The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) is a global surveillance study of antimicrobial susceptibility. This study reports data from Gram-negative isolates collected from centers in Latin America between 2004 and 2010.
Consecutive bacterial isolates were tested at each center using broth microdilution methodology as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Susceptibility was determined using the CLSI interpretive criteria. For tigecycline the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) criteria were used.
A total of 16 232 isolates were analyzed. Susceptibility to imipenem, meropenem, and tigecycline was >95% against both non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Susceptibility to amikacin was also >95% for non-ESBL E. coli. 24.3% of E. coli were ESBL producers, ranging from 11.2% (58/519) in Colombia to 40.3% (31/77) in Honduras. Greater than 90% of non-ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible to tigecycline, carbapenems and amikacin. 35.3% of K. pneumoniae were ESBL producers, ranging from 17.2% (36/209) in Venezuela to 73.3% (55/75) in Honduras, with only imipenem and tigecycline maintaining >90% susceptibility. Greater than 90% of Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens were susceptible to amikacin, carbapenems and tigecycline. The highest rates of susceptibility against Acinetobacter baumannii were seen for minocycline (89.4%) and imipenem (62.5%), while 95.8% of the A. baumannii isolates displayed an MIC ≤2 μg/mL for tigecycline.
In this study carbapenems and tigecycline remain active against Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumannii; however, there is cause for concern with carbapenem non-susceptible isolates reported in all countries included in this study.
Tigecycline; Latin America; Resistance; Susceptibility; Carbapenems
Meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings. In sub-Saharan Africa, the meningitis belt has been characterized by particularly high and seasonal incidences of bacterial meningitis extending throughout life. Despite the progress being made in treating the condition, the mortality rates continue to be high, ranging between 2% and 30% globally. In Ghana, the mortality rate of meningitis has been estimated to range from 36% to 50%. However little information is available on the pathogens contributing to meningitis and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Updated information is essential to adjust the recommendations for empirical treatment or prevention of meningitis which could have immense implications for local and global health.
We retrospectively reviewed laboratory records of all patients suspected of bacterial meningitis who underwent a lumbar puncture from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Data were retrieved from laboratory record books and double entered into a Microsoft® excel spreadsheet.
Records of 4,955 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed. Of these, 163 (3.3%, 95%CI: 2.8% to 3.8%) were confirmed meningitis and 106 (2.1%, 95%CI: 1.7% to 2.6%) were probable meningitis cases. Confirmed meningitis cases were made up of 117 (71.8%) culture positive bacteria, 19 (11.7%) culture positive Cryptococcus neoformans and 27(16.6%) Gram positive bacteria with negative culture. The most prevalent bacteria was Streptococcus pneumoniae 91 (77.7%), followed by E.coli 4 (3.4%), Salmonella species 4 (3.4%), Neisseria meningitidis 3 (2.5%), Pseudomonas species 3(2.5%) and others. Pneumococcal isolates susceptibility to penicillin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone were 98.9% (95%CI: 94.0% to 100.0%), 83.0% (95%CI: 73.4% to 90.1%) and 100.0% (95%CI: 95.8% to 100.0%) respectively.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of meningitis among all age groups and its susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone still remains very high. Ghanaians of all ages and possibly other developing countries in the meningitis belt could benefit from the use of the pneumococcal vaccine. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens should also be considered in the management of patients presenting with meningitis.
Meningitis; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Cryptococcus neoformans; Ghana
Biofilms formed by Candida albicans are resistant towards most of the available antifungal drugs. Therefore, infections associated with Candida biofilms are considered as a threat to immunocompromised patients. Combinatorial drug therapy may be a good strategy to combat C. albicans biofilms.
Combinations of five antifungal drugs- fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VOR), caspofungin (CSP), amphotericin B (AmB) and nystatin (NYT) with cyclosporine A (CSA) were tested in vitro against planktonic and biofilm growth of C. albicans. Standard broth micro dilution method was used to study planktonic growth, while biofilms were studied in an in vitro biofilm model. A chequerboard format was used to determine fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) of combination effects. Biofilm growth was analyzed using XTT-metabolic assay.
