined if these findings were correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate cancer.
Methods
Seven prostate cell lines (RWPE-1, LNCap, LNCap-LN3, CWR22rv-1, PC-3, PC-3M-LN4, and DU145), thirty-nine BPH, twenty-two primary prostate carcinomas, twenty-three paired noncancerous and cancerous prostate tissues were examined via qRT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The role of EphA5 in prostate cancer cell migration and invasion was examined by wound healing and transwell assay.
Results
Downregulation or loss of EphA5 mRNA or protein expression was detected in 28 of 45 (62.2%) prostate carcinomas, 2 of 39 (5.1%) hyperplasias, and all 6 prostate cancer cell lines. Methylation of the EphA5 promoter region was present in 32 of 45 (71.1%) carcinoma samples, 3 of 39 (7.7%) hyperplasias, and the 6 prostate cancer cell lines. Among 23 paired prostate carcinoma tissues, 16 tumor samples exhibited the hypermethylation of EphA5, and 15 of these 16 specimens (93.8%) shown the downregulation of EphA5 expression than that of their respectively matched noncancerous samples. Immunostaining analysis demonstrated that the EphA5 protein was absent or down-regulated in 10 of 13 (76.9%) available carcinoma samples, and 8 of these 10 samples (80.0%) exhibited hypermethylation. The frequency of EphA5 methylation was higher in cancer patients with an elevated Gleason score or T3-T4 staging. Following the treatment of 6 prostate cancer cell lines with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, the levels of EphA5 mRNA were significantly increased. Prostate cancer cells invasion and migration were significantly suppressed by ectopic expression of EphA5 in vitro.
Conclusion
Our study provides evidence that EphA5 is a potential target for epigenetic silencing in primary prostate cancer and is a potentially valuable prognosis predictor and thereapeutic marker for prostate cancer.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1025-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1025-3
PMCID: PMC4307617  PMID: 25609195
DNA methylation; EphA5 receptor; Gleason score; Prostate cancer; TNM staging
39.  Ewing sarcoma of the liver with multilocular cystic mass formation: a case report 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:16.
Background
Ewing sarcoma is a rare tumor that occurs commonly in the long bones of children or adolescents that can also arise in soft tissues including the extremities, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and rarely in the liver as primary sites. We report a case of Ewing sarcoma arising primarily in the liver and, to our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of Ewing sarcoma occurring in the liver.
Case presentation
A 27-year-old Japanese woman was admitted with sudden onset right upper abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed a multilocular cystic mass consisting of thickened, irregular septa and nodal walls in the right hepatic lobe. Ultrasound-guided aspiration biopsy of the liver mass showed clusters of small atypical round cells and the clinical preoperative diagnosis was mucinous cystadenoma of the liver. The patient underwent an extended right hepatectomy and histopathological findings revealed sheet-like proliferation of small- to medium-sized round cells. Tumor cells were positive for periodic acid-Schiff reaction and immunoreactive for glycoprotein C99 and gene NKX2.2, as well as the neuroendocrine markers, CD56 and synaptophysin. EWS-FLI-1 fusion transcript type 1 was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Pathological and molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma arising primarily in the liver and the patient received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide, alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide. We found no evidence of recurrence 15 months after completing chemotherapy.
Conclusion
We present an extremely rare case of Ewing sarcoma arising primarily in the liver. To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of Ewing sarcoma occurring in the liver, and the first case with a multilocular cystic liver mass. Imaging examinations of the other three reported cases showed solid tumors and a diffuse enlarged liver without mass lesion. Clinicians should consider the possibility of Ewing sarcoma in young patients with a multilocular cystic mass with thick and/or irregular cyst walls in the liver.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1017-3
PMCID: PMC4307901  PMID: 25608963
Ewing sarcoma; Primitive neuroectodermal tumor; Cysts; Liver Neoplasms; Chemotherapy
40.  Nitric oxide donors increase PVR/CD155 DNAM-1 ligand expression in multiple myeloma cells: role of DNA damage response activation 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:17.
