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26.  Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):103-108.
Aim:
This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC) on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats.
Materials and methods:
In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO), and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa.
Results:
In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC.
Conclusions:
The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153472
PMCID: PMC4389387  PMID: 25861146
Citrullus lanatus; gastroprotective; indomethacin-induced ulcer; pyloric ligation
27.  Nootropic (medhya) effect of Bhāvita Śaṇkhapuṣpī tablets: A clinical appraisal 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):109-112.
Background:
Nootropic (medhya) potential of śaṅkhapuṣpī (Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.) is reported in Ayurvedic literature and modern studies are now validating the same. In spite of plentiful preclinical researches already carried out during the past decades, only meager clinical efforts exploring its nootropic activity have been reported. Present clinical study is an attempt to evaluate the nootropic effect of Śaṅkhapuṣpī tablets.
Aims and Objective:
To evaluate the nootropic effect of śaṅkhapuṣpī tablets prepared by three Bhāvanā (levigation) of its cūrṇa (powder) with its own Svarasa (fresh juice).
Materials and Methods:
Thirty volunteers between the age 16 and 25 years participated in this single group pre-post study. Weschler's memory scale was adopted to collect data before (pre) and after (post) intervention period (2 months). Paired t-test was used for analyzing the data.
Results:
In auditory immediate test and delayed test, 41.03% and 48% improvement was found which statistically highly significant (<0.001). In visual immediate and delayed test 32.5% and 44.87% improvement was found respectively, which shows highly significant result (<0.001).
Conclusion:
Results reveal that śaṅkhapuṣpī tablet shown highly significant results in improving memory, especially in long term memory loss in younger age group.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153476
PMCID: PMC4389388  PMID: 25861147
Memory; nootropic; Shankhapushpi; tablet
28.  Phytochemical screening and antioxidant, antimitotic, and antiproliferative activities of Trichodesma indicum shoot 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):113-118.
Background:
Traditionally Trichodesma indicum has been used for its therapeutic effect in folk medicine that include anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticancer properties. In this work, we validate the anticancer potential of the plant.
Aims:
To screen the shoot extracts T. indicum for their antimitotic and antiproliferative activities.
Materials and Methods:
The dried aerial parts of T. indicum were successively extracted with petroleum ether, successive chloroform extract (SCH), successive ethanol extract (SEE) and water. The plant extracts were subjected to study of in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2’- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical inhibition systems. The extracts were also tested for their in vitro antimitotic activity in Allium cepa root and antiproliferative activity using the yeast model and five human cell lines (MCF-7, HOP-62, MOLT-4, HCT-15 and PRO).
Result and Conclusion:
The mitotic index for SCH and SEE was found to be 12.01 ± 1.34 and 12.99 ± 0.25 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value in the antiproliferative assay was found to be 30.14s–35.36 mg/mL for SCH and SEE respectively. Both SCH and SEE extracts showed significant antimitotic and antiproliferative activity when compared to the standard methothreaxate, vincreastine and adriamycin. Among the extracts, SEE showed strong inhibition against MCF-7 and MOLT-4 cell lines at concentration <30 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of extracts indicated the presence of β-sitosterol, gallic acid and catechin. Based on these results, it is concluded that T. indicum may be a good candidate for the treatment of a variety of cancer. Thus, its traditional use is validated.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153480
PMCID: PMC4389389  PMID: 25861148
Allium cepa root inhibition; anticancer; antimitotic; antiproliferative; catechin; gallic acid; high-performance liquid chromatography; sulforhodamine-B assay; β-sitosterol
29.  Research for understanding as opposed to evaluating Ayurveda 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):61-63.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153456
PMCID: PMC4389393  PMID: 25861137
30.  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock) 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):64-67.
Background:
Herbal analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedies are preferred much because of lesser side effects and also a lower tendency for habit formation. Pentatropis capensis is such an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug which is popular among folklore remedies for various injuries and inflammatory problems. It is called by the name of Kākanāsikā in Ayurvedic works. This study was designed to investigate the analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of P. capensis leaves (AEPC) in rats.
Materials and Methods:
AEPC was assessed for Analgesic effect through radiant heat tail-flick model and anti-inflammatory effect through carrageenan-induced paw edema model on Wistar strain of albino rats.
Results:
Pentatropis capensis leaves aqueous extract showed significant (P < 0.001) increase in the duration of latency of tail flick response at the dose levels of 450 mg/kg, p.o. as compared to the control group. Similarly, the similar dose level produced significant (P < 0.01) anti-inflammatory effect against acute paw edema after 3 h of carrageenan induction when compared to the control group.
