Today, we frequently find patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), a prophylaxis against the occurrence of thromboembolic events. An oral surgeon needs to know how to better manage such patients, in order to avoid hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications.
Materials and methods
A group of 193 patients (119 men aged between 46 and 82 and 74 women aged between 54 and 76) undergoing OAT for more than 5 years were managed with a standardized management protocol and a 2-months follow-up. The aim of the present study was to apply a protocol, which could provide a safe intra- and postoperative management of patients on OAT.
Among the 193 patients, only 2 had postoperative complications.
We think that the protocol used in the present study can be used for complete safety in the treatment of this type of patients.
Oral Anticoagulant Therapy (OAT); Tranexamic Acid; Oral Surgery
Hypothermia in burns is common and increases morbidity and mortality. Several methods are available to reach and maintain normal core body temperature, but have not yet been evaluated in critical care for burned patients. Our unit's ordinary technique for controlling body temperature (Bair Hugger®+ radiator ceiling + bed warmer + Hotline®) has many drawbacks e.g.; slow and the working environment is hampered.
The aim of this study was to compare our ordinary heating technique with newly-developed methods: the Allon™2001 Thermowrap (a temperature regulating water-mattress), and Warmcloud (a temperature regulating air-mattress).
Ten consecutive burned patients (> 20% total burned surface area and a core temperature < 36.0°C) were included in this prospective, randomised, comparative study. Patients were randomly exposed to 3 heating methods. Each treatment/measuring-cycle lasted for 6 hours. Each heating method was assessed for 2 hours according to a randomised timetable. Core temperature was measured using an indwelling (bladder) thermistor. Paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of differences between the treatments within the patients. ANOVA was used to assess the differences in temperature from the first to the last measurement among all treatments. Three-way ANOVA with the Tukey HSD post hoc test and a repeated measures ANOVA was used in the same manner, but included information about patients and treatment/measuring-cycles to control for potential confounding. Data are presented as mean (SD) and (range). Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant.
The mean increase, 1.4 (SD 0.6°C; range 0.6-2.6°C) in core temperature/treatment/measuring-cycle highly significantly favoured the Allon™2001 Thermowrap in contrast to the conventional method 0.2 (0.6)°C (range -1.2 to 1.5°C) and the Warmcloud 0.3 (0.4)°C (range -0.4 to 0.9°C). The procedures for using the Allon™2001 Thermowrap were experienced to be more comfortable and straightforward than the conventional method or the Warmcloud.
The Allon™2001 Thermowrap was more effective than the Warmcloud or the conventional method in controlling patients' temperatures.
Current reconstructive techniques for continuity defects of the mandible include the use of free flaps, bone grafts, and alloplastic materials. New methods of regenerative medicine designed to restore tissues depend mainly on the so-called extrinsic neovascularization, where the neovascular bed originates from the periphery of the construct. This method is not applicable for large defects in irradiated fields.
We are introducing a new animal model for mandibular reconstruction using intrinsic axial vascularization by the Arterio-Venous (AV) loop. In order to test this model, we made cadaveric, mechanical loading, and surgical pilot studies on adult male goats. The cadaveric study aimed at defining the best vascular axis to be used in creating the AV loop in the mandibular region. Mechanical loading studies (3 points bending test) were done to ensure that the mechanical properties of the mandible were significantly affected by the designed defect, and to put a base line for further mechanical testing after bone regeneration. A pilot surgical study was done to ensure smooth operative and post operative procedures.
The best vascular axis to reconstruct defects in the posterior half of the mandible is the facial artery (average length 32.5 ± 1.9 mm, caliber 2.5 mm), and facial vein (average length 33.3 ± 1.8 mm, caliber 2.6 mm). Defects in the anterior half require an additional venous graft. The defect was shown to be significantly affecting the mechanical properties of the mandible (P value 0.0204). The animal was able to feed on soft diet from the 3rd postoperative day and returned to normal diet within a week. The mandible did not break during the period of follow up (2 months).
