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26.  Development of disease wise protocols in Ayurvedic clinical research 
Ayu  2014;35(1):3-4.
PMCID: PMC4213964  PMID: 25364191
27.  Effect of Pippalimula on Ama w.s.r. to Samavaya 
Ayu  2014;35(1):35-41.
Shad Karanas mentioned in Ayurveda are the means for attaining the state of Dhatusamyata. Samavaya is the sixth Karana among these and it provides the knowledge of relation between Dravya, Guna and Karma. This kind of knowledge becomes the basic tool in the field of diagnosis as well as in the selection of proper drug.
To assess the Samavaya relation between Ama and its Hetu and Lakshanas along with Practical evaluation of Samavaya by using Pippalimula on Ama.
Materials and Methods:
The study comprising of total 23 patients of Ama and divided into two groups. Pippalimula tablet (each of 500 mg, 2 tablets four times daily) was administered in Group A (n = 13) while Group B (n = 10) was treated with placebo tablet (each of 500 mg, 2 tablets four times daily) for the duration of 10 days.
After the completion of treatment, all the parameters of Group A showed statistically highly significant results, whereas in Group B some parameters showed significant results and others were insignificant.
The study specified the Karanatva of Samavaya as the Laghu, Ruksha and Ushna Gunas which were present Samavayatvena in Pippalimula, and were absent in placebo.
PMCID: PMC4213965  PMID: 25364197
Ama; Pippalimula; Samavaya; Shadkarana
28.  Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients 
Ayu  2014;35(1):42-45.
Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”.
To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method of mouth rinsing and classical method of Gandusha.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted in 40 patients, 20 in each Group-1 and 2. Group -1 was given prepared Triphaladi mouthwash (mouth rinse) while Group-2 was given Triphaladi Kwath for Gandusha (retention).
The effect of treatment was assessed by subjective and objective parameters (like salivary pH, buffering capacity and microbial count). Triphaladi Gandusha (retention) in Group - 2 provided better results in the improvement of Ruja (toothache), Dantaharsha (tooth sensitivity), Sarambha (inflammation), pH of saliva, microbial count in salivary sample. And Triphaladi Mouthwash in Group - 1 provided better results in Srava (discharge), bad breath, pH of saliva and buffering capacity of salivary sample. There was no improvement in Chidrata (cavity formation), Krishnata (discoloration) and Chaladanta (mobility) with Triphaladi Gandusha and mouthwash.
Study concluded that although both groups were effective, but Gandusha group patients’ got better relief in subjective symptoms compared to mouthwash group.
PMCID: PMC4213966  PMID: 25364198
Dental caries; Krimidanta; Saliva; Triphaladi Gandusha
29.  Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Rasayana drugs in healthy human volunteers 
Ayu  2014;35(1):46-49.
It is increasingly being realized that many of today's diseases are due to “oxidative stress” that results from an imbalance between formation and neutralization of free radicals. Rasayana Chikitsa is a unique branch of Ayurveda. The word Rasayana means the way for attaining excellent Rasadi Dhatus. Several medicinal plants have been described as Rasayanas in Ayurveda. Ashwagandha and Guduchi are the best among the Rasayanas described by Charaka.
To study the efficacy of Ashwagandha and Guduchi in oxidative stress in healthy volunteers.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out on 30 healthy volunteers after obtaining written informed consent. They were randomly distributed in three groups. Each group was treated with three different colored capsules containing Ashwagandha, Guduchi and placebo in the dose of 1 capsule (500 mg) twice a day for 6 months. The parameters such as hemoglobin%, Erythorcyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Super-Oxide Dismutase (SOD) level, etc., were assessed before and after treatment. The Student's t-test was applied to assess significant variations in all of the studied parameters.
In this study, there was a significant increase in SOD level and decrease in MDA level in Ashwagandha and Guduchi groups.
Ashwagandha and Guduchi may be helpful in preventing the oxidative stress and premature aging.
PMCID: PMC4213967  PMID: 25364199
Ashwagandha; Guduchi; malondialdehyde; oxidative stress; Rasayana; super-oxide dismutase
30.  Systematic review of the concept of Yakrutotpatti (embryology of liver) 
Ayu  2014;35(1):5-8.
