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26.  Amphiphilic star-like macromolecules as novel carriers for topical delivery of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):1-12.
The objective of this study was to evaluate amphiphilic star-like macromolecules (ASMs) as a topical drug delivery system. Indomethacin, piroxicam, and ketoprofen were individually encapsulated into the ASMs using coprecipitation. The effects of the ASMs on percutaneous permeation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) across full thickness, hairless mouse skin were evaluated in vitro using modified Franz diffusion cells. In addition, solubility and in vitro release experiments were performed to characterize ASMs behavior in aqueous media. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and Pluronic P-85 were used as polymer controls to compare the role of PEG and amphiphilic behavior in the ASMs. In vitro release experiments indicated that ASMs can delay drug release (P⋖05), whereas solubility measurements showed that ASMs can increase NSAIDs aqueous solubility (P⋖05). Percutaneous permeation studies revealed that ASMs decreased both flux and Q24 of drugs compared with the control (P⋖10). Skin pretreatment studies with ASM-containing solution before drug application demonstrated that pretreatment similarly influenced NSAID percutaneous permeation. In conclusion, ASMs likely slow drug permeation through 2 mechanisms, delayed drug diffusion from its core and skin dehydration by its shell. Thus, ASMs may be useful for delayed dermal delivery or prevention of compound permeation through the skin (eg, sunscreens, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]) from aqueous formulations.
PMCID: PMC2750988  PMID: 15198514
topical drug delivery; NSAIDs; polymeric micelle; permeation; drug release
27.  Evaluation of novel particles as pulmonary delivery systems for insulin in rats 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):10-20.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of calcium phosphate (CAP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) particles on the systemic delivery of insulin administered by the pulmonary route. Two methods of pulmonary delivery were employed: intratracheal instillation and spray instillation. Insulin-CAP-PEG particles in suspension (1.2 U/kg, 110–140 μL) were administered to the lungs of fasted rats by intratracheal instillation (INCAPEG) or spray instillation (SINCAPEG). Control treatments consisted of insulin solution (1.2 U/kg) by intratracheal instillation, spray instillation, and subcutaneous administration (SC). Plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were determined by chemiluminescence and colorimetric methods, respectively. Data were analyzed by compartmental and non-compartmental methods, and pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of insulin disposition were determined. PK analysis suggested that insulin administered in particles had a longer half-life, a longer mean residence time, and a smaller rate of elimination than insulin in solution. In addition, insulin bioavailability after SINCAPEG was 1.8-fold that of insulin solution administered SC. PD analysis showed that smaller areas under the effect curve and, conversely, larger areas above the effect curve were obtained after INCAPEG in comparison to insulin solution. The magnitude of this effect was increased after SINCAPEG. The presence of CAP-PEG particles appears to positively influence the disposition of insulin administered to the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats. Spray instillation appears to be a more efficient method of delivering insulin to the lungs of rats than intratracheal instillation.
PMCID: PMC2751517  PMID: 12866936
pulmonary delivery; insulin; CAP-PEG particles; pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics
28.  Chitosan and sodium alginate—Based bioadhesive vaginal tablets 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(4):224-230.
Metronidazole was formulated in mucoadhesive vaginal tablets by directly compressing the natural cationic polymer chitosan, loosely cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, together with sodium alginate with or ine cellulose (MCC). Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was added to some of the formulations. The drug content in tablets was 20%. Drug dissolution rate studies from tablets were carried out in buffer pH 4.8 and distilled water. Swelling indices and adhesion forces were also measured for all formulations. The formula (FIII) containing 6% chitosan, 24% sodium alginate, 30% sodium CMC, and 20% MCC showed adequate release properties in both media and gave lower values of swelling index compared with the other examined formulations. FIII also proved to have good adhesion properties with minimum applied weights. Moreover, its release properties (% dissolution efficiency, DE) in buffer pH 4.8, as well as release mechanism (n values), were negligibly affected by aging. Thus, this formula may be considered a good candidate for vaginal mucoadhesive dosage forms.
PMCID: PMC2751333  PMID: 12646014
metronidazole; chitosan; sodium alginate; mucoadhesion; swelling; release study
29.  Evaluation of USP apparatus 3 for dissolution testing of immediate-release products 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(1):1-5.