MICs of various antifungal drugs for planktonic growth of C. albicans were lowered in combination with CSA by 2 to 16 fold. Activity against biofilm development with FIC indices of 0.26, 0.28, 0.31 and 0.25 indicated synergistic interactions between FLC-CSA, VOR-CSA, CSP-CSA and AmB-CSA, respectively. Increase in efficacy of the drugs FLC, VOR and CSP against mature biofilms after addition of 62.5 μg/ml of CSA was evident with FIC indices 0.06, 0.14 and 0.37, respectively.
The combinations with CSA resulted in increased susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. Combination of antifungal drugs with CSA would be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated C. albicans infections.
Antifungal; Biofilms; Candida albicans; Calcineurine; Drug combination; Cyclosporine A; Drug resistance; Synergism
Quarter milk samples from cows were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and different antibiotic resistant pattern were determined in a cross-sectional study design.
The objective of this study was to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from samples of cow’s milk obtained from Hawassa area and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility patterns.
A total of 160 milk (CCP1-CCP5) samples were collected and screened for the presence of S. aureus. Gram staining, oxidase, catalase, DNase, haemolysis and coagulase tests were employed for bacterial identification.
All the samples were contaminated with S. aureus. A total of 78 S. aureus isolates were obtained during this study. The levels of contamination with S. aureus were higher in milk obtained from CCP1, CCP2, CCP3, CCP4 and CCP5 at Hawassa area farms (18.0%, 25.6%, 27.0%, 21.8% and 7.7%) respectively. A large percentage of the S. aureus isolates (25.6% and 27.0%) were from CCP2 and CCP3. All strains were resistant to Penicillin G (PG) (10 μg), Ampicillin (AP) (10 μg), Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid (AC) (30 μg), Ciprofloxacin (CIP) (5 μg), Erythromycin (E) (15 μg), Ceftriaxone (CRO) (30 μg), Trimethoprime-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) (25 μg) Oxacillin (Ox) (1 μg) and Vancomycin (V) (30 μg), 67.9%, 70.9%, 30.9%, 0%, 32.1%, 23.1%, 7.7%, 60.3% and 38.5% respectively.
The proportion of isolates resistant to CIP, TMP-SMZ, CRO, AC, E and V were low compared to AP, PG and Ox. S. aureus is normally resident in humans; therefore, the S. aureus present in the cow’s milk may have resulted from transmission between the two species, emphasizing the need to improve sanitary conditions in the milking environment.
Antibiotics; S. aureus; Milk
Increased infection caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa has raised awareness of the resistance situation worldwide. Carbapenem resistance among MDR (CR-MDR) P. aeruginosa has become a serious life-threatening problem due to the limited therapeutic options. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the relatedness of CR-MDR P. aeruginosa in tertiary hospitals across Thailand.
MDR P. aeruginosa from eight tertiary hospitals across Thailand were collected from 2007–2009. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Selected CR-MDR P. aeruginosa isolates were genetically analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
About 261 clinical isolates were identified as MDR P. aeruginosa and approximately 71.65% were found to be CR-MDR P. aeruginosa. The result showed that the meropenem resistance rate was the highest reaching over 50% in every hospitals. Additionally, the type of hospitals was a major factor affecting the resistance rate, as demonstrated by significantly higher CR-MDR rates among university and regional hospitals. The fingerprinting map identified 107 clones with at least 95% similarity. Only 4 clones were detected in more than one hospital.
Although the antibiotic resistance rate was high, the spreading of CR-MDR was found locally. Specific strains of CR-MDR did not commonly spread from one hospital to another. Importantly, clonal dissemination ratio indicated limited intra-hospital transmission in Thailand.