Background
DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed by macrophages/dendritic cells and by T lymphocytes and Natural Killer (NK) cells, having an important role in anticancer responses; in this regard, combination therapies able to enhance the expression of DNAM-1 ligands on tumor cells are of therapeutic interest. In this study, we investigated the effect of different nitric oxide (NO) donors on the expression of the DNAM-1 ligand Poliovirus Receptor/CD155 (PVR/CD155) in multiple myeloma (MM) cells.
Methods
Six MM cell lines, SKO-007(J3), U266, OPM-2, RPMI-8226, ARK and LP1 were used to investigate the activity of different nitric oxide donors [DETA-NO and the NO-releasing prodrugs NCX4040 (NO-aspirin) and JS-K] on the expression of PVR/CD155, using Flow Cytometry and Real-Time PCR. Western-blot and specific inhibitors were employed to investigate the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP and activation of the DNA damage response (DDR).
Results
Our results indicate that increased levels of nitric oxide can upregulate PVR/CD155 cell surface and mRNA expression in MM cells; in addition, exposure to nitric oxide donors renders myeloma cells more efficient to activate NK cell degranulation and enhances their ability to trigger NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that activation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase and increased cGMP concentrations by nitric oxide is not involved in the up-regulation of ligand expression. On the contrary, treatment of MM cells with nitric oxide donors correlated with the activation of a DNA damage response pathway and inhibition of the ATM /ATR/Chk1/2 kinase activities by specific inhibitors significantly abrogates up-regulation.
Conclusions
The present study provides evidence that regulation of the PVR/CD155 DNAM-1 ligand expression by nitric oxide may represent an additional immune-mediated mechanism and supports the anti-myeloma activity of nitric oxide donors.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1023-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1023-5
PMCID: PMC4311457  PMID: 25609078
Multiple myeloma; Nitric oxide; DNAM-1; Natural killer; DNA damage response; Chemoimmunotherapy
41.  STK33 overexpression in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: possible role in tumorigenesis 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:13.
Background
The role of serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33) gene in tumorigenesis is still controversial. This study was aimed to investigate whether STK33 had the effect on hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) and relevant genes, as well as the potential relation to ERK1/2 pathway.
Methods
Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate STK33 expression in human HSCC specimens. MTT, immunofluorescence, clone formation and matrigel invasion assays were employed to detect the effects of STK33 knockdown (STK33-RNAi) and/or PD98059 on major oncogenic properties of a HSCC cell line (Fadu), while, real-time PCR and western blot were used to examine the expressions of relevant genes.
Results
STK33 was over-expressed in HSCC specimens, which was significantly associated with certain clinicopathological parameters. STK33-RNAi in Fadu cells resulted in inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, reduction of clone formation, and decline in the migration and invasion. These effects were potentiated by administration of PD98059. Mechanistic studies revealed that STK33-RNAi led to an increase in Caspse-3, Nm-23-H1 and E-Cadherin expressions and a reduction in Bcl-2, Ki-67 and Vimentin expressions. Moreover, PD98059 significantly reduced both ERK1/2 and STK33 expressions in Fadu cells.
Conclusions
STK33 is a potential oncogene and a promising diagnostic marker for HSCC. STK33 may promote tumorigenesis and progression of HSCC, and serve as a valuable molecular target for treatment of HSCC.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1009-3
PMCID: PMC4305229  PMID: 25603720
Serine/threonine kinase 33; Fadu cells; ERK1/2; Tumorigenesis
42.  Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes in patients with Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma (SBA): The Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) experience 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:15.
Background
SBA is a rare tumour which carries a poor prognosis. Very few data on prognostic factors and treatment outcomes are available. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients treated for SBA at our institution.
Methods
Clinico-pathological characteristics, treatments and outcomes of all the SBA patients treated consecutively from 1996 to 2011 were retrospectively collected. The prognostic value of baseline factors was assessed using the Cox regression model. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival outcomes.
