We assessed the effects of Chinese herbs on the uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. A total of 56 pre-menopausal women with uncomplicated UTIs caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were included. Urine cultures were carried out. All organisms were proved to be fluoroquinolone-resistant at baseline. The patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Chinese herbal concoction eradicated the primary pathogen in 71.4% of the patients at the 1-week follow-up. Among the 20 patients who had bacteriologic failures in the Day 5 of treatment, 2 developed superinfection. Of the failures in the group, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Providencia rettgeri were implicated in 50.0%, 50.0% and 100.0% of the failures, respectively. The clinical outcomes were also good, with cure or improvement for more than 80% of all subjects. About 14% of the study subjects reported at least one potential adverse event. The adverse events most frequently reported were nausea and diarrhea. All patients tolerated the symptoms. The adverse reactions did not prevail after discontinuation of the medication. Chinese herbal therapy may be an acceptable alternative for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant uropathogens.
Chinese herbs; Urinary tract infection; Fluoroquinolone-resistant
The methods of extraction, separation and analysis of alkaloids and indole glucosinolates (GLs) ofIsatis tinctoria were reviewed. Different analytical approaches such as High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS), Electrospray Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to validate and identity of these constituents. These methods provide rapid separation, identification and quantitative measurements of alkaloids and GLs of Isatis tinctoria. By connection with different detectors to HPLC such as PDA, ELSD, ESI- and APCI-MS in positive and negative ion modes, complicated compounds could be detected with at least two independent detection modes. The molecular formula can be derived in a second step of ESI-TOF-MS data. But for some constituents, UV and MS cannot provide sufficient structure identification. After peak purification, NMR by semi-preparative HPLC can be used as a complementary method.
Isatis tinctoria; HPLC; MS; NMR; indole glucosinolates (GLs); alkaloids
This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg−1 for carrageenan test and doses of 0.5 mg/ear for croton oil test induced a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of paw and ear edemas in rats. In the analgesic and antipyretic tests, the extract has shown a significant inhibition of writhes and hyperpyrexia with all the doses used when compared to the untreated control group. These results clearly show the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of the methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya and give the scientific basis for its traditional use. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of action and the components responsible for these pharmacological effects.
Lepidagathis anobrya; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; antipyretic; acute toxicity
Extracts of in vitro leaves, field leaves and seeds of the leguminous plant Lessertia frutescens were analyzed using spectrophotometric and gravimetric methods, to the effect of quantitative comparison of their phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid and saponin contents. As compared to the field leaves and seeds, saponins were found to be most abundantly represented in in vitro leaves, followed by phenolics, flavonoids and alkaloids. The extracts were also qualitatively analyzed so as to evaluate the presence of other phytochemicals of medicinal interest. This qualitative analysis indicated the presence of tannins, phlobatannins and cardiac glycosides. Having in mind the documented therapeutic use of these phytochemicals, the results of this study offer a strong rationale for further animal and clinical investigations of L. frutescens extracts.
alkaloids; flavonoids; phenolics; phytochemicals; saponins; spectrophotometry
Traditionally, the leaves of Abies pindrow Royle are employed as an ayurvedic remedy for fever, hypoglycaemic, respiratory and inflammatory conditions. In this study, dichloromethane, methanol and acetone extracts of A. pindrow leaves were analysed for their phytochemical content and in vitro antioxidant activities. The methanol extract exhibited highest antioxidant activity while acetone extract showed presence of relatively high total phenol and flavonoids contents. The present study provides evidence that extracts of Abies pindrow leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidants and could serve as a base for future drugs.
Abies pindrow; antioxidant; free radicals; radical scavenging activity; metal chelating activity; reducing activity
Methanol extract of three Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for antimicrobial activity using modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and agar dilution techniques to determine the diameters of zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts respectively. The extract of each of the plants were tested against five clinical bacterial isolates comprising of two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) organisms. All the extracts exhibited moderate to high level of antimicrobial activities against these microorganisms. Phytochemical screening of powdered plant material revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. These Nigerian medicinal plants could be developed into cheap, safe and culturally acceptable standardized herbal products and may serve as a source of new molecules for broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents.
