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26.  Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):131-138.
Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians.
PMCID: PMC4171855  PMID: 25284948
Mentha longifolia; menthol; pharmacological effects; traditional use
29.  In vitro cytotoxic activity of menispermaceae plants against HeLa cell line 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):81-84.
Menispermaceae, a family of flowering plants, is a medium-sized family of 70 genera totaling 420 extant species, mostly of climbing plants. It has various medicinal properties, which are used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Plants belonging to this family are rich in alkaloids, especially bisbenzylisoquinoline type. The hypothesis of this study is that the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids present in the selected plants may exhibit in vitro cytotoxic property.
The present study is aimed at estimating the total alkaloidal content of methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus and Cissampelos pareira and evaluating the in vitro cytotoxic activity of both the extracts on the HeLa cell line.
Settings and Design:
Methanolic extracts of both the plants in the concentrations of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 μg/ml were assessed for its cytotoxic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
Materials and Methods:
Total alkaloidal content was studied for both the plants using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy method. Methanol extracts of both the plants were tested for its inhibitory effect on HeLa cell line. Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated by MTT assay. Nonlinear regression graph was plotted between % cell inhibition and Log10 concentration, and IC50 was determined using GraphPad Prism software.
Preliminary phytochemical studies confirm the presence of alkaloids in both the plants. The total alkaloids present in C. hirsutus and C. pareira were found to be 0.252%w/w and 0.1656%w/w respectively. The IC50 values of C. hirsutus and C. pareria were found to be 111 μg/ml and 129.3 μg/ml respectively.
From this study, it is observed that C. hirsutus and C. pareira have in vitro cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell line.
PMCID: PMC4171858  PMID: 25284939
3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2; 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; Cissampelos pareira; Cocculus hirsutus; cytotoxic
30.  A self-rating scale to measure tridoṣas in children 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):85-91.
Self – rating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI).
Materials and Methods:
The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore.
This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI.
The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity.
PMCID: PMC4171859  PMID: 25284940
Tridosha; prakriti; vāta; pitta; kapha; Ayurveda
31.  The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):92-96.
Orchids are well-known for decorative and aromatic values than its medicinal properties. Jīvantī, Jīvaka, Ṛṣabhaka, Rāsnā, Mānakanda, Pañcagula are used in Ayurveda are said to be orchids. There are 50 species of orchids in medicine. Sikkim has identified 523 species of wild orchids so far.
The aim of this study is to determine the folklore medicinal use of orchids in Sikkim.
Materials and Methods:
To assess the traditional medicinal uses of orchid species, close contacts were made with native people particularly, traditional healers, religious leaders, nursery growers and villagers of Sikkim. The information was gathered with the help of the questionnaire and personal interviews with various knowledgeable respondents during the field visit in between August 2009 and December 2011.
Results and Conclusion:
We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution.
PMCID: PMC4171860  PMID: 25284941
Analgesic; aphrodisiac; folklore medicine; orchids in medicine; orchids of Sikkim; wound healing
32.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Svarṇa vaṅga 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):97-102.
Kūpīpakva Rasāyana is a category of Rasauṣadhis (herbomineral medicines) prepared by unique pharmaceutical process explained in Rasaśāstra. Svarṇa Vanga (SV) is one such medicament indicated mainly in diseases such as Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Śvāsa (respiratory disorders), Pradara (menorrhagia), and as a Vrṣya (aphrodisiac).
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to establish the standard manufacturing process for SV and analyze its organoleptic and physicochemical properties.
Pharmaceutical standardization.
Materials and Methods:
Śodhita Vaṅga was melted and triturated with purified Pārada (mercury) to form an amalgam. The amalgam so formed was mixed with Saindhava Lavaṇa and levigated with Nimbu Svarasa (Citrus medica Var.) and washed until blackness of the mixture disappeared. On drying, śuddha Gandhaka (Sulfur) and Navasadara (Ammonium chloride) were added and ground into a fine powder. The powder thus formed was filled in the Kupī and processed in an electrical muffle furnace for 18 h. On cooling, the product formed at the bottom of the Kūpī was collected. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of SV were analyzed and tabulated.
Results and Conclusion:
SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana. It requires Mṛdu (<250 C) and Madhyama Agni (250-500 C) for a period of 9 h each to prepare SV with 42.9% yield and having 63.2 and 34.4% tin and sulfur, respectively.
PMCID: PMC4171861  PMID: 25284942
Ayurveda; Kupipakva Rasayana; standardization; Swarna Vanga
33.  Consideration of Ayurvedic diagnostics in design of clinical trials 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):1-3.