Our model introduces the concept of axial vascularization of mandibular constructs. This model can be used to assess bone regeneration for large bony defects in irradiated fields. This is the first study to introduce the concept of axial vascularization using the AV loop for angiogenesis in the mandibular region. Moreover, this is the first study aiming at axial vascularization of synthetic tissue engineering constructs at the site of the defect without any need for tissue transfer (in contrast to what was done previously in prefabricated flaps).
Neurologically, it is proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g. using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration- can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "Gate-control" theory of Melzack and Wall.
Presentation of the hypothesis
Syringe Micro Vibrator is a new design being introduced for the first time in the field of Dentistry. This device is a promising breakthrough in pain and anxiety management and may deliver solution for clinicians plagued with patient pain phobia. It has an off-set rotating micro vibration creator with ultra high frequency and ultra low altitude that can be easily placed on any standard dental syringe and some disposable syringes. This device was registered as an invention in dentistry and received Iran National Patent number of 63765.
Testing the hypothesis
By creating micro vibration, this device would be effective in reducing the pain and anxiety confronted with most types of intraoral injections as palatal, mandibular block, intraligamental and local infiltration. From the aspect of the patient pain management, this device contributes both physiologically (based on Gate Control Theory of pain) and psychologically (based on the device function as will be explained by dentist to the patient as a modern pain reducing technology). From the aspect of clinician, SMV motor provides vibrations with ultra high frequency to alleviate pain, but since it has ultra low vibration altitude, it has no adverse effect on the clinician dexterity and accuracy during injection and it does not interfere with pin point localization of injection site.
Implications of the hypothesis
Upon mounting on a conventional dental anesthesia injection syringe, SMV is switched on and the clinician then uses normal injection technique to administer the anesthetic. This device is not only a useful accessory device for ordinary patients, but also more useful for pediatric patients and those who have a phobia of intraoral injection or pain.
Previously, we developed a porcine model for Arterio Venous Graft (AVG) failure to allow assessment of new access strategies. This model was limited concerning graft length. In the present technical report, we describe a modification of our model allowing the assessment of long AVGs.
In 4 pigs, AVGs of 15 cm length were created bilaterally in a cross-over fashion between the carotid artery and the contralateral jugular vein. Two days (2 pigs) and two weeks (2 pigs) after AV shunting, graft patency was evaluated by angiography, showing all four grafts to be patent, with no sign of angiographic or macroscopic narrowing at the anastomoses sites.
In this modified pig AVG failure model, implantation of a bilateral cross-over long AVG is a feasible approach. The present model offers a suitable tool to study local interventions or compare various long graft designs aimed at improvement of AVG patency.
Considering the great variety of techniques and disagreement about the ideal route, there is a need for a simple, safe and effective method for the management of vault prolapse.
51 cases of post- hysterectomy vault prolapse: 45 following vaginal and 6 after total abdominal hysterectomy were treated surgically by anterior abdominal wall colpopexy with autogenous rectus fascia strips.
Except for minor complaints like vomiting, fever and urinary retention in 3.92% cases each (n = 2 each), no major complications were encountered. Moreover, no recurrence, thus far, on follow-up.
Using autogenous rectus fascia strips in anterior abdominal wall colpopexy is not only simple, cheap and effective method of treating apical prolapse but is also devoid of any serious complications as described with other techniques.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard care for locally advanced breast cancer. Our study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of breast conversation surgery (BCS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Patients and methods
Forty five patients had stage IIB (except those with T2N1 disease) and stage IIIA were selected to 3 cycles taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patient who had tumours ≤5 cm underwent a tentative BCS while patients who had tumour size >5 cm underwent radical surgery. Negative margin is essential for BCS. Adjuvant chemotherapy and 3-D radiotherapy ± hormonal treatment were given to all patients.