Ayurveda has its own view to understand the development of human body and its various organs. As the quotations are in a concise manner, it is essential to amalgamate the basics stated by various Acharyas with comprehensive explanation of modern science. The liver is a vital organ for metabolism. Acharyas have opined about the genesis of Yakrut (liver) from Rakta Dhatu (blood tissue). Parallel opinion in conventional anatomy states that abundant quantity of blood is responsible for the formation of sinusoids of liver. This huge quantity of blood comes from broken viteline and umbilical veins in the septum transversum. On the other hand, the raw material for the formation of blood cells and liver (septum transversum) is the same, being mesenchymal cells from the mesoderm. The present review was conducted to discover the similarities about the genesis of liver in the opinions of ancient and conventional medical science. This may be useful for utilizing the ancient medical science in a new perspective. Therefore, it is attempted to correlate the genesis of liver in Ayurveda with modern science.
PMCID: PMC4213968  PMID: 25364192
Angapratyanga Nirman; embryology; liver; Yakrut; Yakrutsharira
31.  Management of Vyanga (facial melanosis) with Arjuna Twak Lepa and Panchanimba Churna 
Ayu  2014;35(1):50-53.
Vyanga is one of the Kshudraroga, characterized by the presence of Niruja (painless) and Shavavarna Mandalas (bluish-black patches) on face. It is one of the most common diseases as regards the face is concerned. On the basis of clinical features, it can be compared with facial melanosis, one of the hyper pigmented disorders. Drugs with Rakta Prasadaka, Twak Prasadaka and Varnyakara properties are helpful in the management of Vyanga, that pacifies aggregated Doshas and help in Raktashodhana (blood purification).
To evaluate the efficacy of Arjunatwak Lepa and Panchanimba Churna in Vyanga.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the trial drugs used were Arjunatwak Churna for Lepa (tropical application) and Panchanimba Churna for oral administration. A total 30 patients of Vyanga were selected from outpatient department and inpatient department of Shalakya Tantra Department and allotted randomly in two groups. In group-A, the patients were treated with external application of Arjunatwak Churna and Madhu for 21 days, while in group-B, patients received Panchanimba Churna orally for 21 days in addition to Arjunatwak Churna for Lepa. Effect of therapy on chief complaint i.e., bluish-black pigmentation in Group A was 60% relief, while in Group B 80% relief was found.
The clinical study has shown that combined therapy gives better results than topical treatment.
PMCID: PMC4213969  PMID: 25364200
Arjunatwak Churna; facial melanosis; Panchanimba Churna; Vyanga
32.  Phytochemical and analytical evaluation of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) leaf extracts 
Ayu  2014;35(1):54-57.
Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) is a woody climber belongs to the family Celastraceae; a well known herbal nootropic, distributed through the tropical and subtropical regions of India. Its leaves are used in eye disease and headache. Very low qualitative and quantitative information about leaves have been documented to establish its quality and purity.
Present study was conducted to evaluate physicochemical, phyto-chemical and HPTLC analysis of different solvent extracts of the C. paniculatus leaves.
Physico-chemical analysis revealed loss on drying 13.05% w/w, total ash value 16.08% w/w, acid insoluble ash 0.386% w/w, water-soluble extractive 14.22% w/w, alcohol-soluble extractive 9.91% w/w, chloroform-soluble extractive 7.75% w/w and ether-soluble extractive 4.74% w/w. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroid and terpenoid in the both pet. ether and ethyl acetate extracts while methanol extract possessed steroid, terpenoid, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, and phenolic compounds.
The observations made in this study may help to develop the standards of qualitative and quantitative parameters with regards to identification, quality and purity of C. paniculatus leaf.
PMCID: PMC4213970  PMID: 25364201
Celastrus paniculatus; Jyotishmati leaf; high-performance thin layer chromatography; phytochemistry
33.  Quality control evaluation of Keshamasi, Keshanjana and Keshamasi eye ointment 
Ayu  2014;35(1):58-62.
Keshanjana (collyrium) is a well known Ayurvedic preparation prepared out of Keshamasi (ash prepared by scalp hairs) mixed with Goghrita (cow's ghee). This medicine is indicated for the treatment of Shushkakshipaka (dry eye syndrome) in the classical literature of Ayurveda; hence, it was under taken for standardization and clinical evaluation in an extra-mural research project from Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Department of AYUSH, New Delhi.
To develop standard quality parameters for the Keshamasi, Keshanjana and Keshamasi ointment.
