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26.  A Comparison of Calcium Hydroxyapatite and Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid for the Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:263602.
Purpose. Minimal data exists comparing dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) and calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) for the endoscopic treatment of VUR in the hands of a single user. Materials and Methods. We reviewed our consecutive single-user case series of 27 children (42 ureters) receiving endoscopic treatment with CaHA and 21 children (33 ureters) who received Dx/HA injection. Children receiving CaHA injections were divided into two groups of 13 and 14 patients (Coaptite I and II) to assess the learning curve effects. Postoperatively, RBUS and VCUG were performed. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess statistical significance of success rates. Results. The total CaHA group had a per-ureter success rate (Grade 0) of 52% after one injection. When separated into two cohorts, the single injection per-ureter success rates were 43% for Coaptite I and 62% for Coaptite II. In contrast, the Dx/HA series had a single injection per-ureter success rate (Grade 0) of 78%. Conclusions. Our consecutive case experience shows improved results for Dx/HA compared to CaHA, though the learning curve effects and evolution of injection technique likely played a role in the improved outcomes in the Dx/HA cohort. A randomized controlled multicenter trial would provide the most accurate data comparing these two agents.
doi:10.1155/2013/263602
PMCID: PMC3819879  PMID: 24235969
27.  Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Tamsulosin, Solifenacin, and Combination of Both in Treatment of Double-J Stent-Related Lower Urinary Symptoms 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:752382.
Purpose. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of tamsulosin, solifenacin, and combination of both in reducing double-J stent-related lower urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods. A total of 338 patients with double-J ureteral stenting were randomly divided, postoperatively, into 4 groups. In group I (n = 84), no treatment was given (control group), group II (n = 85) received tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily, group III (n = 84) received solifenacin 10 mg daily, and group IV (n = 85) received a combination of both medications. Before insertion and 2 weeks after, all patients completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life component of the IPSS (IPSS/Qol), Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), and Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS) questionnaire. Results. The demographics and preoperative questionnaires scores of all groups were comparable. There were statistically significant differences in all scores in favour of groups II, III, and IV as compared to control group (P value < 0.005). Group IV showed statistically significant differences in total IPSS, QoL score, and OAB-q score as compared to groups II and III (P value < 0.001). Conclusions. Combined therapy of tamsulosin and solifenacin significantly alleviated lower urinary symptoms associated with double-J stents as compared to either medication alone.
doi:10.1155/2013/752382
PMCID: PMC3819880  PMID: 24235970
28.  Assessment of Chromatin Maturity in Human Spermatozoa: Useful Aniline Blue Assay for Routine Diagnosis of Male Infertility 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:578631.
During spermatogenesis, sperm chromatin undergoes structural changes and results in a high condensation. This nuclear compaction would be useful as a predictor of sperm fertilization capacity and pregnancy outcome. We purpose to evaluate firstly the relationship among chromatin maturity assessed by aniline blue staining (AB) and the semen parameters in infertile men. Secondly, we analyzed whether the sperm gradient density centrifugation is effective to select mature spermatozoa. Fifty-one ejaculates were investigated by semen analysis and stained for chromatin condensation with AB to distinguish between unstained mature sperm and stained immature sperm. AB was applied also on 12 ejaculates which proceeded by density gradient centrifugation to compare the rates of immature sperm before and after selection. Neat semen were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 31): immature sperm <20% and G2 (n = 20): immature sperm ≥20%. No significant differences were detected in sperm concentration, motility, and normal morphology between G1 and G2. However, the rates of some morphology abnormalities were higher in G2: head abnormalities (P = 0.01) and microcephalic sperm (P = 0.02). We founded significant correlation between sperm immaturity and acrosome abnormalities (r = 0.292; P = 0.03). Sperm selection has significantly reduced the rates of immature sperm. A better understanding of chromatin structure and its impact on the sperm potential is needed to explore male infertility.
doi:10.1155/2013/578631
PMCID: PMC3808709  PMID: 24198830
29.  A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:124836.
Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.
doi:10.1155/2013/124836
PMCID: PMC3806324  PMID: 24194754
30.  Digital Rectal Examination Standardization for Inexperienced Hands: Teaching Medical Students 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:797096.