Results
Eighty-four patients with SBA were treated during the study period. Of these, 48 presented with early stage SBA, while 36 had unresectable disease. All early stage SBA patients (58.3% males; median age, 59 years) underwent resection (R0 in 44/48) and 27 (56%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Median relapse-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 31.1 months (95% CI: 8.0-54.3) and 42.9 (95% CI: 0–94.9), respectively. In univariate analyses, poor histological differentiation (p = 0.025) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.003) were prognostic for OS. In the group of patients with relapsed, unresectable or metastatic disease (n = 59), systemic chemotherapy was administered in 46 cases (78%). The response rate to first line chemotherapy was 50%. Median progression-free survival and OS were 8.8 (95% CI: 5.5-12.3) and 12.8 months (95% CI: 8.4-17.2), respectively. In univariate analyses, low albumin (p = 0.041) and high platelet count (p = 0.007) were prognostic for OS.
Conclusion
Prospective clinical trials are needed to inform the management of SBA patients. Prognostic factors evaluated in our series may be useful for patient stratification and treatment selection in future studies.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1014-6
PMCID: PMC4305243  PMID: 25603878
43.  Microfluidic model of ductal carcinoma in situ with 3D, organotypic structure 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:12.
Background
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer that is thought to be a precursor to most invasive and metastatic breast cancers. Understanding the mechanisms regulating the invasive transition of DCIS is critical in order to better understand how some types of DCIS become invasive. While significant insights have been gained using traditional in vivo and in vitro models, existing models do not adequately recapitulate key structure and functions of human DCIS well. In addition, existing models are time-consuming and costly, limiting their use in routine screens. Here, we present a microscale DCIS model that recapitulates key structures and functions of human DCIS, while enhancing the throughput capability of the system to simultaneously screen numerous molecules and drugs.
Methods
Our microscale DCIS model is prepared in two steps. First, viscous finger patterning is used to generate mammary epithelial cell-lined lumens through extracellular matrix hydrogels. Next, DCIS cells are added to fill the mammary ducts to create a DCIS-like structure. For coculture experiments, human mammary fibroblasts (HMF) are added to the two side channels connected to the center channel containing DCIS. To validate the invasive transition of the DCIS model, the invasion of cancer cells and the loss of cell-cell junctions are then examined. A student t-test is conducted for statistical analysis.
Results
We demonstrate that our DCIS model faithfully recapitulates key structures and functions of human mammary DCIS and can be employed to study the mechanisms involved in the invasive progression of DCIS. First, the formation of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity in the normal mammary duct, and the structure of the DCIS model are characterized. Second, coculture with HMF is shown to induce the invasion of DCIS. Third, multiple endpoint analyses are demonstrated to validate the invasion.
Conclusions
We have developed and characterized a novel in vitro model of normal and DCIS-inflicted mammary ducts with 3D lumen structures. These models will enable researchers to investigate the role of microenvironmental factors on the invasion of DCIS in more in vivo-like conditions.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1007-5
PMCID: PMC4305264  PMID: 25605670
Mammary duct; Breast cancer; Ductal carcinoma in situ; Microfluidics; 3D; Lumen; Microenvironment; Extracellular matrix
44.  Histopathological features predict metastatic potential in locally advanced colon carcinomas 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:14.
Background
Metastatic dissemination can exist before a pathologically and clinically detectable manifestation. The structural heterogeneity of colon cancer (CC) in histological sections with respect to the morphology of tumor aggressiveness and composition of the tumor microenvironment raises the question of whether the microscopical tumor architecture enables a discrimination of groups with different metastatic potential. This would result in an assessment of the prognosis and provision of an ancillary tool for the therapeutic management after surgery, beside the estimation of the local tumor extent.
Methods
In order to identify predictive biomarkers for metastasis of locally advanced CC, which can easily be integrated into the pathologist’s daily routine diagnostic activity, we determined tumor budding, peritumoral inflammation, extent of desmoplasia and necrosis, density of macro- and microvascular blood vessels and functional state of lymphatics in the tumor center, invasive margin and tumor-free surrounding tissue in 86 non-metastatic, lymphogenous-metastatic and haematogenous-metastatic, subserosa-invasive CC.
