UVRAG is a promoter of the autophagy pathway, and its deficiency may fuel the development of cancers. Intriguingly, our recent study has demonstrated that this protein also mediates the repair of damaged DNA and patrols centrosome stability, mechanisms that commonly prevent cancer progression, in a manner independent of its role in autophagy signaling. Given the central role of UVRAG in genomic stability and autophagic cleaning, it is speculated that UVRAG is a bona fide genome protector and that the decrease in UVRAG seen in some cancers may render these cells vulnerable to chromosomal damage, making UVRAG an appealing target for cancer therapy.
DNA damage repair; DNA-PK; UVRAG; centrosome; genomic integrity
Accumulating evidence attests to a prosurvival role for autophagy under stress, by facilitating removal of damaged proteins and organelles and recycling basic building blocks, which can be utilized for energy generation and targeted macromolecular synthesis to shore up cellular defenses. These observations are difficult to reconcile with the dichotomous prosurvival and death-inducing roles ascribed to macroautophagy in cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury, respectively. A careful reexamination of ‘flux’ through the macroautophagy pathway reveals that autophagosome clearance is markedly impaired with reperfusion (reoxygenation) in cardiomyocytes following an ischemic (hypoxic) insult, resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated decline in LAMP2 and increase in BECN1 abundance. This results in impaired autophagy that is ‘ineffective’ in protecting against cell death with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Restoration of autophagosome clearance and by inference, ‘adequate’ autophagy, attenuates reoxygenation-induced cell death.
BECN1; LAMP2; autophagic flux; cell death; ischemia-reperfusion; reactive oxygen species
Autophagy is a conserved and highly regulated catabolic pathway, transferring cytoplasmic components in autophagosomes to lysosomes for degradation and providing amino acids during starvation. In multicellular organisms autophagy plays an important role for tissue homeostasis, and deregulation of autophagy has been implicated in a broad range of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In mammals, many aspects of autophagy still need to be fully elucidated: what is the exact hierarchy and relationship between ATG proteins and other factors that lead to the formation and expansion of phagophores? Where does the membrane source for autophagosome formation originate? Which signaling events trigger amino acid starvation-induced autophagy? How are the activities of ULK1/2 and the class III PtdIns3K regulated and linked to each other? To develop therapeutic strategies to manipulate autophagy in human disease, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular protein machinery mediating and regulating autophagy is required.
BECN1; FEZ1; SCOC; UVRAG; Ulk1; WAC; siGenome screen
Autophagy plays an important role in cellular survival by resupplying cells with nutrients during starvation or by clearing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles and thereby preventing degenerative diseases. Conversely, the autophagic process is also recognized as a cellular death mechanism. The circumstances that determine whether autophagy has a beneficial or a detrimental role in cellular survival are currently unclear. We recently showed that autophagy induction is detrimental in neurons that lack a functional AMPK enzyme (AMP-activated protein kinase) and that suffer from severe metabolic stress. We further demonstrated that autophagy and AMPK are interconnected in a negative feedback loop that prevents excessive and destructive stimulation of the autophagic process. Finally, we uncovered a new survival mechanism in AMPK-deficient neurons—cell cannibalism.
AMPK; Drosophila; autophagy; cell death; croquemort; metabolism; neurodegeneration; phagocytosis; photoreceptor
Epidemiological data indicate that consuming diets that deliver sugar to the blood rapidly (called high glycemic index, GI) is associated with enhanced risk for age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These debilities are associated with accumulation of toxic protein aggregates as observed in other protein precipitation or amyloid diseases including Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington diseases and encephalopathies. Barriers to recommending lower-GI diets to promote health include the absence of established intracellular biochemical mechanisms that link high-GI diets to compromised homeostasis. The data herein corroborate the epidemiological findings and provide platforms to elucidate additional mechanistic aspects of salutary effects of consuming diets of different GIs. They are also useful for testing drugs, including autophagy enhancers, glycemia regulators, or nutraceuticals, which can be exploited to extend health.
