The speed at which most countries with high burdens of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) have scaled up their capacity to diagnose and treat individuals with these forms of TB has failed to keep pace with the problem. Limited availability of drug susceptibility testing, high costs and inefficiencies in the supply of second-line drugs, and inadequate capacity for the management of patients with MDRTB have contributed to the wide gap between the estimated need for and the delivery of MDRTB treatment. The most recent global estimates indicate that only about 1 in 20 individuals with incident MDRTB will be properly diagnosed; fewer still receive quality-assured treatment. As policy makers confront the threat of growing levels of drug-resistant TB, there is a clear role for improved surveillance methods that can facilitate more effective public health responses. In countries that cannot yet test all incident cases for drug resistance, analysis of programmatic data and use of periodic, efficient surveys can provide information to help prioritize the use of limited resources to geographic areas or population subgroups of greatest concern. We describe methods for the analysis of routinely collected data and alternative surveys that can help tighten the link between surveillance activities and interventions.
tuberculosis; multidrug resistant; surveillance; survey; mapping
Rationale: An increased tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity (TRV > 2.5 m/s) and pulmonary hypertension defined by right heart catheterization both independently confer increased mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD).
Objectives: We explored the usefulness of peripheral blood mononuclear cell–derived gene signatures as biomarkers for an elevated TRV in SCD.
Methods: Twenty-seven patients with SCD underwent echocardiography and peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation for expression profiling and 112 patients with SCD were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide gene and miRNA expression profiles were correlated against TRV, yielding 631 transcripts and 12 miRNAs. Support vector machine analysis identified a 10-gene signature including GALNT13 (encoding polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 13) that discriminates patients with and without increased TRV with 100% accuracy. This finding was then validated in a cohort of patients with SCD without (n = 10) and with pulmonary hypertension (n = 10, 90% accuracy). Increased TRV-related miRNAs revealed strong in silico binding predictions of miR-301a to GALNT13 corroborated by microarray analyses demonstrating an inverse correlation between their expression. A genetic association study comparing patients with an elevated (n = 49) versus normal (n = 63) TRV revealed five significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms within GALNT13 (P < 0.005), four trans-acting (P < 2.1 × 10−7) and one cis-acting (P = 0.6 × 10−4) expression quantitative trait locus upstream of the adenosine-A2B receptor gene (ADORA2B).
Conclusions: These studies validate the clinical usefulness of genomic signatures as potential biomarkers and highlight ADORA2B and GALNT13 as potential candidate genes in SCD-associated elevated TRV.
microarray; candidate gene approach; eQTL; pulmonary hypertension
Rationale: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major complication of premature birth. Risk factors for BPD are complex and include prenatal infection and O2 toxicity. BPD pathology is equally complex and characterized by inflammation and dysmorphic airspaces and vasculature. Due to the limited availability of clinical samples, an understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and its causal mechanisms and associated biomarkers is limited.
Objectives: Apply genome-wide expression profiling to define pathways affected in BPD lungs.
Methods: Lung tissue was obtained at autopsy from 11 BPD cases and 17 age-matched control subjects without BPD. RNA isolated from these tissue samples was interrogated using microarrays. Standard gene selection and pathway analysis methods were applied to the data set. Abnormal expression patterns were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.
Measurements and Main Results: We identified 159 genes differentially expressed in BPD tissues. Pathway analysis indicated previously appreciated (e.g., DNA damage regulation of cell cycle) as well as novel (e.g., B-cell development) biological functions were affected. Three of the five most highly induced genes were mast cell (MC)-specific markers. We confirmed an increased accumulation of connective tissue MCTC (chymase expressing) mast cells in BPD tissues. Increased expression of MCTC markers was also demonstrated in an animal model of BPD-like pathology.
Conclusions: We present a unique genome-wide expression data set from human BPD lung tissue. Our data provide information on gene expression patterns associated with BPD and facilitated the discovery that MCTC accumulation is a prominent feature of this disease. These observations have significant clinical and mechanistic implications.
microarray; tryptase; chymase; carboxypeptidase A3; bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Rationale: In the normal lung, breathing and deep inspirations potently antagonize bronchoconstriction, but in the asthmatic lung this salutary effect is substantially attenuated or even reversed. To explain these findings, the prevailing hypothesis focuses on contracting airway smooth muscle and posits a nonlinear dynamic interaction between actomyosin binding and the tethering forces imposed by tidally expanding lung parenchyma.
Objective: This hypothesis has never been tested directly in bronchial smooth muscle embedded within intraparenchymal airways. Our objective here is to fill that gap.