We sought to evaluate whether U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 3 can be used as an alternative to USP apparatus 2 for dissolution testing of immediate-release (IR) dosage forms. Highly soluble drugs, metoprolol and ranitidine, and poorly soluble drugs, acyclovir and furosemide, were chosen as model drugs. The dissolution profiles of both innovator and generic IR products were determined using USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm and apparatus 3 at 5, 15, and 25 dips per minute (dpm). The dissolution profiles from USP apparatus 3 were compared to those from USP apparatus 2 using the f2 similarity test. The dissolution profile from USP apparatus 3 generally depends on the agitation rate, with a faster agitation rate producing a faster dissolution rate. It was found that USP apparatus 3 at the extreme low end of the possible agitation range, such as 5 dpm, gave hydrodynamic conditions equivalent to USP apparatus 2 at 50 rpm. With appropriate agitation rate, USP apparatus 3 can produce similar dissolution profiles to USP apparatus 2 or distinguish dissolution characteristics for the IR products of metoprolol, ranitidine, and acyclovir. Incomplete dissolution was observed for the furosemide tablets using USP apparatus 3. Although it is primarily designed for the release testing of extended-release products, USP apparatus 3 may be used for the dissolution testing of IR products of highly soluble drugs, such as metoprolol and ranitidine, and some IR products of poorly soluble drugs, such as acyclovir. USP apparatus 3 offers the advantages of avoiding cone formation and mimicking the changes in physiochemical conditions and mechanical forces experienced by products in the gastrointestinal tract.
PMCID: PMC2751286  PMID: 12049485
Dissolution; USP apparatus 2; USP apparatus 3; Immediate-Release; and Product
30.  Receptor binding studies of soft anticholinergic agents 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):44-56.
Receptor binding studies were performed on 24 soft anticholinergic agents and 5 conventional anticholinergic agents using 4 cloned human muscarinic receptor subtypes. The measured pKi values of the soft anticholinergic agents ranged from 6.5 to 9.5, with the majority being in the range of 7.5 to 8.5. Strong correlation was observed between the pKis determined here and the pA2 values measured earlier in guinea pig ileum contraction assays. The corresponding correlation coefficients (r2) were 0.80, 0.73, 0.81, and 0.78 for pKi(m1), pKi(m2), pKi(m3), and pKi(m4), respectively. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were also performed, and good characterization could be obtained for the soft anticholinergics containing at least 1 tropine moiety in their structure. For these compounds, the potency as measured by the pKi values was found to be related to geometric, electronic, and lipophilicity descriptors. A linear regression equation using ovality (Oe), dipole moment (D), and a calculated log octanol-water partition coefficient (QLogP) gave reasonably good descriptions (r=0.88) for the pKi(m3) values.
PMCID: PMC2751219  PMID: 12049493
drug design; soft drugs; receptor binding; metabolism; drug evaluation; muscarinic antagonists
31.  Spatial expression patterns of peptide transporters in the human and rat gastrointestinal tracts, Caco-2 In Vitro cell culture model, and multiple human tissues 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):100-111.
This study sought to identify the spatial patterns of expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), peptide transporter 3 (PTR3), peptide/histidine transporter 1 (PHT1), and the human peptide transporter 1 (HPT-1) mRNA in complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries of the human and rat gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), Caco-2 in vitro cell culture model, and in a human multiple tissue panel. Human PTR3 and PHT1 are putative peptide transporters recently discovered. Using sequence-specific primers designed to amplify regions of PepT1, PTR3, PHT1, and HPT-1, we were able to identify the expression of mRNA for each of these transporters in human cDNA panels (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA), the rat GIT, and in Caco-2 cDNA libraries by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern Blot analysis. These studies suggest that in the human GIT, PepT1 appears to be localized predominantly in the duodenum, with decreasing expression in the jejunum and ileum. In contrast, PTR3 and HPT-1 were widely expressed in the human GIT, with predominant expression in the different regions of the colon. PHT1 appeared to be expressed in low levels throughout the human GI tract. Interestingly, the mRNAs for all 4 peptide transporters were expressed in Caco-2 cells throughout 30 days of culture. PepT1, PTR3, PHT1, and HPT-1 were also widely expressed in the rat GIT. Human tissue cDNA panel screening suggests that PTR3 and PHT1 are more uniformly expressed, whereas PepT1 and HPT-1 demonstrated site-specific expression. These results suggest that PepT1, PTR3, PHT1, and HPT-1 all may act to facilitate the diffusion of peptides and peptide-based pharmaceuticals in the GIT, PTR3, PHT1, and HPT-1 expressions in Caco-2 cell monolayers strongly suggest that their function needs to be further elucidated and their contribution to peptide transport not ignored. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential for molecular biological characterization in localizing active transporter systems that can potentially be targeted for enhancing the absorption of peptide-based pharmaceuticals.
PMCID: PMC2751241  PMID: 11741260
Peptide Transport; PepT1; PTR3; PHT1; HPT-1; GI Tract; Human Digestive cDNA Panel; Human Tissue cDNA Panel; Caco-2 Cells
32.  pH-Dependent dissolving nano- and microparticles for improved peroral delivery of a highly lipophilic compound in dogs 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):92-99.