aging; autophagy; carbohydrate; diet; disease; glycation; glycemic index; lysosome; proteolysis; sugar; ubiquitin
Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase, PRODH/POX), the first enzyme in the pathway of proline catabolism, has been identified as a mitochondrial, metabolic tumor suppressor, which is downregulated in a variety of human tumors. However, our recent findings show that PRODH/POX is upregulated by hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. The combination of low glucose and hypoxia produces additive effects on PRODH/POX expression. Both hypoxia and glucose depletion enhance PRODH/POX expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation to promote tumor cell survival. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying PRODH/POX prosurvival functions are different for hypoxia and low-glucose conditions. Glucose depletion with or without hypoxia elevates PRODH/POX and proline utilization to supply ATP for cellular energy needs. Interestingly, under hypoxia PRODH/POX induces protective autophagy by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). AMPK is the main initiator of stress-triggered autophagy. Thus, PRODH/POX acts as a downstream effector of AMPK in the activation of autophagy under hypoxia. This regulation was confirmed to be independent of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway, a major downstream target of AMPK signaling.
apoptosis; autophagy; hypoxia; metabolic stress; proline dehydrogenase/oxidase
Autophagy has been predominantly studied as a non-selective self-digestion process that recycles macromolecules and produces energy in response to starvation. However, autophagy independent of nutrient status has long been known to exist. Recent evidence suggests that this form of autophagy enforces intracellular quality control by selectively disposing of aberrant protein aggregates and damaged organelles – common denominators in various forms of neurodegenerative diseases. By definition, this form of autophagy, termed quality-control (QC) autophagy, must be different from nutrient-regulated autophagy in substrate selectivity, regulation, and function. We have recently identified the ubiquitin-binding deacetylase, HDAC6, as a key component that establishes QC. HDAC6 is not required for autophagy activation per se; rather, it is recruited to ubiquitinated autophagic substrates where it stimulates autophagosome-lysosome fusion by promoting F-actin remodeling in a cortactin-dependent manner. Remarkably, HDAC6 and cortactin are dispensable for starvation-induced autophagy. These findings reveal that autophagosomes associated with QC are molecularly and biochemically distinct from those associated with starvation autophagy, thereby providing a new molecular framework to understand the emerging complexity of autophagy and therapeutic potential of this unique machinery.
Autophagy is activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses including metabolic stress. While elegant genetic studies in yeast have identified the core autophagy machinery, the signaling pathways that regulate this process are less understood. AMPK is an energy sensing kinase and several studies have suggested that AMPK is required for autophagy. The biochemical connections between AMPK and autophagy, however, have not been elucidated. In this report, we identify a biochemical connection between a critical regulator of autophagy, ULK1, and the energy sensing kinase, AMPK. ULK1 forms a complex with AMPK, and AMPK activation results in ULK1 phosphorylation. Moreover, we demonstrate that the immediate effect of AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of ULK1 results in enhanced binding of the adaptor protein YWHAZ/14-3-3ζ; and this binding alters ULK1 phosphorylation in vitro. Finally, we provide evidence that both AMPK and ULK1 regulate localization of a critical component of the phagophore, ATG9, and that some of the AMPK phosphorylation sites on ULK1 are important for regulating ATG9 localization. Taken together these data identify an ULK1-AMPK signaling cassette involved in regulation of the autophagy machinery.