Thirty four patients had BCS. Response to chemotherapy was the only statistically significant factor which influences the BCS. Incidence of local recurrence was 5.9% for patients who had BCS at a median follow up 24 months.
Breast conservation is feasible in selected cases of locally advanced, non metastatic cancer breast. We recommend that patients who have tumour size ≤4 cm after chemotherapy are the best candidates for BCS.
Acute cholecystitis can be the result of retention of bile in the gallbladder with possible secondary infection and ischaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether internal drainage of the gallbladder could protect against the development of acute cholecystitis in a pig model.
Materials and methods
Twenty pigs were randomized to either internal drainage (drained) or not (undrained). Day 0 acute cholecystitis was induced by ligation of the cystic artery and duct together with inoculation of bacteria. Four days later the pigs were killed and the gallbladders were removed and histologically scored for the presence of cholecystitis. Bile and blood samples were collected for bacterial culturing and biochemical analyses.
The histological examination demonstrated statistical significant differences in acute cholecystitis development between groups, the degree of inflammation being highest in undrained pigs. There were no differences in bacterial cultures between the two groups.
Internal drainage of the gallbladder protected against the development of acute cholecystitis in the present pig model. These findings support the theory that gallstone impaction of the cystic duct plays a crucial role as a pathogenetic mechanism in the development of acute cholecystitis and suggest that internal drainage may be a way to prevent and treat acute cholecystitis.
Robot-assisted laparoscopy (RL) is used in a wide range of operative interventions, but the advantage of this technique over conventional laparoscopy (CL) remains unclear. Studies comparing RL and CL are scarce. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that maiden users master surgical tasks quicker with the robot-assisted laparoscopy technique than with the conventional laparoscopy technique.
20 subjects, with no prior surgical experience, performed three different surgical tasks in a standardized experimental setting, repeated four times with each of the RL and CL techniques. Speed and accuracy were measured. A cross-over technique was used to eliminate gender bias and the experience gained by carrying out the first part of the study.
The task "tie a knot" was performed faster with the RL technique than with CL. Furthermore, shorter operating times were observed when changing from CL to RL. There were no time differences for the tasks of grabbing the needle and continuous suturing between the two operating techniques. Gender did not influence the results.
The more advanced task of tying a knot was performed faster using the RL technique than with CL. Simpler surgical interventions were performed equally fast with either technique. Technical skills acquired during the use of CL were transferred to the RL technique. The lack of tactile feedback in RL seemed to matter. There were no differences between males and females.
This article reviews the historical evolution of hepatic vascular clamping and their indications. The anatomic basis for partial and complete vascular clamping will be discussed, as will the rationales of continuous and intermittent vascular clamping.
Specific techniques discussed and described include inflow clamping (Pringle maneuver, extra-hepatic selective clamping and intraglissonian clamping) and outflow clamping (total vascular exclusion, hepatic vascular exclusion with preservation of caval flow). The fundamental role of a low Central Venous Pressure during open and laparoscopic hepatectomy is described, as is the difference in their intra-operative measurements. The biological basis for ischemic preconditioning will be elucidated. Although the potential dangers of vascular clamping and the development of modern coagulation devices question the need for systemic clamping; the pre-operative factors and unforseen intra-operative events that mandate the use of hepatic vascular clamping will be highlighted.
Randomized trials comparing VATS lobectomy to open lobectomy are of small size. We analyzed a case-control series using propensity score-weighting to adjust for important covariates in order to compare the clinical outcomes of the two techniques.
We compared patients undergoing lobectomy for clinical stage I lung cancer (NSCLC) by either VATS or open (THOR) methods. Inverse probability of treatment weighted estimators, with weights derived from propensity scores, were used to adjust cohorts for determinants of perioperative morbidity and mortality including age, gender, preop FEV1, ASA class, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Bootstrap methods provided standard errors. Endpoints were postoperative stay (LOS), chest tube duration, complications, and lymph node retrieval.