RR01, a new highly lipophilic drug showing extremely low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability, has been incorporated into pH-dependent dissolving particles made of a poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylacrylate) copolymer. The physicochemical properties of the particles were determined using laser-light-scattering techniques, scanning electron microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and x-ray powder diffraction. Suspension of the free drug in a solution of hydroxypropylcellulose (reference formulation) and aqueous dispersions of pH-sensitive RR01-loaded nanoparticles or microparticles were administered orally to Beagle dogs according to a 2-block Latin square design (n =6). Plasma samples were obtained over the course of 48 hours and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The administration of the reference formulation resulted in a particularly high interindividual variability of pharmacokinetic parameters, with low exposure to compound RR01 (AUC0–48h of 6.5 μg.h/mL and coefficient of variation (CV) of 116%) and much higher Tmax, as compared to both pH-sensitive formulations. With respect to exposure and interindividual variability, nanoparticles were superior to microparticles (AUC0–48h of 27.1 μg.h/mL versus 17.7 μg.h/mL with CV of 19% and 40%, respectively), indicating that the particle size may play an important role in the absorption of compound RR01. The performance of pH-sensitive particles is attributed to their ability to release the drug selectively in the upper part of the intestine in a molecular or amorphous form. In conclusion, pH-dependent dissolving particles have a great potential as oral delivery systems for drugs with low water solubility and acceptable permeation properties.
PMCID: PMC2751240  PMID: 11741259
Nanoparticles; Microparticles; Oral Administration; Poor Water Solubility; pH-Sensitive Polymer
33.  Estimation of capping incidence by indentation fracture tests 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):54-65.
The purpose of this study was to predict the capping tendencies of pharmaceutical powders by creating indentation fracture on compacts. Three sets of binary mixtures containing different concentrations of each ingredient were used in the study. The binary mixtures were chosen to represent plastic-plastic, plastic-brittle, and brittle-brittle combination of materials. The mixtures were tableted at different pressures and speeds on Prester®, a tablet press simulator. These mixtures were also compacted on the Instron® Universal Testing Machine 4502. Static indentation tests were done on these compacts at different depths until surface cracking and chipping were observed. The extent of surface cracking and chipping was observed from light microscope and scanning electron microscope images. A rank order correlation was observed between lamination susceptibility and the depth at which indentation failure occurred. It was concluded that indentation fracture tests could provide a useful estimate of lamination properties of pharmaceutical powders.
PMCID: PMC2751237  PMID: 11741256
Indentation Fracture; Capping
34.  Effect of nonionic surfactant on transport of surface-active and non-surface-active model drugs and emulsion stability in triphasic systems 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):91-101.
The effect of surfactant concentration on transport kinetics in emulsions using surface-active (phenobarbital, barbital) and non- surface-active is determined. Mineral oil was chosen as the oil phase and the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl-ether (Brij 97) was chosen as the emulsifier. Model drug transport in the triphasic systems was investigated using side-by-side diffusion cells mounted with hydrophilic dialysis membranes (molecular weight cutoffs 1 kd and 50 kd) and a novel bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag technique. Emulsion stability was determined by droplet size analysis as a function of time, temperature, and the presence of model drugs, using photon correlation spectroscopy. Mineral oil/water (O/W) partition coefficients and aqueous solubilities were determined in the presence of surfactant. The transport rates of model drugs in emulsions increased with an increase in Brij 97 micellar concentrations up to 1.0% wt/vol and then decreased at higher surfactant concentrations. The transport profiles of the model drugs appeared to be governed by model drug O/W partition coefficient values and by micellar shape changes at higher surfactant concentrations.
Total transport rates of phenobarbital and barbital were faster than those of phenylazoaniline and benzocaine. Excess surfactant affected the transport rates of the model drugs in the emulsions depending on drug surface activity and lipophilicity.
PMCID: PMC2761140  PMID: 11741246
35.  Independence of substituent contributions to the transport of small-molecule permeants in lipid bilayer 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(2):40-52.
Purpose: To explore the independence of functional group contributions to permeability of nonelectrolytes across egg lecithin bilayers. Methods. The transport rates were measured of a series of α-substituted p-methylhippuric acids (-H,-Cl,-OCH3,-CN,-OH,-COOH, and-CONH2) across egg lecithin lipid bilayers, in the form of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at 25EC. Intrinsic permeability coefficients (PHA) were calculated from apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) measured as a function of pH. Group contributions to the free energy of transfer from water into the barrier domain, Δ(ΔGE)P,X, were calculated for the substituents and compared to the contributions of these groups when attached to p-toluic acid measured earlier. The Δ(ΔGE)P,X values from permeability data were also correlated with Δ(ΔGE)PC,X values of partitioning from water into organic solvents to determine the physicochemical selectivity of the barrier domain. Results. Papp values in LUVs were found to vary approximately linearly with the fraction of neutral permeant over a pH range of 5.5 to 10.5, suggesting that the transport of the ionized species is negligible over this pH range. The Δ(ΔGE)P,X values from the 2 series of compounds appear to be the same, indicating that the functional group contributions are independent. 1,9-Decadiene was found to be the most similar to the chemical environment of the barrier domain. Conclusions. Functional group contributions to transport across egg lecithin bilayers appear to be independent of the compound to which they are attached, even though the thickness of the barrier domain in lipid bilayers is approximately the same as the extended length of the permeant.