Dissotis rotundifolia; Costus lucanusianus; Solenostemon monostachys; Methanol extract; Antimicrobial activity
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Shen-qi-di-huang decoction on reducing proteinuria and to discuss the mechanism of its action in Adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy rats. The rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 each group): normal control (group A); ADR model control (group B); ADR + Shen-qi-di-huang decoction (group C). In group B and C, the rats were intravenously injected with ADR (6.5mg/kg). The rats in group C were orally administrated with Shen-qi-di-huang decoction after the injection of ADR. On day 7, 14, 28, 56 after ADR injection, 24h urine protein was detected. On day 28, 56 after ADR injection, ALB, ALT, serum creatinine (Scr) and BUN were examined. The morphological changes of the kidneys were observed by light microscope and electron microscope on day 28, 56 after ADR injection. The expression of nephrin was determined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR on day 28, 56 after ADR injection. Compared with group B, 24h urine protein and Scr decreased in group C on day 56 (P<0.05). The expression of nephrin determined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR increased in group C on day 28, 56 (P<0.05). The morphology observed by light microscope and electron microscope improved in group C on day 28, 56. Shen-qi-di-huang decoction decreases proteinuria, protects kidney function, and ameliorates histopathology in ADR-induced rats by preserving nephrin expression.
Shen-qi-di-huang decoction; proteinuria; nephrin; adriamycin nephropathy
Heteromorpha arborescens belongs to the family Apiaceae. It is commonly known as the parsley tree. One of its uses in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is for the treatment of abdominal pains. The therapeutic effects of the methanolic and aqueous root extracts of H. arborescens were investigated at two dose levels respectively on experimental models of pain and inflammation in rodents. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the hot-plate, abdominal constriction and formalin tests. The anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts were assessed using albumin and carrageenan as phlogistic agents. Both extracts produced significant (P<0.05, P<0.01) inhibition of thermal nociception induced by a hot plate. On chemical nociception induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid and subplantar formalin injection, both extracts significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) decreased the number of writhing episodes and the licking time in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with the extracts at the same doses produced a significant (P<0.05, P<0.01) pain inhibition of the carrageenan induced inflammatory pain. Similarly, both extracts produced a significant (P<0.05, P<0.01) reduction of edema induced by albumin and carrageenan. These results suggest that both extracts of H. arborescens may act by inhibition of the mediators of inflammation. These findings seem to justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine in the management of pain and inflammation related diseases.
Heteromorpha arborescens; hot plate; writhing; formalin; inflammatory pain
The aim of this prospective study (20 months) was to assess HIV patients' use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) and its effect on ARV adherence at three public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Seven hundred and thirty-five (29.8% male and 70.2% female) patients who consecutively attended three HIV clinics completed assessments prior to ARV initiation, 519 after 6 months, 557 after 12 and 499 after 20 months on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results indicate that following initiation of ARV therapy the use of herbal therapies for HIV declined significantly from 36.6% prior to ARV therapy to 8.0% after 6 months, 4.1% after 12 months and 0.6% after 20 months on ARVs. Faith healing methods (including spiritual practices and prayer) declined from 35.8% to 22.1%, 20.8% and 15.5%, respectively. In contrast, the use of micronutrients (vitamins, etc.) significantly increased from 42.6% to 78.2%. The major herbal remedies that were used prior to ART were unnamed traditional medicine, followed by imbiza (Scilla natalensis planch), canova (immune booster), izifozonke (essential vitamins mixed with herbs), African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), stametta (aloe mixed with vitamins and herbs) and ingwe (tonic). Herbal remedies were mainly used for pain relief, as immune booster and for stopping diarrhea. As herbal treatment for HIV was associated with reduced ARV adherence, patient's use of TCAM should be considered in ARV adherence management.