PMCID: PMC4140014  PMID: 25161322
34.  Quality parameters, fatty acid profiling and estimation of umbelliferone in grahaṇimihira tailam: An ayurvedic oil preparation 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):10-14.
Grahaṇimihira tailam is an unexplored ayurvedic oil preparation which consists of 34 ingredients. The efficacy of this traditional ayurvedic medicine is undisputable. Proper clinical standardization of this formulation will go a long way in securing greater recognition for it. The main objective of this study was to develop standardization parameters for the formulation in a multidisciplinary way.
Materials and Methods:
A simple and efficient method for the quantification of umbelliferone by high performance thin layer chromatography was developed and validated. Presence of the major fatty acids and their percentage were assessed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Various physio-chemical parameters, microbiological load, aflatoxins and mineral oil were also evaluated. Spread plate method was used for checking microbial contamination.
The results were validated as per standard protocols. Quantitative estimation revealed the percentage of umbelliferone to be in the range of 0.88-0.98 (w/w). GC-MS analysis of sample led to the identification of 14 fatty acids, in which linoleic acid was obtained as the major fatty acid. Microbes, aflatoxins and mineral oils were found to be absent in the tailam.
The results which give the quantitative estimates of various physico-chemical parameters can be adopted to establish new standards for analysis of batch-to-batch variation and this data will facilitate shelf life studies in the future.
PMCID: PMC4140015  PMID: 25161324
Fatty acids; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; grahanimihira tailam; high performance thin layer chromatography; physico-chemical parameters; umbelliferone
35.  Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):15-21.
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures.
Materials and Methods:
Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed.
Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy of whole plant, glandular trichomes, non-glandular trichomes, fragments of lamina, xylem elements, parenchyma cells and fibers are observed. Phytochemical screening reveals that the C. halicacabum extract contains glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and saponin.
Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in identification, quality, purity and standardization of C. halicacabum.
PMCID: PMC4140016  PMID: 25161325
Cardiospermum halicacabum; fluorescence analysis; macroscopy; microscopy; physicochemical; phytochemical
36.  Treatment with aquatic plants by a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):22-26.
Tribal healers mainly use land plants in their medicinal formulations; use of aquatic plants has been scarcely reported.
The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey working with a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh.
Settings and Design:
The survey was carried out working with a Bagdi healer, who lived alone in the wetlands of Rajbari District and used primarily aquatic plants for treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Interview of the healer was carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method.
The Bagdi healer was observed to use seven different aquatic plant species coming from five plant families for treatment of ailments such as hemorrhoids, tonsillitis, heart disorders, burning sensations and pain in hands or legs, blurred vision, debility, sexual weakness in males, chronic dysentery, infertility in women, constipation, chronic leucorrhea, blackness and foul odor of menstrual blood, hair loss, graying of hair and to keep the head cool. One plant was used to treat what the healer mentioned as “evil eye”, this refers to their belief in black-magic.
This is the first reported instance of a Bagdi healer who primarily uses aquatic plants for treatment. Ethnomedicinal uses of a number of the plants used by the Bagdi healer have been reported for other places in India and Pakistan. Taken together, the various uses of the different plant species opens up scientific possibilities of new drug discoveries from the plants.
PMCID: PMC4140017  PMID: 25161326
Aquatic plants; Bagdi; Bangladesh; ethnomedicine; Rajbari
37.  Validation of standard manufacturing procedure of Guḍūcī sattva (aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) and its tablets 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):27-34.
Guḍūci Sattva is a highly valued formulation among ayurvedic physicians, commonly recommended in conditions such as Jvara (fever), Dāha (burning sensation) and other conditions of Pitta predominance. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available until date on manufacturing guidelines along with its quality control parameters.
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to develop the standard manufacturing procedure for preparation of Guḍūci Sattva and its tablets.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 15 batches of Guḍūci Sattva were prepared in the laboratory. During its preparation, pharmaceutical findings and observations were systematically recorded. To maintain quality control, Guḍūci Sattva tablets were further subjected to analysis such as shape, diameter, width, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time (DT) and friability. Qualitative analysis to detect the presence of various functional groups and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile were also carried out.
Results and Conclusion:
The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
PMCID: PMC4140018  PMID: 25161327
Guḍūci; Sattva; standard manufacturing procedure; tablets
38.  The In vitro anti-acne activity of two unani drugs 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):35-38.
Acne is the most common disorder treated by dermatologists. As many as 80-90% of all adolescents have some type of acne and 30% of them require medical treatment. It is an inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit characterized by the formation of open and closed comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts.