PMCID: PMC2751028  PMID: 11741230
36.  Activity and kinetics of dissociation and transfer of amphotericin B from a novel delivery form 
AAPS PharmSci  1999;1(3):21-31.
Recently it has been demonstrated that moderate heat treatment of Amphotericin B/deoxycholate solutions (HAmB-DOC) leads to a therapeutically interesting supramolecular rearrangement that can be observed by significant changes in light scattering, CD, and absorbance. In this study, we continue the investigation of the physical properties of this new form by evaluating the activity and kinetics of dissociation and dispersion of HAmB-DOC and AmB-DOC in saline, serum, and in model mammalian or fungal lipid biomimetic membrane vesicles. Stopped-flow spectrophotometry combined with singular value decomposition (SVD) and global analysis were used to resolve the components of this process. The dissociation kinetics for both states are complex, requiring multiexponential fits, vet in most cases SVD indicates only two significant changing species representing the monomer and the aggregate. The kinetic mechanism could involve dissociation of monomers from coexisting spectroscopically similar but structurally distinct aggregates or sequential rearrangements in supramolecular structure of aggregates. Rate constants and amplitudes of dissociation from aggregates to monomer in buffer, whole serum, 10% cholesterol, and ergosterol membrane vesicles are generally greater for AmB-DOC, demonstrating its greater kinetic instability. In addition, at comparable low concentrations, HAmB-DOC and AmB-DOC are nearly equally active at promoting cation selective permeability in ergosterol-containing membranes; however, HAmB-DOC is much less active against mammalian mimetic cholesterol-containing vesicles, despite a higher level of self-association, supporting previous observations that there exists a specific “toxic aggregate” structure.
PMCID: PMC2761124  PMID: 11741206
37.  Functional differences in nucleoside and nucleobase transporters expressed on the rabbit corneal epithelial cell line (SIRC) and isolated rabbit cornea 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):72-85.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of nucleoside/nucleobase transporters on the Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) epithelial cell line and to evaluate SIRC as an in vitro screening tool for delineating the mechanism of corneal permeation of nucleoside analogs. SIRC cells (passages 410–425) were used to study uptake of [3H]thymidine, [3H]adenine, and [3H]ganciclovir. Transport of [3H]adenine and [3H]ganciclovir was studied across isolated rabbit cornea. Uptake and transport studies were performed for 2 minutes and 120 minutes, respectively, at 34°C. Thymidine uptake by SIRC displayed saturable kinetics (Km=595.9±80.4μM, and Vmax=289.5±17.2 pmol/min/mg protein). Uptake was inhibited by both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides but not by nucleobases. [3H]thymidine uptake was sodium and energy independent but was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine at nanomolar concentrations. Adenine uptake by SIRC consisted of a saturable component (Km=14.4±2.3μM, Vmax=0.4±0.04 nmol/min/mg protein) and a nonsaturable component. Uptake of adenine was inhibited by purine nucleobases but not by the nucleosides or pyrimidine nucleobases and was independent of sodium, energy, and nitrobenzylthioinosine. [3H]ganciclovir uptake involved a carrier-mediated component and was inhibited by the purine nucleobases but not by the nucleosides or pyrimidine nucleobases. However, transport of [3H]adenine across the isolated rabbit cornea was not inhibited by unlabeled adenine. Further, corneal permeability of ganciclovir across a 100-fold concentration range remained constant, indicating that ganciclovir permeates the cornea primarily by passive diffusion. Nucleoside and nucleobase transporters on rabbit cornea and corneal epithelial cell line, SIRC, are functionally different, undermining the utility of the SIRC cell line as an in vitro screening tool for elucidating the corneal permeation mechanism of nucleoside analogs.
PMCID: PMC2751523  PMID: 12866942
nucleoside; nucleobase; cornea; SIRC; transport; antiviral agent
38.  Encapsulation of water-insoluble drug by a cross-linking technique: Effect of process and formulation variables on encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and in vitro dissolution rate 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(1):112-119.
Ibuprofen-gelatin micropellets were prepared by the cross-linking technique using formaldehyde. Spherical micropellets having an entrapment efficiency of 65% to 85% were obtained. The effect of core to coat ratio, speed of agitation, temperature, and volume of oil phase was studied with respect to entrapment efficiency, micropellet size, and surface characteristics. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetric analysis confirmed the absence of any drug-polymer interaction. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that there is a decrease in crystallinity of the drug. The micromeritic properties of micropellets were found to be slightly changed by changing various processing parameters to give micropellets of good flow property. The in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various processing parameters to give a controlled release of drug from the micropellets. The stability studies of the drug-loaded micropellets showed that the drug was stable at storage conditions of room temperature, 37°C, 25°/60% relative humidity (RH) and 45°/60% RH, for 12 weeks.