Traditional; complementary; alternative medicine; antiretroviral treatment adherence; prospective study; HIV patients; KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa
There are informal and formal markets for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria. The formal market is subject to the national regulatory framework for Food and Drug Administration and Control. It is relatively new and underdeveloped. This study was designed to appraise this market with special emphasis on the market participants, market structure, marketing functions performed, conduct of sellers in the market and; standards and regulations to which the market is subject. Information used for this study was collected through personal interviews and interactions with key participants in the market; especially the officials of regulatory agency. The market structure was analysed in terms of the share of market controlled by participants and product types. Concentration Ratios (CR2 and CR4) were used to assess the market share. Marketing functions being performed were described in terms of the exchange, physical and facilitating functions while the conduct was described in terms of pricing and promotional strategies. The regulatory framework under which the market operates was appraised. The market was highly concentrated with a CR2 and CR4 of 58.5% and 80.8 %; respectively. Imported products accounted for only 12.3% of the market. The predominant modes of presentation of the product were capsule (41.6%) and liquid (36.2%). About 20.77% of the products were classified as multivitamins, 13.85% were antibiotics while 10.77% addressed sexual dysfunctional problems. These products were regulated under the Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) decrees, 1993–1999. Only 2.3% of the products have received full registration status while the others were only listed.
Medicinal plants' products; Market structure; Standards and regulations
This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg−1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg−1, 200mgkg−1, and 400mgkg−1 significantly (P< 0.05) inhibited acetic acid induced writhes by 1.50 ± 0.43, 3.0 ± 0.82 and 1.0 ± 0.82 respectively. It also exhibited significantly (P< 0.05) anti-inflammatory by 0.11 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.03, 0.08 ± 0.01 respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins while the effect of flavonoids, steroids and tannins on analgesic and inflammatory has been reported. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) value of the extract was found to be 3807.8 mgkg−1 body weights. The result obtained from this study shows that the extract of Ficus iteophylla contained phytochemical constituents with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, therefore the leaf part of the plant could be used in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.
Ficus iteophylla; analgesic; anti-inflammatory; intraperitoneal
The study was undertaken to assess the dosage-mortality ratio and toxic effects of Piper guineense fruit extracts on the adults of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, which causes intestinal schistosomiasis. The result showed significant toxic effects with crude ethanol and hot water fruits extracts. The estimated lethal dose concentration by arithmetic method (LC50 and LC90) using both crude ethanol and hot water fruit media extracts were found to be (0.10 ± 0.04, 0.9 ± 0.2) mgl−1 respectively for ethanolic extract and (5.0 ± 1.4, 8.5 ± 0.7) mgl−1 respectively for hot water extract. Ethanolic extract was more potent than hot water extract. An all or none phenomenon appeared characteristic of the biological activity of these extracts. There was significant decrease in oviposition rate (p < 0.02). The extract from the fruits of this tropical plant holds promise in the control of Biomphalaria pfeifferi.
Molluscicide; Piper guineense; fruits; Biomphalaria pfeifferi; ethanol and hotwater extracts
We explored the effects of combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to explore whether acupuncture has positive effects on the absorption of salvianolic acid B in the extracts of a Chinese medicine formula when treating the model rats. 60 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Groups A, B, C, D, E and F, with ten rats in each group. Except Group F, all of the other rats were induced to PCOS with oral administration of letrozole. The rats in Group F served as normal controls. Group A was treated with acupuncture. Group B was treated with oral administration of the extracts of the Chinese medicine formula. Group C was treated with a combination of oral administration of the extracts of Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Group D received western medicine as positive controls. After treatment, the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH) and testosterone (T) in each group were detected with the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) and the serum concentration of salvianolic acid B were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The serum levels of T and the ratio of LH/FSH in Group A, B. C, D, and F were significantly lower than those of Group E, indicating the model rats with PCOS were successfully established. Compared with Groups A, B, D and E, the serum levels of T and the ratio of LH/FSH in Group C were significantly lower respectively, indicating combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs can significantly enhance curative effects in treating model rats with PCOS. The concentration of serum salvianolic acid Group C was significantly higher than Group B, indicating that acupuncture might improve the absorption of salvianolic acid B from the extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in the Chinese medicine formula. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs significantly enhance curative effects in treating model rats with PCOS and acupuncture has positive effects in improving the absorption of salvianolic acid B in the extracts of the Chinese medicine formula when treating the model rats with PCOS.