Methods: We designed a novel system to image contracting intraparenchymal human airways situated within near-normal lung architecture and subjected to dynamic parenchymal expansion that simulates breathing.
Measurements and Main Results: Reversal of bronchoconstriction depended on the degree to which breathing actually stretched the airway, which in turn depended negatively on severity of constriction and positively on the depth of breathing. Such behavior implies positive feedbacks that engender airway instability.
Overall conclusions: These findings help to explain heterogeneity of airflow obstruction as well as why, in people with asthma, deep inspirations are less effective in reversing bronchoconstriction.
airway; smooth muscle; bronchoconstriction; stretch; asthma
The recent explosion of genomic data and technology points to opportunities to redefine lung diseases at the molecular level; to apply integrated genomic approaches to elucidate mechanisms of lung pathophysiology; and to improve early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of lung diseases. Research is needed to translate genomic discoveries into clinical applications, such as detecting preclinical disease, predicting patient outcomes, guiding treatment choices, and most of all identifying potential therapeutic targets for lung diseases. The Division of Lung Diseases in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop, “Genomic Medicine and Lung Diseases,” to discuss the potential for integrated genomics and systems approaches to advance 21st century pulmonary medicine and to evaluate the most promising opportunities for this next phase of genomics research to yield clinical benefit. Workshop sessions included (1) molecular phenotypes, molecular biomarkers, and therapeutics; (2) new technology and opportunity; (3) integrative genomics; (4) molecular anatomy of the lung; (5) novel data and information platforms; and (6) recommendations for exceptional research opportunities in lung genomics research.
molecular phenotypes; molecular networks; drug repurposing; epigenetics; data sharing
Rationale: The immune response in sepsis is characterized by overt immune dysfunction. Studies indicate immunostimulation represents a viable therapy for patients. One study suggests a potentially protective role for interleukin 5 (IL-5) in sepsis; however, the loss of eosinophils in this disease presents a paradox.
Objectives: To assess the protective and eosinophil-independent effects of IL-5 in sepsis.
Methods: We assessed the effects of IL-5 administration on survival, bacterial burden, and cytokine production after polymicrobial sepsis. In addition, we examined the effects on macrophage phagocytosis and survival using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.
Measurements and Main Results: Loss of IL-5 increased mortality and tissue damage in the lung, IL-6 and IL-10 production, and bacterial burden during sepsis. Therapeutic administration of IL-5 improved mortality in sepsis. Interestingly, IL-5 administration resulted in neutrophil recruitment in vivo. IL-5 overexpression in the absence of eosinophils resulted in decreased mortality from sepsis and increased circulating neutrophils and monocytes, suggesting their importance in the protective effects of IL-5. Furthermore, novel data demonstrate IL-5 receptor expression on neutrophils and monocytes in sepsis. IL-5 augmented cytokine secretion, activation, phagocytosis, and survival of macrophages. Importantly, macrophage depletion before the onset of sepsis eliminated IL-5–mediated protection. The protective effects of IL-5 were confirmed in humans, where IL-5 levels were elevated in patients with sepsis. Moreover, neutrophils and monocytes from patients expressed the IL-5 receptor.
Conclusions: Taken together, these data support a novel role for IL-5 on noneosinophilic myeloid populations, and suggest treatment with IL-5 may be a viable therapy for sepsis.
macrophages; neutrophils; innate immunity; immunotherapy
Rationale: Critical periods for programming early wheeze risk may include pregnancy and infancy. Effects of timing remain poorly understood.
Objectives: Associations among prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and children’s wheeze were prospectively examined in 653 families. Effect modification by maternal sensitization was also examined.
Methods: Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score (range, 0–9) ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years postpartum. Mothers reported child wheeze every 3 months up to age 2 years. Relationships of prenatal and postnatal maternal NLEs with repeated wheeze (≥2 episodes) were examined using logistic regression adjusting for covariates. Penalized splines were implemented to explore possible nonlinear associations. We also examined the interaction between prenatal stress and maternal sensitization indexed by allergen-specific IgE from maternal prenatal serum.
Measurements and Main Results: Adjusted models considering prenatal or postnatal NLEs alone both showed an exposure-response relationship between higher stress and child wheeze. When considering prenatal and postnatal stress concurrently, only children of mothers with high stress in both periods were significantly more likely to wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–5.53) than children of mothers reporting low stress in both periods. Associations between high prenatal stress and wheeze were significant in children born to nonsensitized mothers (any IgE <0.35 kU/L) but not in the sensitized group (P for interaction = 0.03).