Antimicrobial susceptibility; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; Carbapenem resistance; Multidrug resistance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Epidemiology
Brucellosis poses a significant public health problem in Mediterranean countries, including Egypt. Treatment of this disease is often empirical due to limited information on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella spp. in this region of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Brucella blood isolates in Egypt, a country endemic for brucellosis.
Brucella spp. isolates were identified from the blood cultures of acute febrile illness (AFI) patients presenting to a network of infectious disease hospitals from 1999–2007. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for tetracycline, gentamicin, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampin using the E-test. Interpretations were made according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.
A total of 355 Brucella spp. isolates were analyzed. All were susceptible to tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin; probable resistance to rifampin and ceftriaxone was observed among 277 (64%) and 7 (2%) of the isolates, respectively. Percentages of isolates showing probable resistance to rifampin were significantly lower before 2001 than in the following years (7% vs. >81%, p < 0.01).
Despite the high burden of brucellosis in Egypt and frequent empirical treatment, isolates have remained susceptible to the majority of tested antibiotics. However, this is the first report of high rates of probable resistance to rifampin among Brucella isolates from Egypt. Patients should be closely monitored while following standard treatment regimens. Continued surveillance, drug susceptibility studies and updated CLSI interpretive criteria are needed to monitor and update antibiotic prescribing policies for brucellosis.
Brucella; Brucellosis; MIC; Rifampin; Ceftriaxone; E-test; Egypt
Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) are among major pathogens causing urinary tract infections. Virulence factors are mainly responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. This study was planned to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and cytotoxic effects of UPEC isolates with reference to phylogenetic groups (B2, B1, D and A) to understand the presence and impact of virulence factors in the severity of infection in Faisalabad region of Pakistan.
In this study phylogenetic analysis, virulence gene identification and cytotoxicity of 59 uropathogenic E.coli isolates obtained from non-hospitalized patients was studied.
Among 59 isolates, phylogenetic group B2 (50%) was most dominant followed by groups A, B1 (19% each) and D (12%). Isolates present in group D showed highest presence of virulence genes. The prevalence hlyA (37%) was highest followed by sfaDE (27%), papC (24%), cnf1 (20%), eaeA (19%) and afaBC3 (14%). Highly hemolytic and highly verotoxic isolates mainly belonged to group D and B2. We also found two isolates with simultaneous presence of three fimbrial adhesin genes present on pap, afa, and sfa operons. This has not been reported before and underlines the dynamic nature of these UPEC isolates.
It was concluded that in local UPEC isolates from non-hospitalized patients, group B2 was more prevalent. However, group D isolates were most versatile as all were equipped with virulence genes and showed highest level of cytotoxicity.
Uropathogenic E.coli; Phylogenicity; Virulence genes
The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is a critically endangered species of freshwater crocodiles. Crocodilians live with opportunistic bacterial infection but normally suffer no adverse effects. They are not totally immune to microbial infection, but their resistance thereto is remarkably effective. In this study, crude and purified plasma extracted from the Siamese crocodile were examined for antibacterial activity against clinically isolated, human pathogenic bacterial strains and the related reference strains.
Crude plasma was prepared from whole blood of the Siamese crocodile by differential sedimentation. The crude plasma was examined for antibacterial activity by the liquid growth inhibition assay. The scanning electron microscopy was performed to confirm the effect of crude crocodile plasma on the cells of Salmonella typhi ATCC 11778. Effect of crude crocodile plasma on cell viability was tested by MTT assay. In addition, the plasma was purified by anion exchange column chromatography with DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M and the purified plasma was tested for antibacterial activity.
Crude plasma was prepared from whole blood of the Siamese crocodile and exhibited substantial antibacterial activities of more than 40% growth inhibition against the six reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and the four clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholerae. Especially, more than 80% growth inhibition was found in the reference strains of Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis and in the clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. The effect of the crude plasma on bacterial cells of Salmonella typhi, a certain antibacterial material probably penetrates progressively into the cytoplasmic space, perturbing and damaging bacterial membranes. The effect of the crude plasma was not toxic by the yellow tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using a macrophage-like cell, RAW 264.7. The pooled four fractions, designated as fractions D1-D4, were obtained by column chromatography, and only fraction D1 showed growth inhibition in the reference strains and the clinical, human pathogenic isolates.