14-3-3 proteins; AMP-activated protein kinase; Atg9; autophagy; energy metabolism; metabolic stress; phosphorylation; Unc-51-like kinase 1
Due in part to the increasing number of links between autophagy malfunction and human diseases, this field has gained tremendous attention over the past decade. Our increased understanding of the molecular machinery involved in macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) seems to indicate that the most complex step, or at least the stage of the process where the majority of the autophagy-related (Atg) proteins participate, is in the formation of the double-membrane sequestering vesicle. Thus, it is important to establish reliable approaches to monitor this specific process. One of the most commonly used methods is morphological analysis by electron microscopy of the cytosolic vesicles used in the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway and autophagy, or the single-membrane intralumenal products, termed Cvt or autophagic bodies, that are formed after the fusion of these vesicles with the yeast vacuole. This method, however, can be costly and time consuming, and reliable analysis requires expert input. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to detect an incomplete autophagosome by electron microscopy because of the difficulty of obtaining a section that randomly cuts through the open portion of the phagophore. The primary Cvt pathway cargo, precursor amminopeptidase I (prApe1), is enwrapped within either a Cvt vesicle or autophagosome depending on the nutritional conditions. The proteolytic sensitivity of the prApe1 propeptide can therefore serve as a useful tool to determine the completion status of double-membrane Cvt vesicles/autophagosomes in the presence of exogenously added proteinase. Here, we describe an assay that examines the proteinase protection of prApe1 for determining the completion of Cvt vesicles/autophagosomes.
autophagy; lysosome; stress; vacuole; yeast
The molecular mechanism regulating the cardiomyocyte response to energy stress has been a hot topic in cardiac research in recent years, since this mechanism could be targeted for treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease. We have shown recently that the activity of RAS homolog enriched in brain (RHEB), a small GTP binding protein, is inhibited in response to glucose deprivation (GD) in cardiomyocytes and ischemia in the mouse heart. This is a physiological adaptation, since it inhibits complex 1 of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTORC1) and activates autophagy, thereby promoting cell survival during GD and prolonged ischemia. Importantly, the physiological inhibition of RHEB-MTORC1 signaling during myocardial ischemia is impaired in the presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome caused by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, leading to a dramatic increase in ischemic injury. Although MTORC1 and autophagy can be regulated through RHEB-independent mechanisms, such as the AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of RPTOR and ULK1, RHEB appears to be critical in the regulation of MTORC1 and autophagy during ischemia in cardiomyocytes, and its dysregulation is relevant to human disease. Here we discuss the biological relevance of the dysregulation of RHEB-MTORC1 signaling and the suppression of autophagy in obesity and metabolic syndrome.
MTOR; Rheb; autophagy; ischemia; metabolic syndrome; obesity
The coiled-coil domain of BECN1 serves as a protein interaction platform to recruit two major autophagy regulators ATG14 and UVRAG. Our crystal structure of the BECN1 coiled-coil domain reveals a homodimer with an imperfect dimer interface. This “imperfect” feature favors the formation of a stable BECN1-ATG14 or BECN1-UVRAG heterodimer over a metastable BECN1 homodimer to promote autophagy and/or endocytic pathways.
autophagy; BECN1; ATG14; UVRAG; coiled-coil domain
Fibroblasts from long-lived pituitary dwarf mutants, including Snell dwarf, Ames dwarf and the growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice, are resistant in culture to multiple forms of lethal stress. We found that fibroblasts from Snell dwarf and GHRKO mice are more susceptible than control cells to autophagy induced by amino acid withdrawal or by oxidative stress. We also found evidence for lower MTOR function in dwarf cells under conditions that induce autophagy, consistent with the evidence that increased autophagy requires lower TOR activity. Our results provide new hints about the connections between autophagy and aging in long-lived mutants with alterations in GH-IGF1 levels, and suggest a role for hyperactive autophagy in the resistance of cells from these mice to lethal stresses.