We analyzed 136 consecutive lobectomy patients. Operative mortality was 1/62 (1.6%) for THOR and 1/74 (1.4%) for VATS, P = 1.00. 5/74 (6.7%) VATS were converted to open procedures. Adjusted median LOS was 7 days (THOR) versus 4 days (VATS), P < 0.0001, HR = 0.33. Adjusted median chest tube duration (days) was 5 (THOR) versus 3 (VATS), P < 0.0001, HR = 0.42. Complication rates were 39% (THOR) versus 34% (VATS), P = 0.61. Adjusted mean number of lymph nodes dissected per patient was 18.1 (THOR) versus 14.8 (VATS), p = 0.17.
After balancing covariates that affect morbidity, mortality and LOS in this case-control series using propensity-weighting, the results confirm that VATS lobectomy is associated with a statistically significant shorter LOS, similar mortality and complication rates and similar rates of lymph node removal in patients with clinical stage I NSCLC.
Critical limb ischemia is a chronic pathologic condition defined by the lack of blood flow in peripheral circulation. Microdialysis is a well-known and sensitive method for the early detection of tissue ischemia. The aim of the present study was to use microdialysis in order to analyse cellular metabolism changes after peripheral endovascular revascularization.
Ten patients diagnosed with critical limb ischemia was enrolled. CMA 60 (CMA® - Solna, Sweden) catheter with a 20 kDa cut-off was placed subcutaneously on the anterior aspect of the foot of both limbs. Samples were collected starting 12-hours before surgery and throughout the following 72-hours, using a CMA 600 (CMA® - Solna, Sweden) microdialysis analyser.
Technical revascularization was successful in all cases. The cannulation was well tolerated in all patients. The site of catheter insertion healed easily in few days without infective complications in any case. Two patients underwent major amputation. After revascularization, glucose showed a strong increase (mean, 5.86 ± 1.52 mMol/L, p = .008). No restoration of the circadian rhythm was noted in patients who underwent major amputation. Glycerol concentration curves were not deductibles in both the ischemic and the control limbs (mean, 148.43 ± 42.13 mMol/L vs 178.44 ± 75.93 mMol/L, p = .348). Within the first 24-hours after revascularization, lactate concentration raised strongly (6.58 ± 1.56 mMol/L, p = .002): thereafter, it immediately decreased to a concentration similar to the control level (1.71 ± 1.69 mMol/L). In both patients who underwent major amputation, lactate did not show the typical peak of the successful revascularization. The trend of the lactate/pyruvate ratio after a brief initial decrease of the ratio increased again in both the patients who finally underwent amputation.
Restoration of glucose and glycerol circadian rhythm, coupled with low lactate concentration and lactate/pyruvate ratio seemed to be linked to good surgical outcome.
The surgical strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of colonic resection on liver function and regeneration in a rat model.
Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were block-randomized into six groups: Group I had a laparotomy performed. Group II had 1 cm colon resected and anastomosed. Group III and V had 40% or 70% of the liver resected, respectively. Additionally Group IV and VI had 1 cm colon resected and anastomosed, respectively. Body weight was recorded on postoperative day 0, 3, 5 and 7. Rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7 by rapid collection of blood from the inferior vena cava, and endotoxin levels were measured. Remnant liver function was evaluated by means of branched amino acids to tyrosine ratio. Liver regeneration was calculated by (liver weight per 100 g of the body weight at sacrifice/preoperative projected liver weight per 100 g of the body weight) × 100.
The total number of complications was significantly higher in Group VI than Group I, III, IV, and V. Body weight and branched amino acids to tyrosine ratio were both significantly lower in rats that had simultaneous colonic and liver resection performed. Hepatic regeneration rate was significantly higher in the simultaneous colectomy group. Systemic endotoxin levels were unaffected by simultaneous colectomy on postoperative day 7.