Objectives. To standardize digital rectal examination (DRE) and set how it correlates with the comprehensive evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods. After scaled standardization of DRE based on fingertips graphical schema: 10 cubic centimeters—cc for each fingertip prostate surface area on DRE, four randomly selected senior medical students examined 48 male patients presenting with LUTS in an outpatient clinical setting, totaling 12 DRE each. Standardized DRE, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), serum PSA, transabdominal ultrasound (US), urodynamic evaluation, and postvoid residue were compared. Results. The mean and median PVs were US—45 and 34.7 cc (5.5 to 155) and DRE—39 and 37.5 cc (15 to 80). Comparing DRE and US by simple linear regression: US PV = 11.93 + 0.85 × (DRE PV); P = 0.0009. Among patients classified as nonobstructed, inconclusive, and obstructed, the US PVs were 29.8, 43.2, and 53.6 cc (P = 0.033), and DRE PVs were 20, 35, and 60 cc (P = 0.026), respectively. Conclusion. This is the first attempt to DRE standardization focusing on teaching-learning process, establishing a linear correlation of DRE and US PVs with only 12 examinations by inexperienced hands, satisfactorily validated in an outpatient clinical setting.
doi:10.1155/2013/797096
PMCID: PMC3792526  PMID: 24170997
31.  Serum Testosterone Level, Testosterone Replacement Treatment, and Prostate Cancer 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:275945.
There has been an increase in the number of individuals seeking testosterone (T) replacement treatment (TRT) due to a decrease in their blood T levels. Prostate cancer (PCa) is also an important issue in the same age group. However, we, urologists, are anxious about PCa development after T treatment. This is because it has been assumed that T may cause PCa or exacerbate insidious PCa which is already present. In this paper, recent developments regarding the relationship between serum levels of sex hormone and prostate tissue, the causal relationship between T and development of PCa, the effect of TRT on the group of patients who are at high risk of developing PCa, the suitability of TRT for patients who have already been diagnosed with PCa, and the effect of TRT on serum prostate-specific antigen level are analyzed.
doi:10.1155/2013/275945
PMCID: PMC3789297  PMID: 24159331
32.  Ureteroscopic Laser Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinomas: Can a Tumour Free Status Be Achieved? 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:429585.
Introduction. In cases of anatomic or functional single kidney with urothelial tumours of the upper urinary tract, the endoscopic laser ablation has proven efficacious. Based on the knowledge that low-grade, low-stage upper tract transitional cell carcinomas rarely progress to invasive lesions, indications for endoscopic laser ablation have expanded to include patients with bilateral functioning kidneys and low-grade tumours. The question that remains to be answered is whether endoscopic laser ablation has the ability to completely eradicate upper urinary tract tumours. Methods. We performed in 25 patients in a period of 11 years 288 ureteroscopies and, if needed, laser ablation of upper urinary tract tumours in imperative indication. Results. In 32% of the patients the cancer remained even after several laser sessions. 64% of patients were tumour free after one or more laser sessions but remained clear only for the next 3 months. Only 1 patient was tumour free for a period of 68 months after 1 session of laser treatment. The procedure had low complication rates. Conclusion. The laser technology and the introduction of small diameter semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes made ablation of upper urinary tract tumours possible and safe. Nevertheless a complete resection of the carcinomas is rarely possible.
doi:10.1155/2013/429585
PMCID: PMC3787654  PMID: 24151503
33.  Weight Loss and Melatonin Reduce Obesity-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Testis 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:836121.