Acupuncture; Chinese medicine; Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
Antifertility effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Oldenlandia affinis on male rats were investigated. The extract was administered intraperitoneally in sexually mature male rats at a dose of 24 mg/rat (n=8) for a total of eight injections over a 4 week period. There was a decrease in testis weights but all other accessory sex organs and vital organ weights were not affected by treatment with O. affinis extract. Testis histology revealed fewer spermatozoa or azoospermic seminiferous tubules in treated animals compared to controls with no change in neither tubule thickness nor Sertoli cell structure. O. affinis treatment caused a 17% decrease in sperm motility but there was no change in cauda epididymal sperm counts. However, serum testosterone levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the experimental group (602.4 ± 57 ng/dL) compared to controls (808.9 ± 55 ng/dL). These preliminary results show that the aqueous leaf extract of O. affinis suppresses fertility parameters in male rats.
male contraception; aqueous extract; testosterone; sperm count; sperm motility
This study was conducted to find out the frequency of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use that could lead to troubles in patient health and in applied standard therapy protocols when used improperly, which method is used, the reasons for use and from which resources the information about this topic were obtained. A questionnaire consisting of 28 questions was applied to 195 patients with cancer diagnosis by a face-to-face interview. The obtained data were assessed with SPSS 11.5 program. Out of 195 cancer patients, 100 (51.3%) were using CAM and 48.7% (n=95) were not. The most commonly used agent was nettle (72%). This was followed by herbal teas (21%), grape molasses (20%) and black seed (20%). The frequency of CAM use was found higher in those under age 50, in literate people, in those working during the diagnosis stage and having disease at the later stage. While CAM was commonly recommended by friends and relatives of the patients (73%), this ratio was only 5% for health professionals. While 51.3% of all patients were gathering information about CAM, 75% of those actually using CAM gathered information about it. Whilst information was gathered mostly from the relatives of patients and tamperers (47%), it can be gathered from physicians only with a ratio of 10%. Cancer patients use CAM and they gather information mainly from unreliable sources rather than physicians. Although the primary information source should be physicians, the ratio for this was very low (10%). We suggest that physicians should spend more time in gathering correct information and sharing them with their patients for a better guidance.
Complementary medicine; alternative medicine; complementary therapies; cancer
The study was designated to complete a chemical and ecological evaluation of a genuine Chinese medicine Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (A. macrocephala) and to explore the existence of correlation between chemical ingredients of different A. macrocephala populations and ecological factors. Different samples of A. macrocephala collected from six Chinese habitats were analyzed using chemical and ecological methods. The results showed the bioactive ingredients of A. macrocephala to be closely related to ecological factors. The study can serve the purposes of preservation and development of genuine Chinese medicines.
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (A. macrocephala); chemical and ecological evaluation; genuine medicine; HPLC
In Turkey, Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) has been approved for the management of external haemorrhages and bleedings occurring during dental surgeries (Goker et al., 2008). Ankaferd comprises a standardized mixture of plants, including Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica diodica. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AB S tam ponade in the control of intra-operative bleeding occurring during ad enoidectomy performed in children under the age of 12. Sixty children were randomized to receive 1 to 5 minute-tamponade with either ABS or topical gauze sponges soaked in saline solution (SS) during their ad enoidectomy.. Time-to-haemostasis and the number of packs required were recorded. A visual analog scale was used by the operating surgeon to record subjective data, including the rate of bleeding following the first adenoid pack removal (0= none, 3=brisk). Compared to the children in the SS group (n=30), time-to-haemostasis seen in ABS patients (n=30) was significantly shorter (mean ± standard deviation, 1.93 ± 1.39 min vs 3.20 ± 1.50 min; p<0.0001); they required a lower number of packs (mean, 1.93 vs. 3.20), and appeared to bleed less (53.3% vs 6.7%; p=0.0001). ABS aids in the control of intra-operative bleeding and reduces the number of packs required to achieve haemostasis, so that it can be recommended for tamponades per formed during paediatric adenoidectomies.