Materials and Methods:
Scalp hairs of male and females collected from saloons were converted to classical Masi Kalpana and mixed with cow ghee and petrolatum in the ratio of 1:5 to prepare the Keshanjana and Keshamasi ointment respectively. Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) were adopted and recorded accordingly. The raw material, furnished products and plain Goghrita were subjected for quality control parameters i.e., physico-chemical evaluation, anti-microbial study, particle size analysis, heavy metal analysis through inductive couple plasma spectroscopy with high performance thin layer liquid chromatography fingerprints.
Rancidity was negative in all the samples, indicating that the physico-chemical parameters are in acceptable range. Lead and zinc were present in most of the samples; while all samples are were free from microbial contamination.
As no standards are available to compare the results of the current study, the observations cannot be compared. Thus the profile generated in the current study can be considered as standard to refer in future studies.
PMCID: PMC4213971  PMID: 25364202
Keshamasi; Keshanjana; ointment; quality control profile
34.  Process standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura 
Ayu  2014;35(1):63-70.
Rajata Sindura (RS) is a mercurial preparation, known for its properties like Rasayana (rejuvinating), Balya (strengthening), Vrushya (aphrodisiac), Medhya (increasing intellect) and can cure various diseases when used with appropriate adjuvant. It is prepared with Hingulottha Parada (purified mercury), Shuddha Gandhaka (purified sulfur) and Shuddha Rajata (purified silver) in a proportion of 1:1:4. Process standardization and characterization of RS are not reported until date.
Pharmaceutical standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura.
Materials and Methods:
Purified mercury and silver were triturated to form amalgam, followed by the addition of purified sulfur to prepare Kajjali and lavigated with Vatankura (leaf buds of Ficus benghalensis Linn.) swarasa (juice). This Kajjali was processed by Kupipakwa method.
Results and Conclusion:
RS was prepared in 33 h with 20.25% yield. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis has shown Mercury 86.21%, sulfur 13.27% as major elements; iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium and silver were other detected minor elements. X-ray diffraction report revealed the chemical nature of RS as HgS compound, having cubic crystal structure.
PMCID: PMC4213972  PMID: 25364203
Kupipakwa Rasayana; Rajata Sindura; X-ray diffraction
35.  Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics 
Ayu  2014;35(1):71-78.
Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics.
To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger.
Materials and Methods:
The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays.
The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 μg/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 μg/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains.
This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases.
PMCID: PMC4213973  PMID: 25364204
Anti-oxidants; fractional inhibitory concentration index; free radicals; minimum inhibitory concentration; Origanum vulgare
36.  Analgesic and hypnotic activities of Laghupanchamula: A preclinical study 
Ayu  2014;35(1):79-84.
In Ayurvedic classics, two types of Laghupanchamula -five plant roots (LP) have been mentioned containing four common plants viz. Kantakari, Brihati, Shalaparni, and Prinshniparni and the fifth plant is either Gokshura (LPG) or Eranda (LPE). LP has been documented to have Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Shulanashka (analgesic), Jvarahara (antipyretic), and Rasayana (rejuvenator) activities.
To evaluate the acute toxicity (in mice), analgesic and hypnotic activity (in rats) of 50% ethanolic extract of LPG (LPGE) and LPE (LPEE).
Materials and Methods:
LPEG and LPEE were prepared separately by using 50% ethanol following the standard procedures. A graded dose (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) response study for both LPEE and LPGE was carried out for analgesic activity against rat tail flick response which indicated 500 mg/kg as the optimal effective analgesic dose. Hence, 500 mg/kg dose of LPEE and LPGE was used for hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing model in analgesic activity and for evaluation of hypnotic activity.
Both the extracts did not produce any acute toxicity in mice at single oral dose of 2.0 g/kg. Both LPGE and LPEE (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 60 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail-flick method by 25.1-62.4% and 38.2-79.0% respectively. LPGE and LPEE (500 mg/kg) increased reaction time in hot-plate test at peak 60 min analgesic effect by 63.2 and 85.8% and reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 55.9 and 65.8% respectively. Both potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis as indicated by increased duration of sleep in treated rats.
The analgesic and hypnotic effects of LP formulations authenticate their uses in Ayurvedic system of Medicine for painful conditions.
PMCID: PMC4213974  PMID: 25364205
Analgesic; hypnotic potentiation; Laghupanchamula
37.  Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study 
Ayu  2014;35(1):85-89.
A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Gingival tissue samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with the chronic periodontitis. The tissue extracts were treated with the said drug solutions and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was analyzed. Enzymatic activity was detected by electrophoresis. The data was subjected to Student's paired t-test.