Aim. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of weight loss and melatonin on the obesity-induced oxidative damage in rat testes. Materials and Methods. 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 rats: control group (Group 1), obesity group (Group 2), obesity + MLT group (Group 3), and weight loss group (Group 4). Rats were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed and 5 cc blood samples were obtained from all of the rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) levels were analysed in the testicular tissues and serum. Spermatogenesis was evaluated with the Johnsen scoring system. Results. The testicular tissue and serum levels of MDA, PC, and SOD activity were increased in the obesity group in comparison to the sham operated group (P < 0.05). Weight loss and melatonin treatment ameliorated MDA, PC, and SOD levels in testicular tissue and serum significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of mean Johnsen score (P = 0.727). Conclusion. Experimentally created obesity caused oxidative stress and both melatonin and weight loss reduced oxidative stress parameters in rat testes.
doi:10.1155/2013/836121
PMCID: PMC3780536  PMID: 24089609
34.  Robotic Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Formation: Initial Experience from a Single UK Centre 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:642836.
Objectives. To describe our technique of robotic intracorporeal ileal conduit formation (RICIC) during robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). To report our initial results of this new procedure. Patients and Methods. Seven male and one female patients underwent RARC with RICIC over a six-month period. Demographic, operative, and outcome data was collected prospectively. Median patient age was 75 years (range 62–78 years). Median followup was 9 months (range 7–14 months). Results. RARC with RICIC was performed successfully in all eight patients. The median total operating time was 360 minutes (range 310–440 minutes) with a median blood loss of 225 mL (range 50–1000 mL). The median length of stay was nine days (range 6–34 days). Four patients (50%) were discharged within seven days. Four patients (50%) experienced one or more complications. This included two Clavien I complications, two Clavien II complications, and two Clavien III complications. Two patients (25%) required transfusion of two units each. To date, there have been no complications associated with the ileal conduit. Conclusion. Whilst being technically challenging, this procedure is safe, feasible, and reproducible. Patients who avoid complication show potential for rapid recovery and early discharge.
doi:10.1155/2013/642836
PMCID: PMC3773896  PMID: 24072995
35.  The Current Role of Endourologic Management of Renal Transplantation Complications 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:246520.
Introduction. Complications following renal transplantation include ureteral obstruction, urinary leak and fistula, urinary retention, urolithiasis, and vesicoureteral reflux. These complications have traditionally been managed with open surgical correction, but minimally invasive techniques are being utilized frequently. Materials and Methods. A literature review was performed on the use of endourologic techniques for the management of urologic transplant complications. Results. Ureterovesical anastomotic stricture is the most common long-term urologic complication following renal transplantation. Direct vision endoureterotomy is successful in up to 79% of cases. Urinary leak is the most frequent renal transplant complication early in the postoperative period. Up to 62% of patients have been successfully treated with maximal decompression (nephrostomy tube, ureteral stent, and Foley catheter). Excellent outcomes have been reported following transurethral resection of the prostate shortly after transplantation for patients with urinary retention. Vesicoureteral reflux after renal transplant is common. Deflux injection has been shown to resolve reflux in up to 90% of patients with low-grade disease in the absence of high pressure voiding. Donor-gifted and de novo transplant calculi may be managed with shock wave, ureteroscopic, or percutaneous lithotripsy. Conclusions. Recent advances in equipment and technique have allowed many transplant patients with complications to be effectively managed endoscopically.
doi:10.1155/2013/246520
PMCID: PMC3760203  PMID: 24023541
36.  Primary Carcinoid Tumour of the Kidney: A Review of the Literature 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:579396.
Context. Primary renal carcinoid tumours are rare. Their pathogenesis is unknown and the clinical presentation is similar to other renal tumours thus posing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary renal carcinoids. Methods. Literature was extensively searched for case reports for primary renal carcinoids. Reports of metastatic carcinoids to the kidneys were excluded. Results. Approximately less than 90 cases of primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney have been reported in the literature. A total of 29 cases of primary renal carcinoids were reviewed. The mean age of presentation was 48 years (range 29–75) with both right kidney (48.3%) and left kidney (44.8%) being equally affected. 28.6% of the cases reviewed were diagnosed as an incidental finding. The mean followup time was 20 months with 73.1% of patients without evidence of disease after surgical treatment (radical or partial nephrectomy). Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are often well differentiated tumours. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and similar presentation with other renal tumours. Conclusions. Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are rare tumours with an indolent course with frequent metastasis. Metastatic work up and followup is required in their management.
doi:10.1155/2013/579396
PMCID: PMC3755439  PMID: 23997766
37.  Penile Fracture: Experience from a Third World Country 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:708362.