PMCID: PMC2750947  PMID: 18465264
ibuprofen; micropellets; gelatin micropellets
39.  Pharmacokinetics of the time-dependent elimination of all-trans-retinoic acid in rats 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(1):1-9.
The time-dependent elimination kinetics of all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) has been associated with autoinduction of its metabolism and has led to the hypothesis that rapid development of acquired clinical resistance to ATRA may be prevented by coadministration of metabolic inhibitors. This study in rats was performed to investigate the pharmacokinetics and onset of timedependent elimination of ATRA, with the purpose of establishing an animal model suitable for in vivo preclinical studies of compounds capable of inhibiting ATRA metabolism. After the intravenous (IV) bolus administration of single doses of ATRA (1.60 mg kg−1 and 0.40 mg kg−1), the plasma concentration-time curves showed an accelerated decline at 180 minutes after dosing. The plasma clearance (Cl) of ATRA, determined after IV administration of a second dose (1.60 mg kg−1), at 180 minutes was greater than Cl after a single dose, thus indicating the existence of a time-dependent elimination process detectable 180 minutes after administration of the first dose. Such time-dependent elimination was confirmed by means of an IV constant-rate infusion of 0.48 mg h−1 kg−1 of ATRA during 10 hours. Peak plasma ATRA concentration was achieved at 180 minutes, after which the plasma concentration decreased to reach a much lower apparent steady-state drug concentration at 420 minutes. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) obtained after oral administration of a second ATRA dose (1.60 mg kg−1) was ∼8% of the AUC obtained after a single oral dose; consistent with a time-dependent increase in the elimination of ATRA, as was observed after IV administration.
PMCID: PMC2750936  PMID: 18465253
all-trans-retinoic acid; time-dependent elimination; pharmacokinetic model; rat; intravenous administration; oral administration
40.  Hydroxyzine from topical phospholipid liposomal formulations: Evaluation of peripheral antihistaminic activity and systemic absorption in a rabbit model 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):41-48.
Hydroxyzine, an effective but sedating H1-antihistamine is given orally to treat allergic skin disorders. This study was performed to assess the peripheral H1-antihistaminic activity and extent of systemic absorption of hydroxyzine from liposomes applied to the skin. Using L-α-phosphatidylcholine (PC), small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) containing hydroxyzine were prepared. Hydroxyzine in Glaxal Base (GB) was used as the control. Using a randomized, crossover design, each formulation, containing 10 mg of hydroxyzine, was applied to the shaved backs of 6 rabbits (3.08±0.05 kg). Histamine-induced wheal tests and blood sampling were performed at designated time intervals up to 24 hours. Compared with baseline, hydroxyzine from all formulations significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal formation by 75% to 95% for up to 24 hours. Mean maximum suppression, 85% to 94%, occurred from 2 to 6 hours, with no differences among the formulations. The areas of plasma hydroxyzine concentration versus time area under the curve (AUCs) from PC-SUV and PC-MLV, 80.1±20.8 and 78.4±33.9 ng/mL/h, respectively, were lower than that from GB, 492±141 ng/mL/h (P<.05) over 24 hours. Plasma concentrations of cetirizine arising in-vivo as the active metabolite of hydroxyzine, from PC-SUV, PC-MLV, and GB, were similar with AUCs of 765±50, 1035±202, and 957±227 ng/mL/h, respectively (P<.05). Only 0.02% to 0.06% of the initial hydroxyzine dose remained on the skin after 24 hours. In this model, hydroxyzine from SUV and MLV had excellent topical H1-antihistaminic activity, and minimal systemic exposure occurred. Cetirizine formed in-vivo contributed to some of H1-antihistaminic activity.