The crude and purified plasma from the Siamese crocodile significantly showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and reference strains by damage cell membrane of target bacterial cells. From the MTT assay, the Siamese crocodile plasma was not cytotoxic to the cells.
Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis); Antibacterial activity; Pathogenic bacteria; Cytotoxicity
Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds.
Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and ethanol (EtOH) and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa.
Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH) and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH) showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 < 1000 μg/mL), which might be associated with cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL). By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50%) with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300), with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis.
Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.
Antimicrobial; Bioactivity; Extract; Chenopodium ambrosioides; Kielmeyera neglecta; Candida
10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties. Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans), has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque. The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs) especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA) effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces.
Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically.
500 μg ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells.
Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it’s not necessary to put down the oral flora completely.
Biofilm; Caries; Glucosyltransferase; Streptococcus
We studied the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) in 44 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli collected from out-patients in two university teaching hospitals in South-Eastern Nigeria. Species identification was performed by standard microbiology methods and re-confirmed by MALDI-TOF technology. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL enzymes was done by double disc synergy test and presence of ESBL genes was determined by specific PCR followed by sequencing. Transfer of plasmid DNA was carried out by transformation using E. coli DH5 as recipient strain. Phenotypic characterization identified all isolates to be ESBL positive. 77% of strains were from urine, 13.6% from vaginal swabs and 9.0% from wound swabs. 63.6% were from female patients, 68% were from outpatients and 95.5% from patients younger than 30 years. All ESBL producers were positive in a PCR for blaCTX-M-1 cluster, in exemplary strains blaCTX-M-15 was found by sequencing. In all strains ISEcp1 was found upstream and ORF477 downstream of blaCTX-M. PCR for blaTEM and blaOXA-1 was positive in 93.1% of strains, whereas blaSHV was not detected, aac(6′)-Ib-cr was found in 97.7% of strains. RAPD analysis revealed seven different clonal groups named A through G with the majority of the strains (65.9%) belonging to clone A. Transfer of an ESBL plasmid with co-resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, doxycycline and trimethropim-sulfamethoxazole was successful in 19 (43.2%) strains. This study showed a high rate of CTX-M-1 cluster - ESBLs in South-Eastern Nigeria and further confirms the worldwide spread of CTX-M ESBL in clinical isolates.
Outpatients; ESBL; CTX-M; Escherichia coli
The present study reports the antibacterial capacity of alkaloid compounds in combination with Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants bacteria isolated from clinical samples. The resistance of different bacteria strains to the current antibacterial agents, their toxicity and the cost of the treatment have led to the development of natural products against the bacteria resistant infections when applied in combination with conventional antimicrobial drugs.
The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC, MBC methods, the time-kill assay and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. On the whole, fifteen Gram-positive bacterial strains (MRSA/ARSA) were used. Negative control was prepared using discs impregnated with 10 % DMSO in water and commercially available Methicillin and Ampicillin from Alkom Laboratories LTD were used as positive reference standards for all bacterial strains.
We noticed that the highest activities were founded with the combination of alkaloid compounds and conventional antibiotics against all bacteria strains. Then, results showed that after 7 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculums.
The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with conventional antibiotics (Methicillin, Ampicillin) exhibited antimicrobial effects against microorganisms tested. These results validate the ethno-botanical use of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae) in Burkina Faso. Moreover, this study demonstrates the potential of this herbaceous as a source of antibacterial agent that could be effectively used for future health care purposes.