The results showed that the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was significantly decreased by the use of doxycycline, Neem and Aloe vera. A 53.5% reduction in the MMP-2 and 52.5% reduction in the MMP-9 activity was seen when samples were subjected to Neem treatment at the concentration of 1500 μg/ml. Tissues treated with Aloe vera in the concentration of 2000 μg/ml showed a 20.09% reduction in the MMP-2 and 20.4% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. Doxycycline in the concentration of 300 μg/ml, showed an 82.1% reduction in the MMP-2 and 82.6% reduction in the MMP-9 activity.
The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Neem and Aloe vera on MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are involved in the extracellular matrix degradation during periodontitis.
PMCID: PMC4213975  PMID: 25364206
Aloe; Azadirachta; doxycycline; matrix metallo-proteinases; periodontitis
38.  Knowledge level of Ayurveda practitioner on public health 
Ayu  2014;35(1):9-14.
Looking at the current scenario of shortage of public health professionals on one hand and intense demand of community health services on the other it is imperative that the contribution of Ayurveda practitioners is increased in the field of public health. However, the updating of the knowledge of public health issues and concepts will ultimately decide whether they can be successfully integrated into the community health arena or not.
This study was conducted to assess the knowledge level of Ayurveda practitioners about public health Issues with the aim find out the competence of Ayurveda practitioners regarding knowledge of public health issues.
Materials and Methods:
Cross-sectional study was conducted in the union territory, Chandigarh and two districts each of the states of Haryana and Punjab. Public health knowledge assessment tool comprising a questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents who were registered Ayurveda doctors and interns. The data was analyzed with the help of IBM SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions).
The respondents scored between 5 and 17 points out of a total of 19 points and majority (82%) of the respondents fell in the category of “having average knowledge”. The mean score was 8.42 ± 2.
Curriculum and training of Ayurveda education need to have more public health related inputs and hence that the Ayurveda practitioners are well-versed with the public health concepts and could contribute in the public health field meaningfully.
PMCID: PMC4213976  PMID: 25364193
Ayurveda practitioners; public health; public health professionals; public health skills
39.  Dopamine mediated antidepressant effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds in various experimental models of depression 
Ayu  2014;35(1):90-97.
The effects of antidepressant treatments have traditionally been discussed primarily in terms of effects on noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Multiple lines of investigation have also explored the role of dopaminergic systems in mental depression. Seed of Mucuna pruriens Linn. (DC) (Leguminoseae) is well-known with dopaminergic action and has several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases including Parkinsonism.
To elucidate the anti-depressent profile and possible dopaminergic modulating action of M. pruriens seeds in various experimental models of depression.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, antidepressant effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the M. pruriens seeds (MPE) (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was investigated in the Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), and Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS) test in mice. Further, dopaminergic interaction of same doses of MPE in the FST and TST were checked by the administration of a haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and bromocriptine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) on the 7th day of MPE treatment. Effect of MPE on locomotor activity was also checked using actophotometer.
MPE produced a significant reduction of the immobility time in the FST and TST. Further, antidepressant action of MPE was significantly inhibited by haloperidol and potentiated by bromocriptine in the FST and TST. 21 days of MPE treatment produced protection in CUMS as indicated by a significant increase of sucrose intake of stressed mice. Locomotor activities of mice were not significantly changed after 1 h and 7th day of the MPE treatment.
The results of this study indicate that hydroalcoholic extract of MPE have antidepressant action, which may be mediated by an interaction with the dopaminergic system.
PMCID: PMC4213977  PMID: 25364207
Chronic mild stress test; forced swimming test; Mucuna pruriens; tail suspension test
40.  Phytochemical screening of five medicinal legumes and their evaluation for in vitro anti-tubercular activity 
Ayu  2014;35(1):98-102.
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in the world. A new alternative for the treatment of tuberculosis is urgently required, due to the emergence of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
There is currently considerable interest in developing potential drugs from medicinal plants for treating tuberculosis. To evaluate anti-tubercular activity in the leaves of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams., Humboldtia brunonis Wall., Indigofera cassioides Rottl.ex DC., Derris scandens Benth. and Ceasalpinia mimosoides Lamk.
Materials and Methods:
Non-polar and polar solvent extracts of leaves of these medicinal legumes were tested against M. tuberculosis H37RV and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar based proportion assay.
Phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, anthro-quinones, terpinods, flavonoids and phlabotanins. Crude leaf extracts of these plants have shown MIC value of 50 μg/ml as against the standard drug Isoniazid value of 0.025 μg/ml.
Results showed that crude extracts of legume leaves screened exhibited potential anti-tubercular activity against M. tuberculosis and further work is required to identify the active molecule of these legumes, to get a novel anti-tubercular drug. This is the maiden finding on anti-tubercular activity of these medicinal legumes.
PMCID: PMC4213978  PMID: 25364208
Bioactive compounds; medicinal legumes; secondary metabolites; tuberculosis
41.  Pharmacological expression of Rasayanakarma 
Ayu  2013;34(4):337-338.
PMCID: PMC3968692  PMID: 24696568
42.  Assessment of Lekhana Basti in the management of hyperlipidemia 
Ayu  2013;34(4):339-345.
Hyperlipidemia is highly prevalent and is closely related to coronary heart disease which is the most common cause of death. Raised cholesterol is estimated to be responsible for 18% of cerebrovascular disease and 56% of ischemic heart disease. Overall, these diseases account for about 4.4 million deaths (7.9% of the total). Based upon the etiological factors and symptom complexes, hyperlipidemia can be considered as a part of Medoroga. Being a Tikshna formulation, the treatment modality of Lekhana Basti is aimed basically for Apatarpana (emaciation) of the body, as Basti is the fastest Apatarpana. In the present clinical trial, a total of 22 patients were registered of whom 19 patients completed the course of the therapy. Under randomization, the registered patients were divided into two groups of which group A was treated with Lekhana Basti and group B was administered standard control drug, i.e., Triphala Guggulu, for 21 days. The results of the study revealed that in patients treated with Lekhana Basti, there was a decrease of about 4.99% in S. cholesterol, 9.13% in S. low density lipoprotein (LDL), and 0.36% in S. apolipoprotein B. Lekhana Basti was found to have significant effect in reducing the symptoms of Medodushti and in reduction of objective parameters like weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, body circumferences such as chest, abdomen, hip, pelvis, mid-thigh circumference, etc., and skin fold thickness as biceps, triceps, mid-arm, and abdominal skinfold thickness.
PMCID: PMC3968693  PMID: 24696569
Hyperlipidemia; Lekhana Basti; Triphala Guggulu
43.  Effect of Sameera Pannaga Rasa (arsenomercurial formulation) in the management of Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) - Randomized double blind clinical study 
Ayu  2013;34(4):346-351.
Asthma represents a profound world-wide public health problem. The most effective anti-asthmatic drugs currently available include β2-agonists and glucocorticoids which can controls asthma in about 90-95% of patients. In Ayurveda, this miserable condition is comparable with Tamaka Shwasa type of Shwasa Roga. In the present study, 52 patients were treated with Sameera Pannaga Rasa at a dose of 30 mg twice a day for 4 weeks along with Nagavallidala (leaf of Piper betel Linn.) The results were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief, pulmonary function improvement and on subjective and objective parameters. A significant improvement in subjective parameters, control on asthma, recurrence of asthma, increase in peak expiratory flow rate, considerable decrease in total and absolute, acute eosinophil count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed. Overall marked improvement was found in 33.33%, moderate improvement in 44.44% and mild improvement in 20.00% was observed. The study reveals that Sameera Pannaga Rasa can be used as an effective drug in bronchial asthma.
PMCID: PMC3968694  PMID: 24696570
Bronchial asthma; pulmonary function; Sameera Pannaga Rasa; Shwasa
44.  Evaluation of diet and life style in the etiopathogenesis of Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer dyspepsia) 
Ayu  2013;34(4):352-355.