PMCID: PMC2750990  PMID: 15198516
hydroxyzine; L-α-phosphatidylcholine; liposomes; antihistamine; skin; rabbit
41.  Quantitation of motexafin lutetium in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(3):1-16.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) methods were developed and validated for the evaluation of motexafin lutetium (MLu, lutetium texaphyrin, PCI-0123) pharmacokinetics in human plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was specific for MLu, whereas the ICP-AES method measured total elemental lutetium. Both methods were fast, simple, precise, and accurate. For the LC-MS/MS method, a closely related analogue (PCI-0353) was used as the internal standard (IS). MLu and the IS were extracted from plasma by protein precipitation and injected onto and LC-MS/MS system configured with a C18 column and an electrospray interface. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.05 μg MLu mL−1, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 15∶1. The response was linear from 0.05 to 5.0 μg MLu mL−1. For the ICP-AES method, indium was used as the IS. The sample was digested with nitric acid, diluted, filtered, and then injected onto the ICP-AES system. Two standard curve ranges were validated to meet the expected range of sample concentrations: 0.5 to 50, and 0.1 to 10 μg Lu mL−1. The LC-MS/MS and ICP-AES methods were validated to establish accuracy, precision, analyte stability, and assay robustness. Interday precision and accuracy of quality control samples were ≤6.3% coefficient of variation (CV) and within 2.2% relative error (RE) for the LC-MS/MS method, and ≤8.7% CV and within 4.9% RE for the ICP-AES method. Plasma samples from a subset of patients in a clinical study were analyzed using both methods. For a representative patient, over 90% of the elemental lutetium in plasma could be ascribed to intact MLu at early time points. This percentage decreased to 59% at 48 hours after dosing, suggesting that some degradation and/or metabolism of the drug may have occurred.
PMCID: PMC2750933  PMID: 14621958
motexafin lutetium; LC-MS/MS; ICP-AES; pharmacokinetics; lutetium texaphyrin
42.  Wet granulation fine particle ethylcellulose tablets: Effect of production variables and mathematical modeling of drug release 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):48-60.
In the present study, the applicability of fine particle ethylcellulose (FPEC) to produce matrix tablets by a wet granulation technique was evaluated. The effect of various formulation and process variables, such as FPEC content, hardness of the tablet, and solubility of the drug, on the release of drug from these tablets was examined. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation of drug and FPEC in an appropriate mass ratio. Theophylline, caffeine, and dyphylline were selected as nonionizable model drugs with solubilities from 8.3 to 330 mg/mL at 25°C. Ibuprofen, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were selected as ionizable drugs with solubilities from 0.1 to 2000 mg/mL at 25°C. Drug release studies were conducted in 37°C water with UV detection. As the FPEC content and the hardness of the tablets increased, the release rate of the drug decreased. The drug release rate increased with an increase in the solubility of the drug. Model equations, intended to elucidate the drug release mechanism, were fitted to the release data. Parameters were generated and data presented by SAS software. The Akaike Information Criterion was also considered to ascertain the best-fit equation. Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation were the release mechanisms for nonionizable and ionizable drugs.
PMCID: PMC2751521  PMID: 12866940
fine particle ethylcellulose; wet granulation; ionizable drugs; nonionizable drugs; Fickian diffusion; polymer relaxation
43.  Development of a multidose formulation for a humanized monoclonal antibody using experimental design techniques 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):1-9.
The purpose of this study was to identify optimal preservatives for a multidose formulation of a humanized monoclonal antibody using experimental design techniques. The effect of antimicrobial parenteral preservatives (benzyl alcohol, chlorobutanol, methyl paraben, propylparaben, phenol, and m-cresol) on protein stability was assessed using size-exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, right-angle light scattering, UV spectroscopy, and potency testing using a cell-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting method. A quick, cost-effective preservative screening test was designed. Combinations of preservatives were examined using an I-optimal experimental design. The protein was most stable in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben, and was compatible with benzyl alcohol and chlorobutanol at low concentrations. Phenol and m-cresol were not compatible with the protein. The I-optimal experimental design indicated that as an individual preservative, benzyl alcohol was promising. The model also indicated several effective combinations of preservatives that satisfied the antimicrobial efficacy and physical stability constraints. The preservative screening test and the experimental design approach were effective in identifying optimal concentrations of antimicrobial preservatives for a multidose protein formulation; (1) benzyl alcohol, and (2) the combination of methylparaben and chlorobutanol were screened as potential candidates to satisfy the regulatory requirements of various preservative efficacy tests.
PMCID: PMC2751516  PMID: 12866935
multidose formulation; preservative; experimental design; monoclonal antibody; protein
44.  A mucoadhesive, cyclodextrin-based vaginal cream formulation of itraconazole 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(1):50-54.
The development of vaginal medications, especially antifungal medications, requires that the drug is solubilized as well as retained at or near the mucosa for sufficient periods of time to ensure adequate bioavailability. Itraconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, which has been used for some time orally and intravenously but for which a vaginal formulation has not yet been developed. We present here a novel itraconazole formulation intended for vaginal use based on hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a functional excipient that increases drug solubility and generates a mucoadhesive system in the presence of other ingredients. An aqueous phase was prepared by solubilizing itraconazole with HCl in the presence of propylene glycol and then adding an aqueous solution of HPβCD. After pH adjustment, the itraconazole/HPβCD solution was added to the oil phase (paraffin oil, trihydroxystearate, and cetyl dimethicon copolyol) and the desired cream containing 1%, 2%, and 2.5% drug obtained by homogenization. Primary irritation studies and subchronic toxicity studies using a rabbit vaginal model indicated that the formulation was safe, well tolerated, and retained in the vaginal space. Clinical investigations indicated that application of 5 g of a 2% cream was very well tolerated and itraconazole was not systemically absorbed. Additional studies in women found that the itraconazole cream was highly effective in reducing or eliminating fungal cultures with few adverse effects. These studies suggested that an HPβCD-based, emulsified wax cream formulation was a useful and effective dosage form for treating vaginal candidiasis.