The evolving epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is characterized by the emergence of infections caused by non multiresistant MRSA carrying staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC)mec IV or V in the healthcare settings. A molecular epidemiological analysis of non multiresistant MRSA isolates from four acute general hospitals was performed in Palermo, Italy, during a one year period.
For the purpose of the study, MRSA isolates were defined as non multiresistant when they were susceptible to at least three classes of non β-lactam antibiotics. Seventy-five isolates were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SCCmec, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin genes. For epidemiological typing, Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Fingerprinting (MLVF) was performed on all isolates and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on ST8 isolates.
Non multiresistant MRSA isolates were isolated from all hospitals. Resistances to ciprofloxacin, macrolides and tetracycline were the most prevalent. MLST attributed 46 isolates with ST22, 13 with ST8, eight with ST1, three with ST50 and three with ST398. SCCmec type IV was found in all isolates. PVL was detected in one ST22 isolate. All isolates tested negative for the ACME element. MLVF identified 31 different patterns, some subtype clusters ranging in size between two and 22 isolates. The closely related PFGE patterns of the ST8 isolates differed from USA300.
A polyclonal circulation of non multiresistant MRSA along with blurring of boundaries between healthcare associated (HA)-MRSA and community associated (CA)-MRSA appear to be occurring in our epidemiological setting. A better understanding of spread of MRSA with the support of molecular typing can provide invaluable information in the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical fields.
Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases (KPCs) are able to hydrolyze the carbapenems, which cause many bacteria resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, so the rapid dissemination of KPCs is worrisome. Laboratory identification of KPCs-harboring clinical isolates would be a key to limit the spread of the bacteria. This study would evaluate a rapid low-cost real-time PCR assay to detect KPCs.
Real-time PCR assay based on SYBR GreenIwas designed to amplify a 106bp product of the blaKPC gene from the159 clinical Gram-negative isolates resistant to several classes of -lactam antibiotics through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We confirmed the results of real-time PCR assay by the conventional PCR-sequencing. At the same time, KPCs of these clinical isolates were detected by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Then we compared the results of real-time PCR assay with those of MHT from the sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay.
The sensitivity and specificity of the results of the real-time PCR assay compared with those of MHT was 29/29(100%) and 130/130(100%), respectively. The results of the real-time PCR and the MHT were strongly consistent (Exact Sig. (2-tailed) =1. 000; McNemar test). The real-time PCR detection limit was about 0.8cfu using clinical isolates.
The real-time PCR assay could rapidly and accurately detect KPCs -harboring strains with high analytical sensitivity and specificity.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase
Following claims that some plants have antimicrobial activities against infectious microbes, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of different solvent fractions of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta were evaluated against eight standard bacteria and clinical isolates.
The solvent partitioning protocol involving ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water, was used to extract various fractions of dried pulverized Cryptolepis sanguinolenta roots. Qualitative phyto-constituents screening was performed on the ethanol extract, chloroform fraction and the water fraction. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method was employed to ascertain the antibiogram of the test organisms while the agar diffusion method was used to investigate the antimicrobial properties of the crude plant extracts. The microplate dilution method aided in finding the MICs while the MBCs were obtained by the method of Nester and friends. The SPSS 16.0 version was used to analyze the percentages of inhibitions and bactericidal activities.
The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, polyuronides, anthocyanosides and triterpenes. The ethanol extract inhibited 5 out of 8 (62.5%) of the standard organisms and 6 out of 8 (75%) clinical isolates. The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 4 out of 8 (50%) of the standard microbes and 1 out of 8 (12.5%) clinical isolates. It was also observed that the chloroform fraction inhibited the growth of all the organisms (100%). Average inhibition zones of 14.0 ± 1.0 mm to 24.67 ± 0.58 mm was seen in the ethyl acetate fraction which halted the growth of 3 (37.5%) of the standard organisms. Inhibition of 7 (87.5%) of standard strains and 6 (75%) of clinical isolates were observed in the water fraction. The chloroform fraction exhibited bactericidal activity against all the test organisms while the remaining fractions showed varying degrees of bacteriostatic activity.