Aim. To ascertain the clinical presentation, commonest age group affected, and treatment of patients diagnosed to have penis fracture. Materials and Methods. We performed a retrospective study carried at a tertiary care hospital from January 2005 to January 2011. All the 36 patients diagnosed to have penile fracture were enrolled in the study group. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical findings in the patients. All, except two patients, were managed by a standard surgical procedure, same for all the patients, on the day of presentation to the hospital. All the data pertaining to the presentation, management, and followup of these patients were studied and scrutinized thoroughly. Results. Thirty-four patients were operated while 2 refused surgery. Most of our patients were between 16 and 30 years (55.6%) of age. The commonest presenting complaints were penile swelling and detumescence during sexual intercourse or an erection. All except two of our patients were managed with immediate surgical repair which had excellent results even in the presence of associated urethral injury. Conclusion. Fracture of the penis is a surgical emergency which can be best managed by immediate surgical repair with excellent results even in the presence of urethral injury.
doi:10.1155/2013/708362
PMCID: PMC3730138  PMID: 23956740
38.  Prevalence of Priapism and Its Awareness amongst Male Homozygous Sickle Cell Patients in Lagos, Nigeria 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:890328.
Background. Priapism is a pathological condition of penile erection that persists beyond, or is unrelated to, sexual stimulation. Impotence and infertility are major problems in male sickle cell disease patients, and priapism has been implicated as a cause of impotence and infertility. The aim of this study is to determine priapism prevalence and assess the knowledge of male homozygous male patients about it in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst male homozygous sickle cell disease patients of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. Pretested questionnaires were distributed to determine the prevalence and assess their knowledge on priapism. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results. A total of 114 consenting subjects filled the questionnaires, 85 of 114 (74.6%) had not heard about priapism before this study. A total of 77 of 114 (67.5%) did not know that they are at risk of priapism. Whilst 84 of 114 (73.7%) were not aware that priapism is a complication of SCD. The majority, 94 of 114 (82.5%), were not aware that priapism could cause impotence. Conclusion. There is a need to create more awareness about this complication amongst sickle cell disease patients in order to stem the incidence of impotence and infertility amongst them.
doi:10.1155/2013/890328
PMCID: PMC3727196  PMID: 23956741
39.  Do Renal Cysts Affect the Success of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy? A Retrospective Comparative Study 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:978180.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of simple renal cysts on extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with calyceal renal calculi. Patients with simple renal cysts >35 mm and ipsilateral renal calculi <20 mm that were treated with SWL constituted group 1 (cyst + calculi). The control group included patients aged >40 years that had renal calculi <20 mm and no cysts that were treated with SWL. The 2 groups were compared according to age, gender, body mass index, calculi size, localization, and density, the calculi fragmentation rate, and the percentage of stone-free patients. Mean cyst size in group 1 was 44.04 ± 9.08 mm. Mean age in group 1 was 61.4 ± 10.2 years versus 56.9 ± 8.2 years in the control group; the difference was significant (P = 0.045). There were not any other significant differences between the 2 groups, except for the stone-free rate (P > 0.05), which was 33.3% in group 1 and 68.2% in the control group (P = 0.017). The presence of renal cysts in a patient with calculi requires that an individualized treatment plan be devised, so as to provide the patient with the most effective treatment.
doi:10.1155/2013/978180
PMCID: PMC3690207  PMID: 23840202
40.  The Effects of Chlormadinone Acetate on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Functions of Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Prospective Multicenter Clinical Study 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:584678.