PMCID: PMC2751473  PMID: 12713277
Itraconazole; vaginal; cyclodextrin; mucoadhesive; toxicity; clinical investigation; candidiasis
45.  Pharmacodynamic modeling of chemotherapeutic effects: Application of a transit compartment model to characterize methotrexate effects in vitro 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(4):212-222.
The time course of chemotherapeutic effect is often delayed relative to the time course of chemotherapeutic exposure. In many cases, this delay is difficult to characterize mathematically through the use of standard pharmacodynamic models. In the present work, we investigated the relationship between methotrexate (MTX) exposure and the time course of MTX effects on tumor cell growth in culture. Two cancer cell lines, Ehrlich ascites cells and sarcoma 180 cells, were exposed for 24 hours to MTX concentrations that varied more than 700-fold (0.19–140 μg/mL). Viable cells were counted on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, and 24 for Ehrlich ascites cells and on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, and 21 for sarcoma 180 cells, through the use of a tetrazolium assay. Although MTX was removed 24 hours after application, cell numbers reached nadir values more than 100 hours after MTX exposure. Data from each cell line were fitted to 3 pharmacodynamic models of chemotherapeutic cell killing: a cell cycle phase-specific model, a phase-nonspecific model, and a transit compartment model (based on the general model recently reported by Mager and Jusko, Clin Pharmacol Ther. 70:210–216, 2001). The transit compartment model captured the data much more accurately than the standard pharmacodynamic models, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.86 to 0.999. This report shows the successful application of a transit compartment model for characterization of the complex time course of chemotherapeutic effects; such models may be very useful in the development of optimization strategies for cancer chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2751331  PMID: 12646013
methotrexate; cell growth inhibition; modeling; chemotherapeutic effect; transit compartment model
46.  An in vitro examination of the impact of polyethylene glycol 400, pluronic P85, and vitamin E d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate on P-glycoprotein efflux and enterocyte-based metabolism in excised rat intestine 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(4):193-205.
The potential inhibitory effects of 3 excipients (polyethylene glycol [PEG] 400, Pluronic P85, and vitamin E d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [TPGS]) on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux of digoxin (DIG) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated metabolism of verapamil (VRP) have been examined in an in vitro permeability model.
Experiments were conducted utilizing rat jejunal tissue mounted in diffusion chambers and included assessment of the serosal to mucosal (s to m) transport of DIG and the formation of norverapamil (NOR) during the mucosal to serosal transport of VRP, as measures of P-gp efflux and CYP3A metabolism, respectively.
The presence of PEG at 1%, 5%, and 20% (wt/vol) reduced both the s to m flux of DIG (by 47%, 57%, and 64%, respectively, when compared to control) and the metabolism of VRP (by 54%, 78%, and 100%) in a concentration-dependent manner. P85 (0.1% wt/vol) significantly reduced s to m DIG flux by 47% and inhibited VRP metabolism by 42%. TPGS had insignificant effects on both metabolism and efflux at a concentration of 0.01% (wt/vol). The P-gp inhibitory effects of PEG and P85 were evident regardless of whether the excipient was added to the mucosal side, the serosal side, or both sides of the tissue.
The current data suggest that inclusion of PEG and P85 as solubilizing agents during in vitro permeability assessment may have a significant impact on both drug metabolism and efflux processes. These compounds appear to exert their effects on P-gp primarily via direct transporter inhibition-or indirectly, through effects on buffer osmolarity, membrane fluidity, and/or mitochondrial toxicity and subsequent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion.
PMCID: PMC2751329  PMID: 12646011
P-glycoprotein; CYP3A; intestinal; metabolism; permeability; PEG
47.  Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration in drug development and dosage-regimen optimization for veterinary medicine 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(4):160-188.
Pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling is a scientific tool to help developers select a rational dosage regimen for confirmatory clinical testing. This article describes some of the limitations associated with traditional dose-titration designs (parallel and crossover designs) for determining an appropriate dosage regimen. It also explains how a PK/PD model integrates the PK model (describing the relationship between dose, systemic drug concentrations, and time) with the PD model (describing the relationship between systemic drug concentration and the effect vs time profile) and a statistical model (particularly, the intra- and interindividual variability of PK and/or PD origin). Of equal importance is the utility of these models for promoting rational drug selection on the basis of effectiveness and selectivity. PK/PD modeling can be executed using various approaches, such as direct versus indirect response models and parametric versus nonparametric models. PK/PD concepts can be applied to individual dose optimization. Examples of the application of PK/PD approaches in veterinary drug development are provided, with particular emphasis given to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The limits of PK/PD approaches include the development of appropriate models, the validity of surrogate endpoints, and the acceptance of these models in a regulatory environment.