Conclusions: Although children have heightened sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood, those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze. The prenatal maternal immune milieu modified effects.
negative life events; stress; pregnancy; maternal sensitization; childhood wheeze
Rationale: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with total and cardiovascular mortality, but an association with cancer mortality has not been studied. Results from in vitro and animal studies suggest that intermittent hypoxia promotes cancer tumor growth.
Objectives: The goal of the present study was to examine whether SDB is associated with cancer mortality in a community-based sample.
Methods: We used 22-year mortality follow-up data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort sample (n = 1,522). SDB was assessed at baseline with full polysomnography. SDB was categorized using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the hypoxemia index (percent sleep time below 90% oxyhemoglobin saturation). The hazards of cancer mortality across levels of SDB severity were compared using crude and multivariate analyses.
Measurements and Main Results: Adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking, SDB was associated with total and cancer mortality in a dose–response fashion. Compared with normal subjects, the adjusted relative hazards of cancer mortality were 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–2.7) for mild SDB (AHI, 5–14.9), 2.0 (95% CI, 0.7–5.5) for moderate SDB (AHI, 15–29.9), and 4.8 (95% CI, 1.7–13.2) for severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30) (P-trend = 0.0052). For categories of increasing severity of the hypoxemia index, the corresponding relative hazards were 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6–4.4), 2.9 (95% CI, 0.9–9.8), and 8.6 (95% CI, 2.6–28.7).
Conclusions: Our study suggests that baseline SDB is associated with increased cancer mortality in a community-based sample. Future studies that replicate our findings and look at the association between sleep apnea and survival after cancer diagnosis are needed.
cancer; cohort study; mortality; obstructive sleep apnea; sleep-disordered breathing
Although the incidence of pulmonary hypertension is higher in female patients, numerous experimental studies have demonstrated better outcome in female animals, exacerbation of the disease after ovariectomy, and a strong protective effect of estrogen: a phenomenon known as the “estrogen paradox” of pulmonary hypertension. On the other hand, some clinical studies have indirectly linked estrogen to increased risk of portopulmonary hypertension, whereas others implicate increased estrogen metabolism and high levels of certain estrogen metabolites in promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling in familial pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this review we investigate the estrogen paradox through highlighting the differential receptor-mediated effects of estrogen. Although estrogen and estrogen receptor–based therapies have shown promise in rescuing preexisting pulmonary hypertension in animals, their role is yet to be defined in humans.
estrogen paradox; pulmonary hypertension; estrogen receptors; estrogen metabolites
Rationale: Vitamin D insufficiency (a serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/ml) has been associated with severe asthma exacerbations, but this could be explained by underlying racial ancestry or disease severity. Little is known about vitamin D and asthma in Puerto Ricans.
Objectives: To examine whether vitamin D insufficiency is associated with severe asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children, independently of racial ancestry, atopy, and time outdoors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 560 children ages 6–14 years with (n = 287) and without (n = 273) asthma in San Juan, Puerto Rico. We measured plasma vitamin D and estimated the percentage of African racial ancestry among participants using genome-wide genotypic data. We tested whether vitamin D insufficiency is associated with severe asthma exacerbations, lung function, or atopy (greater than or equal to one positive IgE to allergens) using logistic or linear regression. Multivariate models were adjusted for African ancestry, time outdoors, atopy, and other covariates.
Measurements and Main Results: Vitamin D insufficiency was common in children with (44%) and without (47%) asthma. In multivariate analyses, vitamin D insufficiency was associated with higher odds of greater than or equal to one severe asthma exacerbation in the prior year (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–4.9; P = 0.001) and atopy, and a lower FEV1/FVC in cases. After stratification by atopy, the magnitude of the association between vitamin D insufficiency and severe exacerbations was greater in nonatopic (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2–21.6; P = 0.002) than in atopic (OR, 2; 95% CI, 1–4.1; P = 0.04) cases.
Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with severe asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children, independently of racial ancestry, atopy, or markers of disease severity or control.
vitamin D; asthma exacerbations; Puerto Ricans; childhood
Rationale: Acute lung injury is a common complication after severe trauma, which predisposes patients to multiple organ failure. This syndrome largely accounts for the late mortality that arises and despite many theories, the pathological mechanism is not fully understood. Discovery of histone-induced toxicity in mice presents a new dimension for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology.
Objectives: To investigate the pathological roles of circulating histones in trauma-induced lung injury.