Conclusion:
The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153457
PMCID: PMC4389394  PMID: 25861138
Carrageenan; paw edema; Pentatropis capensis; plethysmograph; tail flick response
31.  Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):68-72.
Introduction:
Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension.
Aim and Objective:
The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress.
Materials and Methods:
The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification.
Results and Conclusion:
Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153459
PMCID: PMC4389395  PMID: 25861139
Central nervous system activity; gamma amino butyric acid; high-performance thin layer chromatography; Solanum torvum; Zingiber officinale
32.  Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam. 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):73-79.
Background:
Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases.
Aims:
The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam.
Materials and Methods:
Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis.
Results:
In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder.
Conclusion:
The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153461
PMCID: PMC4389396  PMID: 25861140
Ayurveda; Butea monosperma; elements; Palash; pharmacopoeia; quality control; tridosha
33.  Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):80-84.
Background:
Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English) and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit) is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities.
Objective:
To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant.
Materials and Methods:
Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses.
Results:
Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc.
Conclusion:
The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153463
PMCID: PMC4389397  PMID: 25861141
6-benzylaminopurine; Argyreia nervosa; endangered; in vitro regeneration; phytochemical
34.  Efficacy of garlic extract and chlorhexidine mouthwash in reduction of oral salivary microorganisms, an in vitro study 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):85-88.
Objectives:
To assess and compare the antimicrobial effect of garlic extract and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash solution against oral salivary microorganisms.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty six salivary samples were obtained in dry plastic vials. Collected saliva samples were centrifuged. Each vial was mixed completely on a shaker after which 1 ml of saliva was added to 9 ml of ethanol by a sterile pipette and mixed. A volume of 1 ml of garlic hydro-alcoholic extract and 1 ml of mouthwash was added to 1 ml each case specimen and was transferred to culture medium of Trypticase Soy Agar. Agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h to allow for microbial growth. Microbial colonies were counted by independent interpreter to evaluate the result.
Statistical Analysis:
Data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. P < 0.001 was considered statistically significant.
Result:
Result of the study shows that mean colony count of salivary microbial population was (1984 ± 400) 1127 in saline group (negative control), (50 ± 4) 27 in (0.12%) CHX group (positive control), (700 ± 200) 469 in garlic extract (5%) group (case control).
Conclusion:
Mouthwash containing garlic extract can be used as an alternative to CHX mouthwash.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153465
PMCID: PMC4389398  PMID: 25861142
Chlorhexidine mouthwash; garlic extract; oral microorganisms
35.  Management of Ano-Rectal disorders by Kṣārasūtra: A clinical report 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):89-95.
Background:
Ano-rectal complaints are usually benign in origin. Most of the patients suffering with these disorders do not seek medical advice at an early stage due to embarrassment. It results in advancement of the disease and significant disturbance in the quality of life. Among the available treatment modalities of ano-rectal disorders (ARDs), Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread) appears to be the best in terms of relief and nonrecurrence.
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to provide evidence-based data about the practical application of Kṣārasūtra (medicated thread) in the management of ARDs.
Materials and Methods:
An ano-rectal operation theatre was established in September 2012, in association with the Government Ayurvedic Speciality Clinic at District Hospital, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, to facilitate the AYUSH services in Allopathic Hospitals. Present report includes the details of ARDs treated by Kṣārasūtra (Medicated thread) method during 2012–2013. A total of 127 ano-rectal cases were operated, which included 44 cases of hemorrhoids, 40 cases of fistula-in-ano, 39 cases of fissure-in-ano and three cases of peri-anal abscess. All the cases were analyzed as per the observations, subjective and objective parameters, and follow-up was carried out for a period of 6 months.
Results:
In the 127 ARDs treated, 45 patients suffering from hemorrhoids, 36 patients got complete relief, marked relief observed in 4 patients, moderate relief observed in 5 patients. In fistula-in-ano, out of 40 patients 29 patients got complete relief, marked relief was seen in 7 patients out of them 4 patients were referred to anti-tubercular treatment center, 4 patients left against medical advice. In fissure-in-ano-out of 39 patients, 32 patients got complete relief, 5 patients got marked relief, moderate relief observed in 2 patients. These results authenticate the effectiveness of Kṣārasūtra, no adverse effects or recurrence observed in any case.
Conclusions:
ARDs are efficiently treated by Kṣārasūtra technique with prompt symptomatic resolution and prevention of recurrence and complications.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153467
PMCID: PMC4389399  PMID: 25861143
Ano-rectal diseases; hemorrhoids; fistula-in-ano; fissure-in-ano; Kṣārasūtra; peri-anal abscess
36.  Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(2):96-99.