For a long time, infectious (communicable) diseases were the biggest killer diseases globally. But now, the trend is changing toward increased prevalence of chronic diseases with causative factors mostly related to diet and lifestyle. Among them, Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer dyspepsia), a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder, has acquired majority of the share with causative factors like improper diet and habits, stress, spicy irritant food, oily foods, bakery products, etc., A survey study was conducted on 138 patients, irrespective of sex, religion, etc., who had presented with the clinical symptoms of Urdhwaga Amlapitta and attended the OPD of Department of Basic Principles, at I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, between February 2009 and June 2010. Information on demography, dietary intake, and lifestyle factors was collected by standard questionnaires. The data revealed that majority of the patients indulged in faulty dietary habits like excess Katu Ahara Sevana (99.3%), Amla Ahara (95.65%), Guru Ahara (90.57%), Snigdha Ahara (86.23%), Viruddha (81.88%), Abhishyandi Ahara (81.88%), Atiushna Ahara (73.9%), Vidahi (51.44%), Pistanna (47.10%), etc., and the data on lifestyle revealed that majority of the patients indulged in Diwasvapna (89.85%), Antarodaka Paanam (81.88%), Chinta (79.71%), etc., This survey study upholds the novel concept of diet and lifestyle of Ayurveda. The data reflects that dietary patterns, lifestyle choices, and physical activities play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of Urdhwaga Amlapitta, and it is important for patients to have access to diet and lifestyle modifications. Currently, research in this area is minimal.
PMCID: PMC3968695  PMID: 24695749
Diet; life style; non ulcer dyspepsia; Urdhwaga Amlapitta
45.  Scientific study of Charakokta Anguli Pramana in reference to human height 
Ayu  2013;34(4):356-360.
Ayurveda has dynamic and creative view on health and gives importance to the individual while managing his health and also during treating the diseases. Ayurveda is a system of health science which not only includes the knowledge of body and diseases but also includes the way of living healthy i.e., “Swastha”. The concept of Maana-Pramana is one of the significant contributions of Ayurveda. This study was undertaken to evaluate the Charakokta Sutra (verse) which implies that “Height (Aayama) of human being is 84 fingers (Anguli) and is equal to Arm Span (Vistaara)”. In the present study, anthropometric measurements by finger were taken and exact site of particular finger in a manner to execute “Anguli Sthana Nishchiti” was determined. The data of Aayama and Vistaara of the 100 volunteers was recorded and statistically analysed. After comparing the Anguli Pramana (Measurement through finger) obtained at 78 different sites of both hands, it was established that measurement of Anguli Pramana at the site of medio-lateral proximal interphalangeal joint of middle finger of right and left hand, would be most accurate in estimating Anguli Pramana.
PMCID: PMC3968696  PMID: 24696571
Aayama-Vistaara; Anguli Pramana; anthropometry; human height
46.  Endoscopic evaluation of therapeutic effects of “Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama” in Pratishyaya w.s.r. to mucociliary clearance mechanism and Bernoulli's principle 
Ayu  2013;34(4):361-367.
The current endeavor intended to evaluate the effectiveness and mode of action of Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama (AVP), i.e., alternate nasal breathing exercise, in resolving clinical features of Pratishyaya, i.e., rhinosinusitis. The present study was directed to validate the use of classical “saccharin test” in measuring the nasal health by measuring mucociliary clearance time. This study also highlights the effects of AVP by application of Bernoulli principle in ventilation of paranasal sinuses and surface oxygenation of nasal and paranasal sinuses ciliary epithelium. Clinically, endoscopically and radiologically diagnosed patients of Pratishyaya, i.e., rhinosinusitis, satisfying the inclusion criteria were selected to perform AVP as a breathing exercise regularly for 30 min every day in order to evaluate the effectiveness of AVP in resolving features of rhinosinusitis. Saccharin test was performed before and after completion of 40 days trial to assess the nasal ciliary activity, which has been proved to be directly related to the health of ciliary epithelium and nasal health overall as well. AVP may be regarded as a catalyst to conspicuously enhance ventilation and oxygenation of the paranasal sinuses and the positively effect the nasal respiratory epithelium by increasing better surface availability of oxygen and negative pressure in the nasal cavity itself.
PMCID: PMC3968697  PMID: 24696572
Anuloma-Viloma Pranayama; Bernoulli principle; mucociliary clearance time; nitric oxide; Pratishyaya (rhinosinusitis) and saccharin test
47.  Clinical evaluation of Bilvadileha in the management of irritable bowel syndrome 
Ayu  2013;34(4):368-372.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common conditions encountered in clinical practice but one of the least well understood. Symptoms of this disorder are chronic, sometimes severe and often respond poorly to treatment, resulting in reduced quality of life. There is no specific test for IBS, although diagnostic tests may be performed to rule out other problems. In present clinical trial 51 patients of IBS were registered out of which 46 patients completed the treatment. Bilvadileha was administered for the duration of 12 weeks. The therapy showed statistically significant improvement in all the clinical features of IBS as well as in the IBS severity score.