The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro anti-acne activity of two Unani single drugs Darchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.) and Tukhm Khashkhash (Papaver somniferum L. seeds).
Materials and Methods:
The antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic and hydroalcoholic extracts of both drugs were investigated against two acne causing bacteria, i.e., Propionibacterium acne and Staphylococcus epidermidis using well diffusion method.
The result showed that both drugs were active against the two bacteria. Against P. acne aqueous and ethanolic extract of Darchini and Tukhm Khashkhash showed the zone of inhibition of 18 ± 1.02 mm and 18 ± 1.6 mm and 13 ± 1.04 mm and 14 ± 1.8 mm, respectively. Against S. epidermidis aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of Darchini showed 22 ± 1.7 mm, 22 ± 1.2 mm and 15 ± 1.8 mm zone of inhibition respectively. Hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of Tukhm Khashkhash showed 15 ± 1.09 mm and 13 ± 1.6 mm zone of inhibition respectively.
This suggests that C. zeylanicum and P. somniferum have potential against acne causing bacteria and hence they can be used in topical anti-acne preparations and may address the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria.
PMCID: PMC4140019  PMID: 25161328
Acne; Propionibacterium acnes; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Unani
39.  Pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):39-44.
Malvastrum coromandelianum belongs to the family Malvaceae, commonly known as false mallow. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that it is used to treat various disorders. Pharmacological screening revealed that the plant possess antinoceceptive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibacterial activities. Lack of standardization parameters for herbal raw material is a great hindrance in ensuring the purity of M. coromandelianum. The present work was taken up to with a focus to set standardization parameters for M. coromandelianum.
Materials and Methods:
The plant was subjected to macroscopic and microscopic studies. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value and extractive value were determined by standard procedures. Different extracts were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated. Plant was subjected for high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis using standard chromatographic procedure.
The microscopic characteristics showed the dorsiventral nature of leaf. Two types of trichomes were observed: Covering, unicellular, uniseriate, and bi-cellular head sessile glandular. Vascular bundle was surrounded by spongy parenchyma. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins, and carbohydrates. The phenolic and flavonoid content estimation revealed the presence of appreciable amount of these constituents, while HPTLC analysis showed the presence of β-sitosterol in petroleum ether extract.
These findings will be useful for the establishment of standardization parameters for M. coromandelianum.
PMCID: PMC4140020  PMID: 25161329
β-sitosterol; high performance thin layer chromatography analysis; Malvastrum coromandelianum; phytochemical screening; total flavonoid; total phenolic
40.  Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):4-9.
The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic.
This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different.
C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control.
Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney.
PMCID: PMC4140021  PMID: 25161323
Biomarkers; kidney; liver; organ toxicity; phytomedicine
41.  An approach to avascular necrosis by Saghṛta kṣīrabasti 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):45-48.
A 62-year-old, male patient radiologically diagnosed as a case of avascular necrosis of femur head with grade 4, presented the following chief complaints. Pain in the left hip joint radiating to thigh (anterior part), of grade ‘9’ on “visual analog scale (VAS)” associated with swelling in bilateral feet and decreased range of movements in the hip joint. This presentation was correlated with Asthi-majjagata vāta (musculo-skeletal disorder) and treated accordingly. Initially, patient had been administered dīpana and pācana followed by nityavirecana (therapeutic purgation). Further Saghrita kṣīrabasti (medicated enema prepared with milk and ghee) was administered in kalābasti schedule (16 in number). This resulted with relief of pain to grade “3” on “VAS” and complete resolution of pedal edema and improvement in range of movement of hip joint.
PMCID: PMC4140022  PMID: 25161330
Asthi-majjagata vata; avascular necrosis of head of femur; Saghrita ksheerabasti
42.  Molluscum contagiosum: A novel Ayurvedic approach 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):49-51.
Three cases of molluscum contagiosum (MC) approached our outpatient Department of Dermatology complaining of umbilicated, skin-colored, firm, painless papules over the neck and face. All of them were immune competent. The medical, social, and family history was insignificant. The lesions were, numerous and recurrent. However, MC in healthy people is a self-limiting disease, but it will take about 18 months to resolve by its own. Hence, the treatment becomes necessary to accelerate the healing process, preventing its spread and for cosmetic reasons. Most of the contemporary treatment methods such as cryotherapy, curettage, and topical application of caustic agents are effective but produce local side-effects such as erythema, tenderness, itching, burning sensation, and pain. The present study reports the efficacy of external application of Pratisaraṇīya Kṇāra (the type of Alkali used for smearing over the affected area) and Bilvādi Agada tablet orally in three cases, which yielded encouraging results.