GHRKO; aging; amino acid deprivation; autophagy; dwarf; fibroblast; oxidative stress
Selective macroautophagy uses double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes, to transport cytoplasmic pathogens, organelles and protein complexes to the vacuole for degradation. Autophagosomes are formed de novo by membrane fusion events at the phagophore assembly site (PAS). Therefore, precursor membrane material must be targeted and transported to the PAS. While some autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, such as Atg9 and Atg11, are known to be involved in this process, most of the mechanistic details are not understood. Previous work has also implicated the small Rab-family GTPase Ypt1 in the process, identifying Trs85 as a unique subunit of the TRAPPIII targeting complex and showing that it plays a macroautophagy-specific role; however, the relationship between Ypt1, Atg9 and Atg11 was not clear. Now, a recent report shows that Atg11 is a Trs85-specific effector of the Rab Ypt1, and may act as a classic coiled-coil membrane tether that targets Atg9-containing membranes to the PAS. Here, we review this finding in the context of what is known about Atg11, other Rab-dependent coiled-coil tethers, and other tethering complexes involved in autophagosome formation.
Atg9; membrane trafficking; stress; Trs85; vacuole; Ypt1
Autophagy is an important process in the heart which is responsible for the normal turnover of long lived proteins and organelles. Inhibition of autophagy leads to the accumulation of protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles which can cause cell death. Autophagy occurs at low basal levels under normal conditions in the heart, but is rapidly upregulated in response to stress such as nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and pressure overload. Autophagy is a prominent feature of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Although enhanced autophagy is often seen in dying cardiac myocytes, the functional significance of autophagy under these conditions is not clear. Upregulation of autophagy has been reported to protect cardiac cells against death as well as be the cause of it. Here, we review the evidence that autophagy can have both beneficial and detrimental roles in the myocardium, and discuss potential mechanisms by which autophagy provides protection in cells.
autophagy; ischemia; reperfusion; heart; cardiac myocytes; mitochondria; cell death; beclin 1
Autophagy, a highly conserved cellular mechanism wherein various cellular components are broken down and recycled through lysosomes, has been implicated in the development of heart failure. However, tools to measure autophagic flux in vivo have been limited. Here, we tested whether monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine could be used to measure autophagic flux in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Using HL-1 cardiac-derived myocytes transfected with GFP-tagged LC3 to track changes in autophagosome formation, autophagy was stimulated by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Administration of chloroquine to inhibit lysosomal activity enhanced the rapamycin-induced increase in the number of cells with numerous GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. The chloroquine-induced increase of autophagosomes occurred in a dose-dependent manner between 1 μM and 8 μM, and reached a maximum 2 hour after treatment. Chloroquine also enhanced the accumulation of autophagosomes in cells stimulated with hydrogen peroxide, while it attenuated that induced by Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase that interferes with fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. The accumulation of autophagosomes was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, which is known to inhibit the early phase of the autophagic process. Using transgenic mice expressing mCherry-LC3 exposed to rapamycin for 4 hr, we observed an increase in mCherry-LC3-labeled autophagosomes in myocardium, which was further increased by concurrent administration of chloroquine, thus allowing determination of flux as a more precise measure of autophagic activity in vivo. MDC injected 1 hr before sacrifice colocalized with mCherry-LC3 puncta, validating its use as a marker of autophagosomes. This study describes a method to measure autophagic flux in vivo even in non-transgenic animals, using MDC and chloroquine.
chloroquine; autophagy; cardiac myocytes; LC3; monodansylcadaverine
Murine T cells exposed to rapamycin maintain flexibility towards Th1/Tc1 differentiation, thereby indicating that rapamycin promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is conditional. The degree to which rapamycin might inhibit human Th1/Tc1 differentiation has not been evaluated. In the presence of rapamycin, T cell costimulation and polarization with IL-12 or IFNα permitted human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell differentiation towards a Th1/Tc1 phenotype; activation of STAT1 and STAT4 pathways essential for Th1/Tc1 polarity was preserved during mTOR blockade but instead abrogated by PI3 kinase inhibition. Such rapamycin-resistant human Th1/Tc1 cells: (1) were generated through autophagy (increased LC3BII expression; phenotype reversion by autophagy inhibition via 3-MA or siRNA for Beclin 1); (2) expressed anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family members (reduced Bax, Bak; increased phospho-Bad); (3) maintained mitochondrial membrane potentials; and (4) displayed reduced apoptosis. In vivo, type I polarized and rapamycin-resistant human T cells caused increased xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (x-GVHD). Murine recipients of rapamycin-resistant human Th1/Tc1 cells had: (1) persistent T cell engraftment; (2) increased T cell cytokine and cytolytic effector function; and (3) T cell infiltration of skin, gut and liver. Rapamycin therefore does not impair human T cell capacity for type I differentiation. Rather, rapamycin yields an anti-apoptotic Th1/Tc1 effector phenotype by promoting autophagy.