Results
Features influencing nodal metastasis in the univariate analysis included high tumor budding (p = 0.004), high large vessel density in the subserosa (p = 0.043), abundant desmoplasia (p = 0.049), non-finger-like desmoplastic pattern (p = 0.051) and absent lymphocellular intratumoral inflammation (p = 0.084). In the multivariate analysis, with the exception of large vessel density, these pathomorphological features were independent risk factors for lymphogenous metastasis (p = 0.023, p = 0.017, p = 0.037, p = 0.012, respectively) with a good discrimination ability (AUC of 0.853). Features associated with distant metastasis in the univariate analysis included high tumor budding (p = 0.002), low intratumoral small vessel density (p = 0.013), absent lymphocellular intratumoral inflammation (p = 0.048) and abundant necrosis (p = 0.073). In the multivariate analysis only tumor budding was an independent predictor for haematogenous metastasis (p = 0.007) with a good discrimination ability (AUC of 0.829).
Conclusions
Thus, mainly tumor budding but also the described structural characteristics of the peritumoral tissue appears to reflect the metastatic potential of locally advanced CC and therefore should be stated in pathological reports.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1013-7
PMCID: PMC4307171  PMID: 25603809
Tumor budding; Inflammation; Desmoplasia; Necrosis; Blood vessel density; Lymphatics; Colon cancer; Metastasis
45.  Clinical observations on chemotherapy curable malignancies: unique genetic events, frozen development and enduring apoptotic potential 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:11.
Background
A select number of relatively rare metastatic malignancies comprising trophoblast tumours, the rare childhood cancers, germ cells tumours, leukemias and lymphomas have been routinely curable with chemotherapy for more than 30 years. However for the more common metastatic malignancies chemotherapy treatment frequently brings clinical benefits but cure is not expected. Clinically this clear divide in outcome between the tumour types can appear at odds with the classical theories of chemotherapy sensitivity and resistance that include rates of proliferation, genetic development of drug resistance and drug efflux pumps. We have looked at the clinical characteristics of the chemotherapy curable malignancies to see if they have any common factors that could explain this extreme differential sensitivity to chemotherapy.
Discussion
It has previously been noted how the onset of malignancy can leave malignant cells fixed with some key cellular functions remaining frozen at the point in development at which malignant transformation occurred. In the chemotherapy curable malignancies the onset of malignancy is in each case closely linked to one of the unique genetic events of; nuclear fusion for molar pregnancies, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblast tumours, gastrulation for the childhood cancers, meiosis for testicular cancer and ovarian germ cell tumours and VDJ rearrangement and somatic hypermutation for acute leukemia and lymphoma. These processes are all linked to natural periods of supra-physiological apoptotic potential and it appears that the malignant cells arising from them usually retain this heightened sensitivity to DNA damage. To investigate this hypothesis we have examined the natural history of the healthy cells during these processes and the chemotherapy sensitivity of malignancies arising before, during and after the events.
Summary
To add to the debate on chemotherapy resistance and sensitivity, we would argue that malignancies can be functionally divided into 2 groups. Firstly those that arise in cells with naturally heightened apoptotic potential as a result of their proximity to the unique genetic events, where the malignancies are generally chemotherapy curable and then the more common malignancies that arise in cells of standard apoptotic potential that are not curable with classical cytotoxic drugs.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1006-6
PMCID: PMC4308945  PMID: 25605631
Cancer; Chemotherapy; Apoptosis; Chemosensitivity; Meiosis; Gastrulation; VDJ; Hypermutation
46.  Role of baseline echocardiography prior to initiation of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:10.
Background
Anthracycline adjuvant therapy has taken a particular role in the treatment of early stage breast cancer with an associated decrease in rates of both relapse and death. Their success however has been limited by their myelosuppression and their well-established risk of cardiac dysfunction. Guidelines have emerged that would limit the maximum lifetime dose of anthracyclines and make a baseline assessment and periodic monitoring of cardiac function part of the routine practice, which could be cumbersome, and may condemn the patient to an unwarranted modification of his/her regimen. Our study aimed at assessing the incidence of abnormal baseline echocardiography in asymptomatic women with breast cancer prior to anthracycline therapy and establishing risk criteria associated with abnormal echocardiograms at baseline.