PMCID: PMC4140023  PMID: 25161331
Ajagallikā; Bilvādi Agada; molluscum contagiosum; Pratisaraniya kshara
43.  Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx): A brief review 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):52-59.
Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha.
The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug.
Materials and Methods
Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data.
Result and Conclusion:
Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.
PMCID: PMC4140024  PMID: 25161332
Antidiabetic formulations; efficacy; Nāga bhasma; safety
44.  Relevance of Vṛkṣāyurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):60-70.
Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of Vṛkṣāyurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review Vṛkṣāyurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of Vṛkṣāyurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to Vṛkṣāyurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as Ṛgveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like Kṛṣi-Parāśara and Vṛkṣāyurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in Vṛkṣāyurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management.
PMCID: PMC4140025  PMID: 25161333
Nursery technique; seedlings; traditional agriculture; Vṛkṣāyurveda
45.  Effect of Grīvā Vasti in management of Grīvā Asthi Sandhi Gata Vāta (Cervical Spondylosis) 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):71-75.
Cervical spondylosis is a general term for age-related wear and tear affecting the spinal disks in the neck. Keeping in view the increasing incidence of this problem in modern society a study was conducted with following.
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of Grīvā Vasti in the management of cervical spondylosis.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted on 10 clinically, pathologically, and radiologically diagnosed patients of cervical spondylosis, selected from outpatient department/In -patient department wing of P.G. Department of Kāya Chikitsā, N.I.A., Jaipur, satisfying the inclusion criteria. Patients were treated with Grīvā Vasti with Daśamūla Tailam for 35-45 min duration, for 14 days. Assessments were performed with regard to neck disability index before and after treatment.
Statistical Analysis:
Statistical analysis was done with the help of Instat GraphPad 3 using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks test.
Relief in neck disability index was 65.70%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.01).
Result indicates that Grīvā Vasti is an effective treatment in cervical spondylosis.
PMCID: PMC4140026  PMID: 25161334
Cervical spondylosis; Daśamūla Taila; Grīvā Vasti; neck disability index; Sandhi-Vāta
46.  Uniform standards and quality control of research publications in the field of Ayurveda 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):185-186.
PMCID: PMC4078466  PMID: 24991064
47.  Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):187-192.
Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source.
Materials and Methods:
The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units.
Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds.
The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.
PMCID: PMC4078467  PMID: 24991065
Combretum albidum; fluorescence analysis; macroscopy; microscopy; physicochemical; phytochemical
48.  Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):193-198.
Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka.
The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve.
Statistical Analysis:
The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test.
The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg.
The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
PMCID: PMC4078468  PMID: 24991066
Antihyperglycaemic activity; blood glucose; diabetes mellitus; oral glucose tolerance test
49.  Physico-chemical study of Vaikrānta bhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):199-204.
Vaikrānta has very important place in Rasa śāstra and is placed under Mahārasa and Upratna group. It has been mentioned that vaikrānta can be used in the place of diamond, which is a very precious stone and whose use is beyond the limit of the common man. Vaikrānta possesses pharmacological and therapeutic properties similar to diamond, but still very few researchers have worked on it.
Aims and Objectives:
The main aim of the present study is to analyze vaikrānta bhasma by employing various organoleptic methods mentioned in Ayurvedic science along with analysis as per tools available today.
Settings and Design:
In the present study, vaikrānta bhasma was prepared according to method mentioned in Rasa Ratna Samuccaya. Final product is prepared according to classical parameters described in Ayurvedic science.
Materials and Methods:
Ayurvedic scholars have described various parameters for the qualitative evaluation of vaikrānta bhasma, but all those are subjective in nature and cannot be evaluated numerically for reproducibility of the result. With this in mind, in the present study, tests as per Ayurvedic science and analytical parameters such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry were adopted to analyze the final product.
Results and Conclusions:
Data suggests that vaikrānta bhasma is a multi-mineral compound, which contains iron and silica as major constituents and others are present as trace elements. The data obtained in this study suggest that quality specifications for vaikrānta bhasma can be developed using tests described in Ayurvedic science along with analytical tools available today.
PMCID: PMC4078469  PMID: 24991067
Analysis; physico-chemical; Vaikranta bhasma
50.  Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):205-211.
It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride.
To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing.
Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months.
Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy.
PMCID: PMC4078470  PMID: 24991068
Lemongrass essential oil gel; local drug delivery; nonsurgical periodontal therapy; periodontitis; phytoscience

Results 26-50 (1622)