PMCID: PMC3968698  PMID: 24696573
Ayurvedic management; Bilvadileha; irritable bowel syndrome
48.  Effect of selected Samana and Vicitra Pratyayarabdha Dravya w.s.r. to Vipaka 
Ayu  2013;34(4):373-378.
Concept of Arabdhata and Pratyayarabdhata is a unique concept of Ayurveda, which is related to the conjugation and configuration of Mahabhutas (penta elements). Every substance undergoes some changes during digestion and metabolism in terms of changes in its Panchabhautika composition. If substance retains its Panchabhautika composition throughout the digestion and metabolism, it is known as Samana Pratyayarabdhata and if Panchabhautika composition of substance becomes totally different after digestion and metabolism, it is known as Vicitra Pratyayarabdhata. The change in Panchabhautika composition of substance can be seen at the level of Vipaka (post-digestive effect) or Virya (potency), which are not found according to Rasa (taste) and hence the Karma (action) of substance becomes different from its Rasa. Therefore, four drugs were selected, two having Samana Pratyayarabdhata (Nimba and Vasa) and two having Vicitra Pratyayarabdhata (Bhumyamalaki and Shankhapushpi). Clinical study was carried out on 24 healthy volunteers having Madhyama Koshta, divided into four groups, one group for each drug. The effects of drugs were assessed according to their Vipaka on Koshta (Bowel habit) especially on stool and habit of defecation (Srishtavinmutrata or Baddhavinmutrata). All the drugs showed effect according to their Vipaka in few parameters, but most of the results were statistically insignificant which suggested that substances perform their action according to their Pratyayarabdhata.
PMCID: PMC3968699  PMID: 24696574
Samana Pratyayarabdha; Vicitra Pratyayarabdha; Vipaka
49.  Clinical study to evaluate the effect of Virechanakarma on serum electrolytes 
Ayu  2013;34(4):379-382.
Panchakarma therapy aims at the elimination of excessive Doshas from the body to maintain the state of health for a longer duration, while the Shamana therapy is for suppression of vitiated Doshas within the body. Virechana is one of the Panchakarma therapies wherein purgation is induced by drugs and it specifically aims at the elimination of excessive Pitta Dosha from the body. Normally, after Virechanakarma, patient does not complain of having any untoward like those present after diarrhea due to dehydration. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Virechanakarma on serum electrolyte levels and to ascertain the safety of therapeutic purgation. This study involved estimation of serum electrolyte levels before and after Virechana in 15 patients and the results are suggestive of safe application of the Virechana therapy as the deviation in electrolyte levels were within the normal range.
PMCID: PMC3968700  PMID: 24696575
Electrolytes level; therapeutic purgation; Virechanakarma
50.  Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children 
Ayu  2013;34(4):383-389.
Excellent memory, extraordinary intelligence, great academic achievement, and successful career are the dreams of every individual in this era of competition and professionalism. A good memory power acts as a catalyst in all walks of life, be it academic success or maintenance of personal relationships. It is observed that an average man uses only 10% of his natural memory. Remaining 90% is left unused in a haphazard manner. As per the American psychologist Carl Emil Seashore, if one is alert and makes systematic attempts to awaken and use the natural memory properly, his/her natural memory would be activated creatively and would offer benefits of higher order. A comparative study was conducted comprising 90 subjects to know the efficacy of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in short-term memory of school-going children. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. It was an open, prospective, and randomized clinical study. The subjects of group A formed the control group and they were observed silently for 3 months without any intervention. The subjects in group B were administered with Choorna (powder) of four Medhya Rasayanas, Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn.), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. and Thoms.], and Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy), at a dose of 2 g twice daily with milk. Subjects belonging to group C were advocated regular Yogic practices of Asanas, Pranayama, and Dhyana. Further study revealed that among the three groups, group B treated with Medhya Rasayana showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to objective parameters in the tests, i.e. (1) short-term memory test pictures and (2) serial recall effects test using memory scope. Among the three groups, group C treated with Yogic practices showed highly significant and most effective changes with respect to subjective and objective parameters in mini mental status scale i.e. test 3. The treatment is cost effective and devoid of side effects, which can be beneficial for the community. Mean increase after first follow-up in group B was higher as compared to group C. This shows that Medhya Rasayanas are quick in action and bring about improvement in memory faster when compared with Yogic practices. So, on the whole, group B can be considered to be the most efficient among the three groups.
PMCID: PMC3968701  PMID: 24695779
Medhya Rasayana; school children; short term memory; Yogic practices

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