Ankaferd; adenoidectomy; children; bleeding; haemostasis
The lipid content of Atriplex semibacata growing in Egypt was studied. The unsaponifiable fraction was identified by GLC. A series of hydrocarbons ranging from C14- C28 in addition to cholesterol, stigmasterol and the triterpenoids α and β - amyrin were identified. GLC analysis of fatty alcohols fraction revealed the presence of six fatty alcohols in which dotriacontanol (C32H66O) was the major (14.68%). Six compounds (five coumarins and one phenolic acid) were isolated for the first time from A. semibacata. The coumarin constituents isolated from the chloroform and the ethyl acetate fractions of the aqueous alcoholic extract of A. semibacata were identified as scopoletin, umbelliferorne, coumarin, scopolin, 7-methoxy coumarin in addition to a phenolic acid P-coumaric acid. Also, the flavonoidal compounds isolated from the n-butanol fraction of the plant revealed the presence of kaempferol 3-O glucoside and acacetin. Their identity was proved by m.p., TLC, PC, UV and MS analysis. The alcohol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against G−ve bacteria, moderate activity against G+ve bacteria. On the other hand, the pet. Ether extract showed marked activity against G+ve bacteria and fungi, also the G−ve bacteria was greatly inhibited by the chloroform extract. The different extracts of the plant exhibited no cytotoxic activity against Erlich-ascites carcinoma cells line at the tested concentrations, also showed a strong antioxidant activity using DPPH.
Atriplex semibacata; unsaponifiable fraction; fatty alcohols; coumarins; flavonoids; antimicrobial; antifungal; antioxidant; antitumor
This study was carried to examine the effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Sesamum radiatum, a laxative plant on the contractile activity of Taenia caeci, an intestinal smooth muscle. Strips of Taenia caeci were rapidly removed from guinea-pig and were suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath with Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the Taenia caeci strips were recorded by using a strain gauge. S. radiatum aqueous leaf extract (ESera) is a spasmogenic substance. This myostimulant effect is characterized by the increase of the rhythm and the amplitude of isolated guinea-pig Taenia caeci smooth muscle in normal solution and by the development of contracture in modified solution and in solution without calcium. A similar effect was observed with ACh which caused a graded increase of the contractile activity of Taenia caeci. The effects induced by ESera and ACh were reversed in the presence of atropine. The spasmogenic effect induced by ESera could justify partially the use of S. radiatum as laxative in traditional medicine.
Sesamum radiatum; acetylcholine; Taenia caeci; contractile activity
To disclose a quackery called “revitalisation of tired water by hydronic technology”, scientific experiments have been conducted with drinking water kept in “ordinary, everyday-use” drinking glasses and so-called ‘informed’ glasses, a patent-protected product supposed to have an effect on the “structure, vitality and memory of water”. Drinking “informed” water is claimed to have a wide range of positive revitalising health effects (blue informed glass), to facilitate weight loss (red informed glass) and to have a stress-relieving action (green informed glass). Allegedly, by the use of the “orgon methodology”, information is coded into the glass, which action is additionally enforced by the addition of the “magic life” symbol - a specially designed energy condenser which, together with the selected information, is permanently introduced into the liquid contained in the glass. Since the manufacturer claimed the products to have a broad bactericidal action, regardless of the external conditions and completely independent from additional factor that would lead to the activation of the system, the efficacy of the informed drinking glass was tested using standardised, microbiological tests. Respecting the principle of a single-blind test for each of 5 samples of each type of the informed glass, growth reduction factor (RF) (difference log cfu/ml - colony per unit/ml of control glass and log cfu/ml of each informed glass) was determined after 0,2,4,6 and 8 h in spring water experimentally contaminated with standardised ATCC strains of two types of bacteria and one yeast. The results showed a statistically significant bactericidal action of the blue informed glass with all strains-Enterococcus faecalis (RF 0.62/0.76), Salmonella enteritidis (RF 0.87/0.97), and Candida albicans (RF 0.5/0.60) - as opposed to the red and green glasses where this effect was negligible (RF < 0.1). However, when the tests were repeated in complete darkness, none of the three informed glasses showed any bactericidal action. The obtained results indicate a fraud: bactericidal effect is rather a result of photocatalytic action of a hidden component used on purpose in the production of glass or subsequently applied by the use of nanotechnology (possibly antimony trioxide or titanium oxide) than of the so-called “orgon and hydronic technology”.