PMCID: PMC2751327  PMID: 12646010
Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic modeling; veterinary drug; dosage regimen; interspecies extrapolation; potency; efficacy
48.  Role of plasma lipoproteins in modifying the toxic effects of water-insoluble drugs: Studies with cyclosporine A 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(4):95-101.
Lipoproteins are a heterogeneous population of macromolecular aggregates of lipids and proteins that are responsible for the transport of lipids through the vascular and extravascular fluids from their site of synthesis or absorption to peripheral tissues. Lipoproteins are involved in other biological processes as well, including coagulation and tissue repair, and serve as carriers of a number of hydrophobic compounds within the systemic circulation. It has been well documented that disease states (eg, AIDS, diabetes, cancer) significantly influence circulating lipoprotein content and composition. Therefore, it appears possible that changes in the lipoprotein profile would affect not only the ability of a compound to associate with lipoproteins but also the distribution of the compound within the lipoprotein subclasses. Such an effect could alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological action of the drug. This paper reviews the factors that influence the interaction of one model hydrophobic compound, cyclosporine A, with lipoproteins and the implications of altered plasma lipoprotein concentrations on the pharmacological behavior of this compound.
PMCID: PMC2751319  PMID: 12646002
49.  Novel system to investigate the effects of inhaled volume and rates of rise in simulated inspiratory air flow on fine particle output from a dry powder inhaler 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(2):7-12.
This study evaluated the effect of inhaled volume and simulated inspiratory flow rate ramps on fine particle output from dry powder inhalers (DPIs). A simple, robust system was developed to account for “rate of rise” (ramp) effects while maintaining a constant air flow through a multi-stage liquid impinger (MSLI), used for sizing the emitted particles. Ramps were programmed to reach 30 and 60 L/min over 100 milliseconds; 500 milliseconds; and 1, 2, and 3 seconds. Rotahaler was chosen as the test DPI. Testing was done with simulated inhalation volumes of 2 L and 4 L. Testing was also carried out using the USP apparatus 4. At 30 L/min, for a 2 L volume, the amount of drug exiting the device in fine particle fraction (FPF) increased from 2.33 μg to 6.04 μg from the 3-second ramp to the 100-millisecond ramp, with 11.64 μg in FPF for the USP (no ramp) method. At the same flow rate, for a 4 L volume, FPF increased from 2.23 μg to 8.45 μg, with 10.25 μg for the USP method. At 60 L/min, similar trends were observed. In general, at both flow rates, an increase in FPF was noted going from the shallowest to the steepest ramp. However, there were no significant differences in FPF when a 2 L inhaled volume was compared with a 4 L volume at each flow rate. Overall, these data suggest that the existing USP apparatus may overestimate FPF at flow rates lower than those recommended by the USP.
PMCID: PMC2751291  PMID: 12102620
Dry Powder Inhalers; Ramps In Vitro Testing; Fine Particle Output; Inhaled Volume
50.  Influence of drug release properties of conventional solid dosage forms on the systemic exposure of highly soluble drugs 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(3):86-92.
This study was designed to theoretically investigate the influence of drug release properties, characterized by the disintegration of a solid dosage form and dissolution of drug particles, on the systemic exposure of highly soluble drugs in immediate release products. An absorption model was developed by considering disintegration of a solid dosage form, dissolution of drug particles, gastrointestinal transit flow, and intestinal absorption processes. The absorption model was linked to a conventional pharmacokinetic model to evaluate the effect of disintegration and dissolution on the peak exposure (Cmax) and total exposure of area under the curve (AUC). Numerical methods were used to solve the model equations. The simulations show that the effect of disintegration of a dosage form and dissolution of drug particles depend on the permeability of a drug, with a low-permeability drug having a greater effect. To provide similar exposure to an oral solution formulation, a solid dosage form containing a low-permeability drug would need to dissolve more rapidly than a solid dosage form containing a high-permeability drug. It was shown theoretically for poorly permeable drugs that the disintegration rate constant has to be greater than 9 hour−1 (equivalent to approximately 90% in 30 minutes) to make both AUC and Cmax ratios higher than .9, ensuring the confidence interval of .80 to 1.25. The rapid in vitro release requirement of at least 85% dissolved in 30 minutes is sufficient for highly soluble and highly permeable drugs. However, for highly soluble and poorly permeable drugs, the appropriate in vitro release requirement seems to be 90% dissolved in 30 minutes.
PMCID: PMC2751019  PMID: 11741275
Small intestinal transit; dissolution; disintegration; absorption modeling; bioequivalence

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