In our model morbidity seems to be related to the extent of hepatic resection. In rats undergoing liver resection, simultaneous colectomy induced a higher degree of hepatic regeneration rate. Body weight changes and branched amino acids to tyrosine ratio were negatively affected by simultaneous colectomy.
The emergency treatment of incisional hernias is infrequent but it can be complicated with strangulation or obstruction and in some cases the surgical approach may also include an intestinal resection with the possibility of peritoneal contamination. Our study aims at reporting our experience in the emergency treatment of complicated incisional hernias.
Since January 1999 till July 2008, 89 patients (55 males and 34 females) were treated for complicated incisional hernias in emergency. The patients were divided in two groups: Group I consisting of 33 patients that were treated with prosthesis apposition and Group II, consisting of 56 patients that were treated by performing a direct abdominal wall muscles suture.
All the patients underwent a 6-month follow up; we noticed 9 recurrences (9/56, 16%) in the patients treated with direct abdominal wall muscles suture and 1 recurrence (1/33, 3%) in the group of patients treated with the prosthesis apposition.
According to our experience, the emergency treatment of complicated incisional hernias through prosthesis apposition is always feasible and ensures less post-operative complications (16% vs 21,2%) and recurrences (3% vs 16%) compared to the patients treated with direct muscular suture.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of recombinant human thrombin (rThrombin) concentration on time to hemostasis (TTH), clot durability, and clot strength in settings that replicate the heparinization and platelet inhibition often found in surgical populations.
A modified, anticoagulated rabbit arteriovenous shunt preparation was selected to model vascular anastomotic bleeding. Rabbits were treated with heparin or heparin + clopidogrel and TTH was measured after applying a range of topical rThrombin concentrations or placebo, in combination with absorbable gelatin sponge, USP. Treatments (placebo, rThrombin) were randomly assigned and the investigator was blinded to treatment. TTH was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method. After hemostasis was achieved, clot burst assessment was performed for heparin + clopidogrel treated animals. Clot viscoelastic strength and kinetics were measured in ex-vivo samples using thromboelastography (TEG) methods.
TTH decreased with increasing concentrations of rThrombin in heparin-treated animals and was shorter after treatment with 1000 IU/mL rThrombin (73 seconds) than with 125 IU/mL rThrombin (78 seconds; p = 0.007). TTH also decreased with increasing concentrations of rThrombin in heparin + clopidogrel treated animals; again it was significantly shorter after treatment with 1000 IU/mL rThrombin (71 seconds) than with 125 IU/mL rThrombin (177 seconds; p < 0.001). Variability in TTH was significantly smaller after treatment with 1000 IU/mL rThrombin than after 125 IU/mL rThrombin, indicating greater reliability of clot formation (p < 0.001 for heparin or heparin + clopidogrel treatments). Clot durability was examined in heparin + clopidogrel treated animals. Clots formed in the presence of 1000 IU/mL rThrombin were significantly less likely to rupture during clot burst assessment than those formed in the presence of 125 IU/mL rThrombin (0% versus 79%, p < 0.001). In vitro clot strength and clot kinetics, as determined by TEG in heparin + clopidogrel samples, were positively associated with the amount of rThrombin activity added for clot initiation.
In an animal model designed to replicate the anti-coagulation regimens encountered in clinical settings, topical rThrombin at 1000 IU/mL more reliably controlled the pharmacological effects of heparin or heparin + clopidogrel on hemostasis than rThrombin at 125 IU/mL. Results from in vitro assessments confirmed a positive relationship between the amount of rThrombin activity and both the rate of clot formation and clot strength.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aptitude of TRAIL gene expression for inducing apoptosis in co-cultivated T-cells. This should allow preparing a strategy for the development of a durable, allogenic skin substitute based on the induction of an immune-privileged transplant. In order to counteract the significant potential of rejection in transplanted allogenic keratinocytes, we created a murine keratinocyte cell line which expressed TRAIL through stable gene transfer. The exogenic protein was localized on the cellular surface and was not found in soluble condition as sTRAIL. Contact to TRAIL expressing cells in co-culture induced cell death in sensitive Jurkat-cells, which was further intensified by lymphocyte activation. This cytotoxic effect is due to the induction of apoptosis. We therefore assume that the de-novo expression of TRAIL in keratinocytes can trigger apoptosis in activated lymphocytes and thus prevent the rejection of keratinocytes in allogenic, immune-privileged transplants.