Nostrums; Water; Quackery; Complementary therapies; Health care fraud; Homeopathy; Self-care
Today plant foods and beverages are receiving more scientific attention because of their potential to curb the effect of free radicals in the human system. The present study reports on the antioxidant potentials of some plants foods and beverages consumed in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The study made use of the ferric reducing antioxidant power, phenolic and the flavonoid contents assays to assess the quality of the antioxidant potentials of the plant foods and beverages. Of the different classes of foods analyzed the following showed high antioxidant potentials: coffee for beverages, star apple for fruits, thyme for vegetable and spices, and raices for alcoholic beverages. Generally the vegetables and spices registered the highest antioxidant properties. The results obtained in this study could help consumers' choice based on the antioxidant capacity of the samples analyzed.
Antioxidant; phenolic; ferric reducing antioxidant power; flavonoids; plant foods
Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models.
Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Cashew); Hypotension; Cardio-depression
The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for 28 days. Rats in the test group were placed on the test diet for 7 days following disease induction. One control group (DC) was fed on a normal diet for 7 days following disease induction. Two other control groups, HC and HDC, were given sub-cutaneous olive oil (vehicle) for the same duration, and placed on the test diet and normal diet, respectively. Markers of BPH, and hormone profile were determined using standard methods. The results show that relative prostate weight and protein content of the prostates were lower [albeit not significantly (p>0.05)] in the test group, relative to the DC group. Serum prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations (U/L) decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 2.9 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 2.1 ± 0.7 in the test group. Histological findings corroborate these data. The testosterone: estradiol ratio (×103) was increased from 4.0 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 4.6 ± 0.2 in the test group. The test diet reduced the mass and secretory activity of the enlarged prostate and may act by increasing the testosterone: estradiol ratio.
benign prostatic hyperplasia; fluted pumpkin; induction; management
Honey is a natural sweet substance that bees produce by transforming flower nectar or other sweet secretions of plants. It has widespread use in traditional medicine in various parts of the world. It has been reported to assist in building the entire central nervous system. The beneficial effects of honey have been attributed to the possible polyphenolic contents and some other constituents. The geographical locations and the sources of plant nectars may contribute to the effects of honey samples. Thus, we evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of six samples of honey (10%, 20% and 40%V/v, p.o.) from three geographical locations of Nigeria using the following behavioral models: Novelty-induced behaviors (NIB), learning and memory, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, analgesic and antidepressant models in mice. The results showed that honey significantly (p< 0.05) decreased locomotion and rearing behaviors in NIB and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity when compared to the control group. Exploratory behavior was significantly increased in both holeboard and elevated plus maze but had no significant effect on spatial working memory. Honey sample from Umudike has significant hypnotic and anticonvulsant effects. The antinociceptive models (hot plate and tail flick tests) showed that the honey samples significantly increased the pain reaction time and naloxone blocked these central antinociceptive effects. The force swimming test showed that only the Idanre (ID) honey sample had antidepressant effect. In conclusion, some of these honey samples have central inhibitory property, anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects, thus may be used as nutraceutic. It can also be inferred that some of these effects are probably mediated through dopaminergic and opioidergic systems.
Honey; neuropharmacology; traditional medicine; anxiolytic; antinociceptive; antidepressant; mice
Traditional medicine refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. In the last decade traditional medicine has become very popular in Cameroon, partly due to the long unsustainable economic situation in the country. The high cost of drugs and increase in drug resistance to common diseases like malaria, bacteria infections and other sexually transmitted diseases has caused the therapeutic approach to alternative traditional medicine as an option for concerted search for new chemical entities (NCE). The World Health Organisation (WHO) in collaboration with the Cameroon Government has put in place a strategic platform for the practice and development of TM in Cameroon. This platform aims at harmonizing the traditional medicine practice in the country, create a synergy between TM and modern medicine and to institutionalize a more harmonized integrated TM practices by the year 2012 in Cameroon. An overview of the practice of TM past, present and future perspectives that underpins the role in sustainable poverty alleviation has been discussed. This study gives an insight into the strategic plan and road map set up by the Government of Cameroon for the organisational framework and research platform for the practice and development of TM, and the global partnership involving the management of TM in the country.
Tradttional medicine; Cameroon