Background:
Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit.
Materials and Methods:
Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done.
Results and Conclusion:
Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.153469
PMCID: PMC4389400  PMID: 25861144
Citrus jambhiri Lush; Jambira Nimbū; pharmacognosy; prismatic crystals
38.  Phytochemical analysis and a study on the antiestrogenic antifertility effect of leaves of Piper betel in female albino rat 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):16-22.
Objective:
To study the effect of graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper betel (PB) Linn (PBL) on the estrous cycle of female albino rats.
Materials and Methods:
Both the extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at three dose levels of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg/day and the vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for the different phases of the estrous cycle for a period of 30 days.
Result:
The estrous cycle was irregular and prolonged in the treated groups indicating anestrus condition, which would result in infertility. Both types of the extract showed a significant decrease in the duration of proestrus and estrus with a prolonged diestrus at 1000 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day doses as compared with control. However, no change was seen in the metestrus phase. The rats treated with PB showed a significant (P < 0.05), dose-dependent decrease in the estrus phase, in comparison to the control group, the effect was more with the methanolic extract. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase with decreased number of cornified cells. There was a significant reduction in the number of the estrous cycle, in the PBL treated group. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic PB extract, which was not observed in the control group. However, the aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day had no effect either on the estrous cycle or on its different phases. The observed effect of PB leaves could be due to the flavonoids and saponin contents, which also contributes to its antiestrogenic mechanism of action.
Conclusion:
Both the aqueous and methanolic extract of PBL possesses antifertility effect in female albino rats.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150770
PMCID: PMC4342644  PMID: 25737606
Anestrus phase; antiestrogenic; estrous cycle; phytoconstituents; Piper betel; vaginal smear
39.  Antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect of Gluconorm-5: A polyherbal formulation in steptozotocin induced hyperglycemic rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):23-32.
Background:
The antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and hepato-protective effect of Gluconorm-5, was studied in steptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemic rats.
Materials and Methods:
The hypoglycemic effect of single dose of Gluconorm-5 (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) made up of five plants namely Camellia sinensis, Punica granatum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Foeniculum vulgare and Trigonella foenum-graecum was studied in normal, glucose loaded normal and diabetes-induced rats. The extent of antihyperlipidemic and liver-protective effect was studied by estimating the lipid profile, and the liver marker enzymes. Histopathological studies of the pancreatic tissue were also carried out with glibenclamide as standard antihyperglycemic agent.
Results:
Fifteen days of oral feeding of the Gluconorm-5 (300 and 600 mg/kg) to diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of blood glucose, lipid profile, liver weight and marker enzymes as compared to those rats in whom STZ induced toxicity was untreated. The diabetic rats treated with the drug showed expanded islets as compared to the untreated diabetic rats, which showed the shrunken islets. The animals that received 300 mg/kg of Gluconorm-5 showed pronounced antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect in the present study, which was comparable with glibenclamide, a standard drug.
Conclusion:
Gluconorm-5 exerts potent antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect, which can be used as adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150773
PMCID: PMC4342645  PMID: 25737607
Antidiabetic; antihyperlipidemic; Gluconorm-5; hepato-protective
40.  Role of indigenous herbs in the management of Alzheimer's disease 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):3-7.
Ageing is a natural phenomenon and decline of physiological and structural changes are incurable in advancing years of human life. When such degenerative changes occur in the brain they may lead to dementia and other memory related conditions. The Ayurvedic classics identified the importance of higher faculties dealing with memory and introduced a separate group of drugs namely Medhya Rasayanas. Regular intake of such drugs will help to prevent the onset of degenerative changes in the brain prematurely. Ayurveda can play a useful role in the management of such geriatric conditions. The current review has been done with a view to update documented Ayurvedic therapeutic modalities for certain geriatric conditions suggested by Ayurvedic classics in the management of diseases called Vātavyādhi (nervous system disorders), which also include conditions related to memory functions. Recent studies have started validating the claims recorded in Ayurvedic texts. The pathogenesis and remedies for Vātavyādhi documented in Ayurvedic classics have been reviewed with special emphasis on disorders related to dementia. A review of recent researches on the herbs mentioned in management of vāta disorders including dementia have been done to understand their role in management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are many herbs of ethno-medicinal source studied experimentally for their potential in treatment of AD. A judicious combination of modern research methodology and Ayurvedic principles could go a long way in the management and care of AD which is going to be a heavy burden on the society in the future.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150763
PMCID: PMC4342646  PMID: 25737604
Alzheimer's disease; cognitive disorders; memory enhancing drugs
41.  In vitro evaluation of anti-herpes simplex-1 activity of three standardized medicinal plants from Lamiaceae 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):33-38.