Methods
220 Patients seen at AUBMC (American University of Beirut Medical Center) who had non- metastatic breast cancer, and had an echocardiography performed before starting anthracycline chemotherapy were chosen. Data about demographic characteristics, tumor characteristics, baseline echocardiography results, and change in clinical decision was collected. Patients with suboptimal (less than 50%) ejection fraction (EF) on baseline echocardiography were analyzed for the prevalence of cardiac risk factors. Results were compared to those among the overall study group using Fisher’s Exact test. A p- value of = < 0.05 was used as reference for statistical significance.
Results
All 220 of our patients had received a baseline echo prior to initiation of anthracycline therapy. 6.7% of these patients had already some abnormality in wall motion but only 2.7% had a suboptimal ejection fraction. 1.3% had a change in chemotherapy regimen based on ejection fraction. The patients with depressed EF had higher rates of CAD (coronary artery disease), diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia than the overall study group but without statistical significance.
Conclusions
Our study, as well as the previous contingent studies raise the question about routine echocardiography prior to anthracycline therapy and might eventually lead to a modification of current practice guidelines.
doi:10.1186/s12885-014-1004-0
PMCID: PMC4311428  PMID: 25605569
Breast cancer; Echocardiography; Anthracycline
47.  Androgen-regulation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRR activates ERK1/2 signalling in prostate cancer cells 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:9.
Background
Androgens drive the onset and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) via androgen receptor (AR) signalling. The principal treatment for PCa is androgen deprivation therapy, although the majority of patients eventually develop a lethal castrate-resistant form of the disease, where despite low serum testosterone levels AR signalling persists. Advanced PCa often has hyper-activated RAS/ERK1/2 signalling thought to be due to loss of function of key negative regulators of the pathway, the details of which are not fully understood.
Methods
We recently carried out a genome-wide study and identified a subset of 226 novel androgen-regulated genes (PLOS ONE 6:e29088, 2011). In this study we have meta-analysed this dataset with genes and pathways frequently mutated in PCa to identify androgen-responsive regulators of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.
Results
We find the PTGER4 and TSPYL2 genes are up-regulated by androgen stimulation and the ADCY1, OPKR1, TRIB1, SPRY1 and PTPRR are down-regulated by androgens. Further characterisation of PTPRR protein in LNCaP cells revealed it is an early and direct target of the androgen receptor which negatively regulates the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway and reduces cell proliferation in response to androgens.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that loss of PTPRR in clinical PCa is one factor that might contribute to activation of the RAS/ERK1/2 pathway.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1012-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1012-8
PMCID: PMC4302442  PMID: 25592066
PTPRR; RAS/ERK1/2; MAP Kinase; Androgens; Prostate cancer
48.  Computational cancer biology: education is a natural key to many locks 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:7.
Background
Oncology is a field that profits tremendously from the genomic data generated by high-throughput technologies, including next-generation sequencing. However, in order to exploit, integrate, visualize and interpret such high-dimensional data efficiently, non-trivial computational and statistical analysis methods are required that need to be developed in a problem-directed manner.
Discussion
For this reason, computational cancer biology aims to fill this gap. Unfortunately, computational cancer biology is not yet fully recognized as a coequal field in oncology, leading to a delay in its maturation and, as an immediate consequence, an under-exploration of high-throughput data for translational research.
Summary
Here we argue that this imbalance, favoring ’wet lab-based activities’, will be naturally rectified over time, if the next generation of scientists receives an academic education that provides a fair and competent introduction to computational biology and its manifold capabilities. Furthermore, we discuss a number of local educational provisions that can be implemented on university level to help in facilitating the process of harmonization.
doi:10.1186/s12885-014-1002-2
PMCID: PMC4298945  PMID: 25588624
Cancer; Computational biology; Genomics data; Computational oncology; Computational genomics; Statistical genomics; Systems medicine
49.  Clinicopathological significance of nuclear factor (erythroid-2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression in gastric cancer 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:5.