New sphincter-saving approaches have been applied in the treatment of perianal fistula in order to avoid the risk of fecal incontinence. Among them, the fibrin glue technique is popular because of its simplicity and repeatability. The aim of this review is to compare the fibrin glue application to surgery alone, considering the healing and complication rates.
We performed a systematic review searching for published randomized and controlled clinical trials without any language restriction by using electronic databases. All these studies were assessed as to whether they compared conventional surgical treatment versus fibrin glue treatment in patients with anal fistulas, in order to establish both the efficacy and safety of each treatment. We used Review Manager 5 to conduct the review.
The healing rate is higher in those patients who underwent the conventional surgical treatment (P = 0,68), although the treatment with fibrin glue gives no evidence of anal incontinence (P = 0,08). Furthermore two subgroup analyses were performed: fibrin glue in combination with intra-adhesive antibiotics versus fibrin glue alone and anal fistula plug versus fibrin glue. In the first subgroup there were not differences in healing (P = 0,65). Whereas in the second subgroup analysis the healing rate is statistically significant for the patients who underwent the anal fistula plug treatment instead of the fibrin glue treatment (P = 0,02).
In literature there are only two randomized controlled trials comparing the conventional surgical management versus the fibrin glue treatment in patients with anal fistulas. Although from our statistical analysis we cannot find any statistically significant result, the healing rate remains higher in patients who underwent the conventional surgical treatment (P = 0,68), and the anal incontinence rate is very low in the fibrin glue treatment group (P = 0,08). Anyway the limited collected data do not support the use of fibrin glue. Moreover, in our subgroup analysis the use of fibrin glue in combination with intra-adhesive antibiotics does not improve the healing rate (P = 0.65), whereas the anal fistula plug treatment compared to the fibrin glue treatment shows good results (P = 0,02), although the poor number of patients treated does not lead to any statistically evident conclusion. This systematic review underlines the need of new RCTs upon this issue.
Between 5 and 10% of the patients undergoing a colonoscopy cannot have a complete procedure mainly due to stenosing neoplastic lesion of rectum or distal colon. Nevertheless the elective surgical treatment concerning the stenosis is to be performed after the pre-operative assessment of the colonic segments upstream the cancer.
The aim of this study is to illustrate our experience with the Computed Tomographic Colonography (CTC) for the pre-operative assessment of the entire colon in the patients with stenosing colorectal cancers.
From January 2005 till March 2009, we observed and treated surgically 43 patients with stenosing colorectal neoplastic lesions. All patients did not tolerate the pre-operative colonoscopy. For this reason they underwent a pre-operative CTC in order to have a complete assessment of the entire colon. All patients underwent a follow-up colonoscopy 3 months after the surgical treatment. The CTC results were compared with both macroscopic examination of the specimen and the follow-up coloscopy.
The pre-operative CTC showed four synchronous lesions in four patients (9.3% of the cases). The macroscopic examination of the specimen revealed three small sessile polyps (3 - 4 mm in diameter) missed in the pre-operative assessment near the stenosing colorectal cancer. The follow-up colonoscopy showed four additional sessile polyps with a diameter between 3 - 11 mm in three patients.
Our experience shows that CTC has a sensitivity of 83,7%.
In patients with stenosing colonic lesions, CTC allows to assess the entire colon pre-operatively avoiding the need of an intraoperative colonoscopy. More synchronous lesions are detected and treated at the time of the elective surgery for the stenosing cancer avoiding further surgery later on.