Methods: Circulating histone levels in patients with severe trauma were determined and correlated with respiratory failure and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Their cause–effect relationship was studied using cells and mouse models.
Measurements and Main Results: In a cohort of 52 patients with severe nonthoracic blunt trauma, circulating histones surged immediately after trauma to levels that were toxic to cultured endothelial cells. The high levels were significantly associated with the incidence of acute lung injury and SOFA scores, as well as markers of endothelial damage and coagulation activation. In in vitro systems, histones damaged endothelial cells, stimulated cytokine release, and induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and myeloperoxidase release. Cellular toxicity resulted from their direct membrane interaction and resultant calcium influx. In mouse models, cytokines and markers for endothelial damage and coagulation activation significantly increased immediately after trauma or histone infusion. Pathological examinations showed that lungs were the predominantly affected organ with edema, hemorrhage, microvascular thrombosis, and neutrophil congestion. An anti-histone antibody could reduce these changes and protect mice from histone-induced lethality.
Conclusions: This study elucidates a new mechanism for acute lung injury after severe trauma and proposes that circulating histones are viable therapeutic targets for improving survival outcomes in patients.
lung; trauma; histones
Central dogma suggests that rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis develops solely through rpoB gene mutations.
To determine whether rifampicin induces efflux pumps activation in rifampicin resistant M. tuberculosis strains thereby defining rifampicin resistance levels and reducing ofloxacin susceptibility.
Rifampicin and/or ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined in rifampicin resistant strains by culture in BACTEC 12B medium. Verapamil and reserpine were included to determine their effect on rifampicin and ofloxacin susceptibility. RT-qPCR was applied to assess expression of efflux pump/transporter genes after rifampicin exposure. To determine whether verapamil could restore susceptibility to first-line drugs, BALB/c mice were infected with a MDR-TB strain and treated with first-line drugs with/without verapamil.
Measurements and Main Findings
Rifampicin MICs varied independently of rpoB mutation and genetic background. Addition reserpine and verapamil significantly restored rifampicin susceptibility (p = 0.0000). RT-qPCR demonstrated that rifampicin induced differential expression of efflux/transporter genes in MDR-TB isolates. Incubation of rifampicin mono-resistant strains in rifampicin (2 μg/ml) for 7 days induced ofloxacin resistance (MIC> 2 μg/ml) in strains with an rpoB531 mutation. Ofloxacin susceptibility was restored by exposure to efflux pump inhibitors. Studies in BALB/c mice showed that verapamil in combination with first-line drugs significantly reduced pulmonary CFUs after 1 and 2 months treatment (p < 0.05).
Exposure of rifampicin resistant M. tuberculosis strains to rifampicin can potentially compromise the efficacy of the second-line treatment regimens containing ofloxacin, thereby emphasising the need for rapid diagnostics to guide treatment. Efflux pump inhibitors have the potential to improve the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis drug treatment.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; drug resistance; rifampicin; efflux pumps; cross resistance
Rationale: Mechanical ventilation induces heterogeneous lung injury by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB. Mechanisms regulating regional injury and protective effects of prone positioning are unclear.
Objectives: To determine the key regulators of the lung regional protective effects of prone positioning in rodent lungs exposed to injurious ventilation.
Methods: Adult rats were ventilated with high (18 ml/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] 0) or low Vt (6 ml/kg; PEEP 3 cm H2O; 3 h) in supine or prone position. Dorsal–caudal lung mRNA was analyzed by microarray and MAPK phosphatases (MKP)-1 quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MKP-1−/− or wild-type mice were ventilated with very high (24 ml/kg; PEEP 0) or low Vt (6–7 ml/kg; PEEP 3 cm H2O). The MKP-1 regulator PG490-88 (MRx-108; 0.75 mg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline was administered preventilation. Injury was assessed by lung mechanics, bronchioalveolar lavage cell counts, protein content, and lung injury scoring. Immunoblotting for MKP-1, and IκBα and cytokine ELISAs were performed on lung lysates.
Measurements and Main Results: Prone positioning was protective against injurious ventilation in rats. Expression profiling demonstrated MKP-1 20-fold higher in rats ventilated prone rather than supine and regional reduction in p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation. MKP-1−/− mice experienced amplified injury. PG490-88 improved static lung compliance and injury scores, reduced bronchioalveolar lavage cell counts and cytokine levels, and induced MKP-1 and IκBα.