Background
The transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-2)–related factor 2 (Nrf2) was originally identified as a critical regulator of intracellular anti-oxidants and of phase II detoxification enzymes through its transcriptional up-regulation of many anti-oxidant response element (ARE)-containing genes. Nrf2 protects not only normal cells but also cancer cells from cellular stress, and enhances cancer cell survival. Some studies have shown that Nrf2 expression in cancer patients has clinical significance. However, there has been no comprehensive analysis of the nuclear expression level of Nrf2 in gastrointestinal cancer cells. In this study we aimed to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression of Nrf2, and to assess its clinical significance in gastric cancer.
Methods
A total of 175 gastric cancer patients who received R0 gastrectomy with standard lymph node dissection were enrolled. We immunohistochemically evaluated Nrf2 expression in the paraffin-embedded surgically resected specimens of these 175 patients. Group differences were analyzed using the χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and the Mann–Whitney U test. Associations between Nrf2 expression and clinicopathological features, including clinical outcome, were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses, and Kaplan-Meier curves with the log-rank test, respectively.
Results
Nrf2 immunoreactivity was predominantly identified in the nucleus of gastric cancer cells. Nrf2 positivity was closely associated with tumor size, tumor depth, lymph node metastases, lymphovascular invasion, histology and stage (p < 0.05 for all). A log-rank test indicated that the overall survival of the Nrf2-positive group was significantly poorer than that of the Nrf2-negative group (p < 0.01). And, positive Nrf2 expression was significantly associated with resistance to 5FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.024).
Conclusions
Nrf2 expression was positively associated with aggressive tumor behavior in gastric cancer. This result suggests that Nrf2 expression in gastric cancer is a potential indicator of worse prognosis.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1008-4
PMCID: PMC4302133  PMID: 25588809
NF-E2-related factor 2; Gastric cancer; Antioxidants
50.  Liposome encapsulated zoledronate favours M1-like behaviour in murine macrophages cultured with soluble factors from breast cancer cells 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:4.
Background
Tumour stromal macrophages differentiate to tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) with characteristics of immunosuppressive M2-type macrophages, having a central role in promoting tumour vascularisation, cancer cell dissemination and in suppressing anti-cancer immune responses. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a group of drugs commonly used as anti-resorptive agents. Further, nitrogen containing BPs like Zoledronate (ZOL), are known to cause unspecific inflammatory reactions hence the hypothesis that its use could modulate TAMs polarization toward a more inflammatory phenotype.
Methods
We studied the in vitro polarization of J774 murine macrophages upon culture in 4T1 breast cancer cell-conditioned medium (4T1CM) and stimulation with LPS and free and liposome-encapsulated bisphosphonates.
Results
In this system, breast cancer soluble factors reduced the pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages but increased the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the presence of 4T1CM, a non-cytotoxic dose of liposome-encapsulated ZOL (ZOL-LIP) enhanced the expression of iNOS and TNF-α, markers of M1 activation, but did not diminish the expression of M2-type markers. In contrast, clodronate treatment either as a free drug (CLO) or liposome-encapsulated (CLO-LIP) decreased the expression of the M1-type markers and was highly cytotoxic to the macrophages.
Conclusions
Breast cancer cells soluble factors modulate macrophages toward M2 activation state. Bisphosphonates may be applied to counteract this modulation. We propose that ZOL-LIP may be suitable for favouring cytotoxic immune responses by TAMs in breast cancer, whereas CLO-LIP may be appropriate for TAM depletion.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1005-7
PMCID: PMC4305237  PMID: 25588705
Breast Cancer; Tumour-associated Macrophages; Bisphosphonates; Clodronate; Zoledronate; Cytokines; Liposomes

Results 26-50 (5303)