Post-operatory wound infections are a very uncommon finding after thyroidectomy. For these reasons international guidelines do not routinely recommend systemic antibiotic prophylaxis.
The benefits of this antibiotic prophylaxis is not supported by clinical evidence in the literature. We have conducted a multicentric randomized double-blind trial on 500 patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for goitre or thyroid carcinoma. The 500 patients enrolled in the study (mean age 47 years) were randomized in two subgroups of 250 patients. 250 patients were treated with standard antibiotic prophylaxis with sulbactam/ampicillin 1 fl (3 gr.) 30 min before surgery. No antibiotic prophylaxis was instituted in the remainder 250 patients. Our RCT showed that prophylactic antibiotic treatment is not beneficial in patients younger than eighty years old, with no concomitant metabolic, infective and hematologic disease, with no cardiac valvulopathies, not under steroidal or immunosuppressive treatment, and not severely obese. Our study should be regarded only as a preliminary RCT, and should be followed by a study in which a larger number of patients should be enrolled so that statistically significant data can be obtained.
We describe a teaching and training method with objective evaluation to improve medical engineering students' knowledge and analysis skills about Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) instrumentation and techniques through hands-on experience. Training has been scheduled during a three-month course.
Twenty medical engineering students were trained to perform three times on a pelvic trainer a sequence of standardized drills connected with the selected MIS techniques, in order to improve their dexterity. The time required to perform each dexterity drill was recorded in seconds.
Then, the participants were divided into groups and asked to write an essay about an instrument they chose, analyzing and criticizing the instrument itself.
All the trainees showed steady improvement in skill acquisition on the laparoscopic simulator and discussed their essays, making proposals in order to improve the instrument they tested.
Significant improvement in performance with increasing skillness has been measured; during the course and during their discussion the participants showed deep knowledge of the instrument, ability to analyze and criticize it and ability to make improvement proposals.
Dry lab experience for medical engineering students is useful for teaching and improving analysis and management of laparoscopic devices, allowing identification of problems and developing better devices.
Despite standard manual decontamination, hospital equipment remains contaminated with microorganisms, contributing to nosocomial transmission and hospital acquired infections. This has the potential to negate the effects of healthcare workers' hand-washing protocols. In order to decrease the likihood of equipment contamination, there has been a rise in the use of disposable pieces of equipment, especially non-critical disposables. However, these carry a significant cost, both a direct financial cost (running into billions of dollars), as well as a cost to the environment. This is important because we hope to contain the cost of healthcare, one way to do that, is to look to the hospitals themselves, for innovative solutions that maintain the standard of care.
To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of an simple decontamination device for use with portable hospital equipment, by comparing rates of residual contamination after use of the novel device versus those seen with standard manual decontamination methods.
The Self-cleaning Unit for the Decontamination of Small instruments (SUDS) is a user-friendly, automated instrument developed via multi-disciplinary collaboration for decontamination in the clinical area. Pre- and post- utilization of portable medical equipment in an emergency department (ED) setting were cultured. To evaluate durability of the decrease in antimicrobial contamination, objects were re-cultured 48 hours after SUDS cleaning and following re-introduction into the clinical setting.
After manual decontamination, 25% (23/91) of the tested objects in the ED were found to be culture positive with clinically significant microorganisms(CSO). Fifteen percent (ED) of non-critical equipment tested had multiple organisms. Following the use of SUDS, the colonization rate decreased to 0%. Following SUDS treatment and re-introduction into the clinical settings, after 48 hours the contamination rates as reflected by the cultures remained 0%.
Standard non-critical equipment is contaminated with clinically significant microorganisms. The SUDS device allows for effective and durable decontamination of hospital equipment of varying sizes in the clinical area without disrupting patient care.