Conclusions: Injurious ventilation induces MAPK in an MKP-1–dependent fashion. Prone positioning is protective and induces MKP-1. PG490-88 induced MKP-1 and was protective against high Vt in a nuclear factor-κB–dependent manner. MKP-1 is a potential target for modulating regional effects of injurious ventilation.
regionally injurious ventilation; prone position; rodent lung injury; MKP-1/DUSP-1; triptolide
Rationale: Animal and human studies support the importance of the coagulation cascade in pulmonary fibrosis.
Objectives: In a cohort of subjects with progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), we tested the hypothesis that treatment with warfarin at recognized therapeutic doses would reduce rates of mortality, hospitalization, and declines in FVC.
Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of warfarin targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 in patients with IPF. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to warfarin or matching placebo for a planned treatment period of 48 weeks. International normalized ratios were monitored using encrypted home point-of-care devices that allowed blinding of study therapy.
Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome measure was the composite outcome of time to death, hospitalization (nonbleeding, nonelective), or a 10% or greater absolute decline in FVC. Due to a low probability of benefit and an increase in mortality observed in the subjects randomized to warfarin (14 warfarin versus 3 placebo deaths; P = 0.005) an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended stopping the study after 145 of the planned 256 subjects were enrolled (72 warfarin, 73 placebo). The mean follow-up was 28 weeks.
Conclusions: This study did not show a benefit for warfarin in the treatment of patients with progressive IPF. Treatment with warfarin was associated with an increased risk of mortality in an IPF population who lacked other indications for anticoagulation.
Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00957242).
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; clinical trial; warfarin; anticoagulation
Rationale: Our previous cross-sectional study showed that serum adiponectin is inversely associated with asthma among women. However, it is not known if serum adiponectin predicts future development of asthma or if asthma affects subsequent serum adiponectin concentrations among women.
Objectives: To determine longitudinal association between serum adiponectin and incident asthma among women.
Methods: We used data from examinations at Years 10, 15, and 20 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort. In our primary analysis, the association of CARDIA Year 15 serum adiponectin concentration with Year 20 incident asthma was evaluated. In our secondary analysis, the converse direction, that is, the association of CARDIA Year 10 prevalent asthma with Year 15 serum adiponectin, was evaluated, using logistic regression techniques.
Measurements and Main Results: Our primary analysis included 1,450 women, mostly premenopausal. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that the lowest tertile of Year 15 serum adiponectin concentration (<7 mg/L) predicted significantly higher risk for incident asthma at Year 20 among women (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 4.10), and particularly among current smokers (interaction P = 0.051). Further, low serum adiponectin was more important than body mass index in predicting the risk for incident asthma among women. We also showed that the converse relationship was not true; that is, Year 10 prevalent asthma did not predict Year 15 serum adiponectin concentrations in women.
Conclusions: Serum adiponectin affects future risk for asthma in women and not vice versa. Measures that raise systemic adiponectin concentrations may lead to newer ways to prevent asthma among women, particularly among those who smoke.
incident asthma; obesity; adiponectin; adipokine; women
Rationale: To date, most studies aimed at discovering genetic factors influencing treatment response in asthma have focused on biologic candidate genes. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can rapidly identify novel pharmacogenetic loci.
Objectives: To investigate if GWAS can identify novel pharmacogenetic loci in asthma.
Methods: Using phenotypic and GWAS genotype data available through the NHLBI-funded Single-nucleotide polymorphism Health association-Asthma Resource Project, we analyzed differences in FEV1 in response to inhaled corticosteroids in 418 white subjects with asthma. Of the 444,088 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed, the lowest 50 SNPs by P value were genotyped in an independent clinical trial population of 407 subjects with asthma.
Measurements and Main Results: The lowest P value for the GWAS analysis was 2.09 × 10−6. Of the 47 SNPs successfully genotyped in the replication population, three were associated under the same genetic model in the same direction, including two of the top four SNPs ranked by P value. Combined P values for these SNPs were 1.06 × 10−5 for rs3127412 and 6.13 × 10−6 for rs6456042. Although these two were not located within a gene, they were tightly correlated with three variants mapping to potentially functional regions within the T gene. After genotyping, each T gene variant was also associated with lung function response to inhaled corticosteroids in each of the trials associated with rs3127412 and rs6456042 in the initial GWAS analysis. On average, there was a twofold to threefold difference in FEV1 response for those subjects homozygous for the wild-type versus mutant alleles for each T gene SNP.
Conclusions: Genome-wide association has identified the T gene as a novel pharmacogenetic locus for inhaled corticosteroid response in asthma.
polymorphism; genome; pharmacogenomics; glucocorticoid