Th1/Tc1; rapamycin; autophagy; apoptosis resistance; xenogeneic GVHD
Autophagy is a highly conserved housekeeping pathway that plays a critical role in the removal of aged or damaged intracellular organelles and their delivery to lysosomes for degradation.1,2 Autophagy begins with the formation of membranes arising in part from the endoplasmic reticulum, that elongate and fuse engulfing cytoplasmic constituents into a classic double-membrane bound nascent autophagosome. These early autophagosomes undergo a stepwise maturation process to form the late autophagosome or amphisome that ultimately fuses with a lysosome. Efficient autophagy is dependent on an equilibrium between the formation and elimination of autophagosomes; thus, a deficit in any part of this pathway will cause autophagic dysfunction. Autophagy plays a role in aging and age-related diseases. 1,2,7 However, few studies of autophagy in retinal disease have been reported.
Recent studies show that autophagy and changes in lysosomal activity are associated with both retinal aging and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).3,4 This article describes methods which employ the target protein LC3 to monitor autophagic flux in retinal pigment epithelial cells. During autophagy, the cytosolic form of LC3 (LC3-I) is processed and recruited to the phagophore where it undergoes site specific proteolysis and lipidation near the C terminus to form LC3-II.5 Monitoring the formation of cellular autophagosome puncta containing LC3 and measuring the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I provides the ability to monitor autophagy flux in the retina.
autophagy flux; LC3; retinal pigment epithelium; lysosomes; age-related macular degeneration; aging
Lafora disease; autophagy; glycogen metabolism; laforin; malin; neurodegeneration
There are various definitions of community. A definition that I found in one of my dictionaries is the following: “A social, religious, occupational, or other group sharing common characteristics or interests and perceived or perceiving itself as distinct in some respect from the larger society within which it exists.” Thus, I think it is fair to say that there is a worldwide autophagy community. That is, there is a group of researchers (our occupation), whose members share an interest in autophagy (our common characteristic), and that group is distinct from the larger society (I do not want to begin describing the many ways this applies). But do we feel like a community, and do we need a community? I suggest that a community is indeed beneficial, and I propose one mechanism for enhancing the development of the autophagy community.
lysosome; methods; people; stress; vacuole
Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in kidney maintenance, diseases and aging. Ischemic, toxic, immunological, and oxidative insults can cause an induction of autophagy in renal epithelial cells modifying the course of various kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent insights on the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and diseases alluding to possible novel intervention strategies for treating specific kidney disorders by modifying autophagy.
autophagy; kidney; acute kidney injury; aging; polycystic kidney disease; podocyte; glomerulus; kidney transplantation; mTOR
Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in the turnover of organelles and macromolecules which, depending on conditions, may lead to cell death or preserve cell survival. We found that some lung cancer cell lines and tumor samples are characterized by increased levels of lipidated LC3. Inhibition of autophagy sensitized non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis; however, such response was attenuated in cells treated with etoposide. Inhibition of autophagy stimulated ROS formation and treatment with cisplatin had a synergistic effect on ROS accumulation. Using genetically encoded hydrogen peroxide probes directed to intracellular compartments we found that autophagy inhibition facilitated formation of hydrogen peroxide in the cytosol and mitochondria of cisplatin-treated cells. The enhancement of cell death under conditions of inhibited autophagy was partially dependent on caspases, however, antioxidant NAC or hydroxyl radical scavengers, but not the scavengers of superoxide or a MnSOD mimetic, reduced the release of cytochrome c and abolished the sensitization of the cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Such inhibition of ROS prevented the processing and release of AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) and HTRA2 from mitochondria. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy in NSCLC cells with active basal autophagy reduced their proliferation without significant effect on the cell-cycle distribution. Inhibition of cell proliferation delayed accumulation of cells in the S phase upon treatment with etoposide that could attenuate the execution stage of etoposide-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that autophagy suppression leads to inhibition of NSCLC cell proliferation and sensitizes them to cisplatin-induced caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis by stimulation of ROS formation.