There have been numerous studies on reduction mammaplasty and its modifications in the literature. The multitude of modifications of reduction mammaplasty indicates that the ideal technique has yet to be found. There are four reasons for seeking the ideal technique. One reason is to preserve functional features of the breast: breastfeeding and arousal. Other reasons are to achieve the real geometric and aesthetic shape of the breast with the least scar and are to minimize complications of prior surgical techniques without causing an additional complication. Last reason is the limitation of the techniques described before. To these aims, we developed a new versatile reduction mammaplasty technique, which we called conical plicated central U shaped (COPCUs) mammaplasty.
We performed central plication to achieve a juvenile look in the superior pole of the breast and to prevent postoperative pseudoptosis and used central U shaped flap to achieve maximum NAC safety and to preserve lactation and nipple sensation. The central U flap was 6 cm in width and the superior conical plication was performed with 2/0 PDS. Preoperative and postoperative standard measures of the breast including the superior pole fullness were compared.
Forty six patients were operated with the above mentioned technique. All of the patients were satisfied with functional and aesthetic results and none of them had major complications. There were no changes in the nipple innervation. Six patients becoming pregnant after surgery did not experience any problems with lactation. None of the patients required scar revision.
Our technique is a versatile, safe, reliable technique which creates the least scar, avoids previously described disadvantages, provides maximum preservation of functions, can be employed in all breasts regardless of their sizes.
The history of surgical reconstruction of the left ventricle after an anterior myocardial infarction shows an evolution of techniques which tend to a more and more physiologic restoration of ventricular shape and volume, with increasing attention to the orientation of myocardial fibers.
We set a new surgical procedure for endoventricular patch reconstruction technique with the aim to rebuild a physiologic shape and volume of the left ventricle caring about realignment of myocardial fibers orientation. Peculiarities of this reconstruction are the shape of the patch (reduction of minor axis compared with currently used oval-shaped patch) and the asymmetrical way of suturing it inside the ventricle.
We present a detailed description of operative steps of this procedure, and we add some relevant surgical hints to clarify its peculiarities. Most of the patients operated on with this technique showed the original renewal of apical rotation and left ventricular torsion as specific index of the restoration of physiologic fiber orientation: we report an exemplary case of at-sight recovery of apical rotation in the operating room.
This technique can represent a reproducible new way to realign myocardial fibers in a near-normal setting, improving the physiological restoration of ischemically injured left ventricle. It could be also the basis to reconsider surgical treatment for heart failure.
The treatment of forearm fracture-nonunions continues to represent a therapeutic challenge, and reported outcomes are moderate at best. Limiting aspects of this particular anatomic location include the relation between restoration of shaft length with the anatomy and long-term functional outcome of adjacent joints, as well as the risk of elbow and wrist stiffness related to prolonged immobilization. The present study was designed to assess the outcome of autologous bone grafting with compression plating and early functional rehabilitation in patients with forearm fracture non-unions.
Prospective follow-up study in 31 consecutive patients presenting with non-unions of the forearm diaphysis (radius, n = 11; ulna, n = 9; both bones, n = 11). Surgical revision was performed by restoring anatomic forearm length by autologous bone grafting of the resected non-union from the iliac crest and compression plating using a 3.5 mm dynamic compression plate (DCP) or limited-contact DCP (LC-DCP). The main outcome parameters consisted of radiographic bony union and functional outcome, as determined by the criteria defined by Harald Tscherne in 1978. Patients were routinely followed on a short term between 6 weeks to 6 months, with an average long-term follow-up of 3.6 years (range 2 to 6 years).
Radiographically, a bony union was achieved in 30/31 patients within a mean time of 3.5 months of revision surgery (range 2 to 5 months). Clinically, 29/31 patients showed a good functional outcome, according to the Tscherne criteria, and 26/31 patients were able to resume their previous work. Two postoperative infections occurred, and one patient developed a persistent infected nonunion. No case of postoperative failure of fixation was seen in the entire cohort.
Revision osteosynthesis of forearm nonunions by autologous iliac crest bone grafting and compression plating represents a safe and efficacious modality for the treatment of these challenging conditions.