The study confirmed that fractions of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta have antimicrobial activity. The chloroform fraction had the highest activity, followed by water, ethanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate respectively. Only the chloroform fraction exhibited bactericidal activity and further investigations are needed to ascertain its safety and prospects of drug development.
Toxins derived from jellyfishes have been exploited as a model for the development of new drug promising applications to treat neurodegenerative diseases. The present work is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca and then to screen the analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic (anti-BuChE) activities of the crude venom and its fractions.
Sephadex G75 gel was used to separate crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca, which led to some fractions. In addition, in vivo analgesic and in vitro plasma antibutyrylcholinestrasic activities were carried out with Pelagia crude venom and its fractions respectively.
The crude venom and its fractions displayed analgesic and anti-BuChE activities at different doses without inducing acute toxicity. Fraction 2 possesses the highest analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic properties. The crude venom and fraction 1 had shown to possess less significant inhibitory activity against analgesic and antibutyrylcholinestrasic models.
Based on this study, the crude venom of Pelagia noctiluca is found to be a useful tool for probing pharmacological activity. The purification and the determination of chemical structures of compounds of active fractions of the venom are under investigation.
Pelagia noctiluca; Venom; Jellyfish; Analgesic activity; Anti-Butyrylcholinesterasic activity
Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic infection that caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strict intracellular bacterium. It may be manifested by some of the autoimmune events and is classified into acute and chronic forms. The most frequent clinical manifestation of acute form is a self-limited febrile illness which is associated with severe headache, muscle ache, arthralgia and cough. Meningoencephalitis, thyroiditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, hemolytic anemia, and nephritis are rare manifestations. Here we present a case of acute Q fever together with Coombs’ positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and tubulointerstitial nephritis treated with chlarithromycin, steroids and hemodialysis. Clinicians should be aware of such rare manifestations of the disease.
Q fever; Pneumonia; Autoimmune hemolytic anemia; Tubulointerstitial nephritis
Statins have several effects beyond their well-known antihyperlipidemic activity, which include immunomodulatory, antioxidative and anticoagulant effects. In this study, we have tested the possible antimicrobial activity of statins against a range of standard bacterial strains and bacterial clinical isolates.
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values were evaluated and compared among three members of the statins drug (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin).
It was revealed that statins are able to induce variable degrees of antibacterial activity with atorvastatin, and simvastatin being the more potent than rosuvastatin. Methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), acinetobacter baumannii, staphylococcus epidermidis, and enterobacter aerogenes, were more sensitive to both atorvastatin, and simvastatin compared to rosuvastatin. On the other hand, escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis, and enterobacter cloacae were more sensitive to atorvastatin compared to both simvastatin and rosuvastatin. Furthermore, most clinical isolates were less sensitive to statins compared to their corresponding standard strains.
Our findings might raise the possibility of a potentially important antibacterial class effect for statins especially, atorvastatin and simvastatin.
Antimicrobial activity; Statins; Atorvastatin; Simvastatin; Rosuvastatin
Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L.) used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation.
Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer.
All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus.
Discussion and conclusion
The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.