Background:
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic acid with antioxidant and anti-viral effects. We have studied anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) effect of three medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family which have been standardized on the basis of RA content.
Materials and Methods:
Methanolic extract of Teucrium polium, Ziziphora clinopoides, and Salvia rhytidea was prepared by maceration method and RA content of the plants was determined using a spectrophotometric method. Maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC) of the extracts was determined using neutral red method. Serial dilutions of extracts up to MNTC were examined on Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 effect by plaque assay in comparison to acyclovir as a positive control.
Results:
Among the tested extracts, T. polium contained the highest percentage of RA (1.8%w/w) and exhibited the least toxicity (MNTC = 1000 μg/ml). The greatest anti-HSV-1 was shown by T. polium and Z. clinopoides extracts which exhibited both time and concentration-dependent plaque inhibition.
Conclusion:
Considering the low toxicity and significant anti-viral effect of T. polium extract, this plant would prove valuable as an active anti-viral drug.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150777
PMCID: PMC4342647  PMID: 25737608
Herpes simplex-1; plaque inhibition; rosmarinic acid; Salvia rhytidea; Teucrium polium; Ziziphora clinopoides
42.  Evaluation of anthelmintic activity and in silico PASS assisted prediction of Cordia dichotoma (Forst.) root extract 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):39-43.
Background:
Worm infection and associated complications are severe problems that afflict a large population worldwide. Failure of synthetic drugs in worm infections because of drug resistance has made alternative drug therapy desirable. Cordia dichotoma (Forst.) is an ethnomedicinal plant which is rich in several secondary metabolites. Traditionally, the plant has been claimed to have high medicinal properties including antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.
Materials and Methods:
The study begun with an aim to explore plant-based natural anthelmintic agents against Pheretima posthuma, an Indian earthworm. Methanol extract of the drug was obtained by successive soxhlet extraction. The extract was tested for different phytochemicals. Worms were exposed to 10 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml concentrations of extract and standard drug, albendazole. A software-based tool, prediction of activity spectra for substances was used to estimate anthelmintic efficacy of plant metabolites.
Result:
The phytochemical analysis revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, and phenols. The extract showed dose-dependent effects, affecting worm motility, viability, and mortality. It was also found that the biological activity spectrum of the plant phytoconstituents such as octacosanol, lupeol, caffeic acid, and hentricontanol were >0.5 (probable activity > 0.5).
Conclusion:
The findings of the present work suggest that the extract of C. dichotoma significantly interferes with motility pattern of P. posthuma. The paralysis and mortality of P. posthuma might be due to the combined effects different phytoconstituents. The extract of C. dichotoma promises natural sources to control worm infection.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150779
PMCID: PMC4342648  PMID: 25737609
Anthelmintic activity; Cordia dichotoma; paralysis and death; Pheretima posthuma; prediction of activity spectra for substances prediction
43.  Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):44-49.
Background:
Cichorium intybus L. commonly known as chicory is one of the important medicinal plants commonly used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is commonly used for the treatment of diseases involving a khapa and pitta doshas. Traditionally, C. intybus is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but there are only few in vitro studies reporting the anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory.
Objective:
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory and mechanisms involved in it using in vivo models of inflammation.
Materials and Methods:
Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing 150–200 g were used. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots of chicory were prepared with the help of Soxhlet's apparatus. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema method and cotton pellet granuloma method. Levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-1 and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated.
Results:
Chicory roots demonstrated significant dose-dependent decrease in paw edema in carrageenan-induced paw edema method. Chicory roots diminished the serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 levels. They also significantly attenuated the malonylaldehyde levels and increased the activities of CAT and GPx in paw tissue. Similarly, chicory roots demonstrated a significant decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet induced granuloma method.
Conclusion:
Chicory roots possess anti-inflammatory activity, and this might be due to the inhibition of various cytokines, antioxidant effects, and their free radical scavenging activity.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150780
PMCID: PMC4342649  PMID: 25737610
Anti-inflammatory; antioxidant activity; carrageenan; Cichorium intybus; cytokines
44.  Syringing method as an alternative to Śṛṇga therapy in Vātakaṇṭaka 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):50-52.