Purpose. To evaluate the effects of chlormadinone acetate (CMA), progesterone-derived antiandrogen, on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile functions of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods. A multicenter, single-cohort prospective study was conducted. A total of 114 patients received CMA for 16 weeks. The endpoints were changes in International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), IPSS-QOL, International Index of Erectile Function-5, Qmax prostate volume, and residual urine volume. Results. Significant improvements were observed in IPSS from week 8 to week 48 (32 weeks after treatment). IPSS-QOL improvements were also significant from week 8 to week 48. Qmax increased to a maximum at Week 16 and remained elevated throughout the study. Moreover, a decrease of 25% in prostate volume was observed at Week 16. IPSS, QOL, and Qmax changes during the study were not different between the previously treated and untreated patients. IPSS storage subscore changes differed between the age groups. Few severe adverse reactions were observed, except for erectile dysfunction. Conclusions. CMA rapidly and significantly reduced prostate volume and improved voiding and storage symptoms and QOL. Our results suggest that CMA is safe and beneficial, especially for elderly patients with LUTS associated with BPH.
doi:10.1155/2013/584678
PMCID: PMC3671298  PMID: 23762042
41.  Clinical Significance of Amyloid Precursor Protein in Patients with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor 
Advances in Urology  2013;2013:348438.
Introduction. The biological role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is not well understood, especially in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the immunoreactivity (IR) and expression of APP in TGCTs and evaluated its clinical relevance. Materials and Methods. We performed an analysis of immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of APP in 64 testicular specimens and 21 snap-frozen samples obtained from 1985 to 2004. We then evaluated the association between APP expression and clinicopathological status in TGCTs. Results. Positive APP IR was observed in 9.8% (4/41) of seminomatous germ cell tumors (SGCTs) and 39.1% (9/23) of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NGCTs). NGCTs showed significantly more cases of positive IR (P = 0.00870) and a higher mRNA expression level compared with those of SGCTs (P = 0.0140). Positive APP IR was also significantly associated with α-fetoprotein (αFP) elevation (P = 0.00870) and venous invasion (P = 0.0414). Conclusion. We observed an elevated APP expression in TGCTs, especially in NGCTs. APP may be associated with a more aggressive cancer in TGCTs.
doi:10.1155/2013/348438
PMCID: PMC3639667  PMID: 23662100
42.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3638678  PMID: 23653639
43.  Focal Therapy for Prostatic Carcinoma 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:703923.
doi:10.1155/2012/703923
PMCID: PMC3546450  PMID: 23346107
44.  Advances in Prosthetic Urology 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:681918.
doi:10.1155/2012/681918
PMCID: PMC3521478  PMID: 23251146
45.  Laparoscopic Testicular Preservation in Adults with Intra-Abdominal Cryptorchidism: Is It Beneficial? 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:329237.
Purpose. To present the results in a midterm followup of laparoscopic testicular preservation in adults with intra-abdominal cryptorchidism. Methods. We analyzed 14 adult patients with cryptorchidism (19 testes) submitted to transabdominal laparoscopic evaluation and treatment of the condition. Data was collected retrospectively from a prospective database from August 2005 to May 2010. It analyzed patient age, affected side, procedure, mean operative time, mean hospital stay, postoperative testis position, intra- and postoperative complications, presence of malignancy in the removed testis, and midterm outcomes: size of the testis, development of tumors, and fertility. Results. Mean patient age was 29 (18–54) years. Thirteen (68.4%) testes were preserved. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. After a mean followup of 48.7 (20–64) months, all patients submitted to orchiopexy had the organs correctly positioned, although 2 testes were significantly smaller than before the procedure. No patient presented any signs of malignancy during the followup. Fertility was not preserved in bilateral cases. Conclusion. Laparoscopic testicular evaluation and eventual preservation are feasible and safe. In a midterm followup, testicular tumor is not a concern, and unfortunately, fertility may not be preserved in bilateral cases.
doi:10.1155/2012/329237
PMCID: PMC3512247  PMID: 23227040
46.  Novel Application of Statistical Methods to Identify New Urinary Incontinence Risk Factors 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:276501.