autophagy; apoptosis; ROS; hydroxyl radical; superoxide; NSCLC; caspase-independent cell death
The sorting nexins Atg20/Snx42 and Snx41 regulate membrane traffic and endosomal protein sorting and are essential for Cvt and/or pexophagy in yeast. Previously, we showed that macroautophagy is necessary for conidiation in the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we analyzed the physiological function(s) of selective autophagy in Magnaporthe through targeted deletion of MGG_12832, an ortholog of yeast SNX41 and ATG20/SNX42. Loss of MGG_12832 (hereafter SNX41) abolished conidia formation and pathogenesis in M. oryzae. Snx41-GFP localized as dynamic puncta or short tubules that are partially associated with autophagosomes and/or autophagic vacuoles. PX domain, but not macroautophagy per se, was required for such localization of Snx41-GFP in Magnaporthe. Although not required for nonselective autophagy, Snx41 was essential for pexophagy in Magnaporthe. We identified Oxp1, an ATP-dependent oxoprolinase in the gamma-glutamyl cycle, as a binding partner and potential retrieval target of Snx41-dependent protein sorting. The substrate of Oxp1, 5-oxoproline, could partially restore conidiation in the snx41Δ. Exogenous glutathione, a product of the gamma-glutamyl cycle, significantly restored pathogenicity in the snx41Δ mutant, likely through counteracting the oxidative stress imposed by the host. We propose that the gamma-glutamyl cycle and glutathione biosynthesis are subject to regulation by Snx41-dependent vesicular trafficking, and mediate antioxidant defense crucial for in planta growth and pathogenic differentiation of Magnaporthe at the onset of blast disease in rice.
Atg20; Snx41; fungal virulence; Magnaporthe; antioxidant; GSH; sorting nexin
Mitoribosome in mammalian cells is responsible for synthesis of 13 mtDNA-encoded proteins, which are integral parts of four mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, III, IV and V). ERAL1 is a nuclear-encoded GTPase important for the formation of the 28S small mitoribosomal subunit. Here, we demonstrate that knockdown of ERAL1 by RNA interference inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis and promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, leading to autophagic vacuolization in HeLa cells. Cells that lack ERAL1 expression showed a significant conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and an enhanced accumulation of autophagic vacuoles carrying the LC3 marker, all of which were blocked by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA as well as by the ROS scavenger NAC. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis either by ERAL1 siRNA or chloramphenicol (CAP), a specific inhibitor of mitoribosomes, induced autophagy in HTC-116 TP53+/+ cells, but not in HTC-116 TP53−/− cells, indicating that tumor protein 53 (TP53) is essential for the autophagy induction. The ROS elevation resulting from mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibition induced TP53 expression at transcriptional levels by enhancing TP53 promoter activity, and increased TP53 protein stability by suppressing TP53 ubiquitination through MAPK14/p38 MAPK-mediated TP53 phosphorylation. Upregulation of TP53 and its downstream target gene DRAM1, but not CDKN1A/p21, was required for the autophagy induction in ERAL1 siRNA or CAP-treated cells. Altogether, these data indicate that autophagy is induced through the ROS-TP53-DRAM1 pathway in response to mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibition.
ERAL1; mitoribosome; autophagy; ROS; TP53; DRAM1; chloramphenicol