Absorption spectrum; Antibacterial activity; Phytochemical analysis; RP-HPLC analysis; Solvent partitioning
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal disorder that presents with hemolytic anemia, marrow failure and thrombophilia. During acute attacks, corticosteroid can alleviate the hemolytic paroxysm, but the prolonged administration induces serious toxicity including immunosuppression. So American thoracic society (ATS) for tuberculosis (TB) recommends prophylactic anti-TB medication in patients with a long-term steroid therapy. However, in the patient who was treated for active TB in the past, there are no guidelines of the test for determining patients who have latent TB infection (LTBI) and no recommendations of TB prophylaxis if there is no evidence of reactivation at present. A 40-year-old male patient presented with fever and aggravated weakness for a week. He was diagnosed with PNH a month ago and took corticosteroid for 3 weeks. In the past, he was diagnosed with pulmonary TB and completely cured after treatment. According to guideline, he was not indicated with TB prophylaxis. However, he caught miliary TB, progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. We experience this embarrassing case, and emphasize the need to investigate multicentral TB prevalence and to make the guidelines of anti-TB medication in subgroups of hematologic diseases including PNH.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria; Miliary tuberculosis (TB); Tuberculosis (TB) prophylaxis
The global burden of bacterial infections is high and has been further aggravated by increasing resistance to antibiotics. In the search for novel antibacterials, three medicinal plants: Peperomia vulcanica, Peperomia fernandopoioana (Piperaceae) and Scleria striatinux (Cyperaceae), were investigated for antibacterial activity and toxicity.
Crude extracts of these plants were tested by the disc diffusion method against six bacterial test organisms followed by bio-assay guided fractionation, isolation and testing of pure compounds. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were measured by the microdilution method. The acute toxicity of the active extracts and cytotoxicity of the active compound were performed in mice and mammalian cells, respectively.
The diameter of the zones of inhibition (DZI) of the extracts ranged from 7–13 mm on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus of which the methylene chloride:methanol [1:1] extract of Scleria striatinux recorded the highest activity (DZI = 13 mm). Twenty-nine pure compounds were screened and one, Okundoperoxide, isolated from S. striatinux, recorded a DZI ranging from 10–19 mm on S. aureus. The MICs and MBCs indicated that the Peperomias had broad-spectrum bacteriostatic activity. Toxicity tests showed that Okundoperoxide may have a low risk of toxicity with an LC50 of 46.88 μg/mL.
The antibacterial activity of these plants supports their use in traditional medicine. The pure compound, Okundoperoxide, may yield new antibacterial lead compounds following medicinal chemistry exploration.
Resistance; Medicinal plants; Antibacterial compound; Toxicity
Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases.
In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method.
All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml.
In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.
Garlic; Ginger; Antibacterial activity; Extracts
The organisms responsible for neonatal sepsis vary across geographical boundaries and with the time of illness thus periodic bacteriologic surveillance is a neccessity. The present study was therefore carried out to determine the common bacterial pathogens in Port Harcourt and their sensitivity pattern.
Four hundred and six neonates were prospectively screened for sepsis over a 6 month period. Sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to different antibiotics was determined using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method.
Gram negative organisms predominated (75.1%) with Klebsiella pneumonia (58.2%) being the commonest. The quinolones were the most sensitive antibiotics to the commonly isolated organisms.
Klebsiella pneumonia is the commonest organism responsible for neonatal sepsis in Port Harcourt. There is an overall decline in the antibiotic susceptibility to the commonly isolated bacterial pathogens.
Neonatal sepsis; Bacteria; Antibiotics; Port Harcourt
Daptomycin is licensed in adults for the management of Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant infections, including bone and skin complicated infections. We describe for the first time its use in a renal transplant recipient for Fabry-Anderson Disease with right heel osteomyelitis. The patient was unresponsive to first-line Teicoplanin and second-line Tigecycline, whereas he was successfully treated with third-line Daptomycin monotherapy at 4 mg/Kg/qd for 4 weeks. Local debridement was performed in advance of each line of treatment.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Osteomyelitis; Daptomycin; Salvage therapy; Antibiotic therapy
The increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. Medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials
Materials and methods
In vitro antibacterial (MIC, MBC and time-kill studies) of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) was assessed using ten bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive).
All test bacteria were susceptible to the polyphenol-rich fractions. Time-kill results showed that after 5 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculum and the effect of polyphenol-rich fractions was faster on Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium) comparatively to the other bacteria strains.
The data analysis indicates that the tested of polyphenol-rich fractions has significant effects when compared with the standard antibiotic. These results therefore justify the traditional use of sida alba L., alone or in combination with other herbs to treat bacterial infections.