Longitudinal data for studying urinary incontinence (UI) risk factors are rare. Data from one study, the hallmark Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA), have been analyzed in the past; however, repeated measures analyses that are crucial for analyzing longitudinal data have not been applied. We tested a novel application of statistical methods to identify UI risk factors in older women. MESA data were collected at baseline and yearly from a sample of 1955 men and women in the community. Only women responding to the 762 baseline and 559 follow-up questions at one year in each respective survey were examined. To test their utility in mining large data sets, and as a preliminary step to creating a predictive index for developing UI, logistic regression, generalized estimating equations (GEEs), and proportional hazard regression (PHREG) methods were used on the existing MESA data. The GEE and PHREG combination identified 15 significant risk factors associated with developing UI out of which six of them, namely, urinary frequency, urgency, any urine loss, urine loss after emptying, subject's anticipation, and doctor's proactivity, are found most highly significant by both methods. These six factors are potential candidates for constructing a future UI predictive index.
doi:10.1155/2012/276501
PMCID: PMC3501817  PMID: 23193394
47.  The Effects of Local Administration of Aminophylline on Transureteral Lithotripsy 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:727843.
Introduction. Urinary stone is a common cause of urinary tract disease. Stone excretion using ureteroscope is effective in inferior ureter. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aminophylline on ureteral spasm during ureteroscopy in acute phase of renal colic. Methods. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 120 patients with ureteral stones were enrolled and randomized into two groups. The bladder was drained and then received a 150 mL irrigation solution. Irrigation solution was saline and saline plus 10 mL aminophylline at 250 mg dose for control and case groups, respectively. Ureteroscopy and transureteral lithotripsy (TUL) were performed five minutes after irrigation. Results. The mean duration of TUL was 4.2 ± 2.61 min and 8.4 ± 2.9 min for control and case groups, respectively. The successful rate was 95% and 76.1% in case and control groups, respectively. Further extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) was performed in 5% and 30% for patients in case and control groups, respectively. Conclusion. Aminophylline facilitated ureteroscopy and increased the success rate in the treatment of renal colic using TUL. No significant complications from post-TUL were observed. Using aminophylline carries several advantages such as reducing procedure duration, decreasing the need for ureteral and double-J catheter, and reducing stone migration to the kidney and use of SWL.
doi:10.1155/2012/727843
PMCID: PMC3469073  PMID: 23082076
48.  Monitoring Detrusor Oxygenation and Hemodynamics Noninvasively during Dysfunctional Voiding 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:676303.
The current literature indicates that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Pressure flow studies (UDSs) remain the gold standard evaluation methodology for such patients. However, as the function of the detrusor muscle depends on its vasculature and perfusion, the underlying causes of LUTS likely include abnormalities of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics, and available treatment options include agents thought to act on the detrusor smooth muscle and/or vasculature. Hence, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an established optical methodology for monitoring changes in tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics, has relevance as a means of expanding knowledge related to the pathophysiology of BPH and potential treatment options. This methodological report describes how to conduct simultaneous NIRS monitoring of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics during UDS, outlines the clinical implications and practical applications of NIRS, explains the principles of physiologic interpretation of NIRS voiding data, and proposes an exploratory hypothesis that the pathophysiological causes underlying LUTS include detrusor dysfunction due to an abnormal hemodynamic response or the onset of oxygen debt during voiding.
doi:10.1155/2012/676303
PMCID: PMC3457593  PMID: 23019422
50.  Evaluation of Satisfaction and Axial Rigidity with Titan XL Cylinders 
Advances in Urology  2012;2012:896070.
The inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) has high patient satisfaction rates and good mechanical reliability rates in multiple studies. The number one patient compliant at six months is penile length. Recently, new technique for aggressive sizing of the cylinders has been published on in the literature. One IPP company has produced a new product that has longer length cylinders (XL) than those available. However, traditionally long cylinders were felt to lack axial rigidity. Therefore, a prospective, multicenter, central IRB-approved, monitored study was performed on the new product to address these concerns. At 2 centers, a total of 17 patients underwent surgical implantation of these new XL cylinders. These patients were questioned for patient satisfaction and tested for axial rigidity using a Fastsize Erectile Quality Monitor. The results showed excellent patient satisfaction rates and great axial rigidity with the Fastsize Erectile Quality Monitor. The XL cylinders appear to give the IPP surgeon the ability to use longer cylinders with good patient satisfaction and great axial rigidity.
doi:10.1155/2012/896070
PMCID: PMC3446653  PMID: 22997510

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