Calcaneus forms the bone of the foot. Due to abnormal pressures, foot muscles and ligaments are stretched beyond their normal limits that lead to chronic plantar heel pain, among which calcaneal spur tops the list. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated to “Vātakaṇṭaka” (pricking sensation in the foot)-a painful condition of heel caused by its improper placement on the ground. To assess the effect of syringing method (modified Śṛṅga) in the treatment of Vātakaṇṭaka. A 10 ml syringe was for ease, hygiene, and to enable the case to be managed in the outpatient department. A diagnosed case of calcaneal spurs with pain, tenderness, and swelling visited KLE University's Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. After Snigdha Patrapoṭṭali sveda (a form of sudation therapy), bloodletting was performed by syringing method. In total procedure was performed for 4 times on the patient. Marked subjective relief was observed. Pain from 8 visual analog scale (VAS) came to 2 visual analog scale (VAS) and tenderness and swelling relived completely.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150782
PMCID: PMC4342650  PMID: 25737611
Calcaneal spur; raktamokshana; raktavarana vatakantaka; Shringa application therapy
45.  Ayurvedic management of postlumbar myelomeningocele surgery: A case study 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):53-56.
A 11-year-old male child presented with the complaints of urinary incontinence, passing hard stools associated with weakness in lower limbs, deformity of feet, reduced sensation below ankle joint since he was 5 years of age as noticed by parents. The clinical features were seen as postlumbar myelomeningocele surgery and child had congenital talipus equinovarus. For this, he was administered anulomana, sarvāṅga abhyaṅga (oleation / massage), saṅgraha cikitsā, avagāha sveda (sudation) and matrā basti (type of oleaginous enema). After the treatment, child was able to get control over his bladder, he started feeling sense the fullness of the bladder, there was a desire to void urine and a reduction in a number of voids in daytime and a reduced degree of wetness
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150783
PMCID: PMC4342651  PMID: 25737612
Anyonyāvaraṇa; apānāvṛtavāta; lumbar myelomeningocele; sangrahi cikitsā
46.  Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;34(1):8-15.
Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.150768
PMCID: PMC4342652  PMID: 25737605
Ayurvedic extraction principle; Ayurvedic herbal drug preparation; Ayurvedic separation principle; Modern processing principle
47.  A combined administration of Aragvādādi kaṣāyam and Syrup Talekt induced skin rashes 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):172-175.
It is a common notion among people in India that herbal or Ayurvedic products are safe and do not produce any adverse effect. This is not true since Ayurveda has evaded many adverse effects which occur by combination of herbs. This axiom is potentiated by our report that occurs in the form of skin rashes. A 20-year-old South Indian female of Pittakapha prakṛti (constitution) after beginning therapy with Aragvādādi kaṣāyam (ARK) (poly-herbal formulation) and Syrup Talekt (poly-herbal patent formulation) for the treatment of recurrent incidence of abscess. Rash disappeared after stopping the suspected drug and treatment with Vibhītakī kaṣāyam (decoction of Terminilia bellarica) and Śatadhauta ghṛtam. Possible and probable (score 6) were the causality according to WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo's Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale and grouped under type-B reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of skin rashes which seen after administration of ARK and Syrup Talekt. This report highlights the need of implementation of pharmacovigilance center in the hospital level and additional research in the field of skin toxicity of ARK and Syrup Talekt.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144622
PMCID: PMC4264306  PMID: 25538353
Abscess; Aragwadadi kashaya; Ayurveda; skin rashes; Talekt
48.  Ayurvedic education: Where to go from here? 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):143-145.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144615
PMCID: PMC4264300  PMID: 25538347
49.  Standardization of Rajanyādi cūrṇa: An ayurvedic preparation 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):146-150.
Background:
Rajanyādi cūrṇa (RC) is an ayurvedic classical preparation used in the treatment of digestive disorders, fever, jaundice, anemia, and asthma. We seek to standardize this drug to ensure its quality.
Objective:
The current investigation was aimed at the preparation of cūrṇa in three batches so as to standardize it.
Materials and Methods:
The cūrṇa was prepared in-house in three different batches according to directions given in The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The cūrṇa was evaluated based on organoleptic characters, physical characteristics, and physico-chemical parameters. High performance thin layer chromatography was carried out for the quantification of curcumin.
Results:
The parameters were found to be comparable and sufficient for the evaluation of the cūrṇa.
Conclusion:
Ayurvedic medicine, RC has been standardized using the various parameters and can be incorporated while developing the pharmacopoeial standards.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144617
PMCID: PMC4264301  PMID: 25538348
High performance thin layer chromatography; physicochemical; Rajanyādi cūrṇa; standardization
50.  Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):151-156.
Context:
Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions.
Materials and Methods:
The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL.
Results:
Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively.
Conclusion:
The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144618
PMCID: PMC4264302  PMID: 25538349
Bactericidal property; essential oil composition; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Lamiaceae; methyl chavicol; methyl eugenol; Ocimum basilicum L.

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