Factor VIII (FVIII) is an important cofactor in the blood coagulation cascade. A deficiency or dysfunction of FVIII causes hemophilia A, a life-threatening bleeding disorder. FVIII circulates in plasma as a heterodimer comprising 6 domains (heavy chain, A1-A2-B and light chain, A3-C1-C2). Replacement therapy using FVIII is the leading therapy in the management of hemophilia A. However, ∼15% to 30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies that neutralize the activity of the protein. Neutralizing antibodies to epitopes in the lipid binding region of FVIII are commonly identified in patients’ plasma. In this report, we investigated the effect of O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS), which binds to the lipid binding region, on the immunogenicity of B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII (BDDrFVIII). Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies showed that OPLS specifically bind to the lipid binding region, localized in the C2 domain of the coagulation factor. Size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence anisotropy studies showed that OPLS interfered with the aggregation of BDDrFVIII. Immunogenicity of free-vs BDDrFVIII-OPLS complex was evaluated in a murine model of hemophilia A. Animals administered subcutaneous (sc) injections of BDDrFVIII-OPLS had lower neutralizing titers compared with animals treated with BDDrFVIII alone. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that specific molecular interactions between OPLS and BDDrFVIII may improve the stability and reduce the immunogenicity of BDDrFVIII formulations.
B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII; O-phospho-L-serine; protein formulation; excipient; physical stability; immunogenicity; inhibitor development
Factor VIII (FVIII) is an important cofactor in the blood coagulation cascade. A deficiency or dysfunction of FVIII causes hemophilia A, a life-threatening bleeding disorder. FVIII circulates in plasma as a heterodimer comprising 6 domains (heavy chain, A1-A2-B and light chain A3-C1-C2). Replacement therapy using FVIII is the leading therapy in the management of hemophilia A. However, ∼15% to 30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies that neutralize the activity of the protein. Neutralizing antibodies to epitopes in the lipid binding region of FVIII are commonly identified in patients' plasma. In this report, we investigated the effect of O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS), which binds to the lipid bindinding region, on the immunogenicity of B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII (BDDrFVIII). Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies showed that OPLS specifically bind to the lipid binding region, localized in the C2 domain of the coagulation factor. Size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence anisotropy studies showed that OPLS interfered with the aggregation of BDDrFVIII. Immunogenicity of free-vs BDDrFVIII-OPLS complex was evaluated in a murine model of hemophilia A. Animals administered subcutaneous (sc) injections of BDDrFVIII-OPLS had lower neutralizing titers compared with animals treated with BDDRFVIII alone. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that specific molecular interactions between OPLS and BDDrFVIII may improve the stability and reduce the immunogenicity of BDDrFVIII formulations.
B domain deleted recombinant factor VIII; O-phospho-L-serine; protein formulation; excipient; physical stability; immunogenicity; inhibitor development
New modalities providing safe and effective treatment of pain, especially prolonged pathological pain, have not appeared despite much effort. In this mini-review/overview we suggest that new paradigms of drug design are required to counter the underlying changes that occur in the nervous system that may elicit chronic pain states. We illustrate this approach with the example of designing, in a single ligand, molecules that have agonist activity at μ and δ opioid receptors and antagonist activities at cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. Our findings thus far provide evidence in support of this new approach to drug design. We also report on a new biophysical method, plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) spectroscopy, which can provide new insights into information transduction in G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as illustrated by the δ opioid receptor.
drug design; neuropathic pain; bifunctional ligands; plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy; GPCRs; opioid receptors; cholecystokinin receptors
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder resulting from a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and depletion of neurotransmitter dopamine in the striatum. Molecular cloning studies have identified nearly a dozen genes or loci that are associated with small clusters of mostly early onset and genetic forms of PD. The etiology of the vast majority of PD cases remains unknown, and the precise molecular and biochemical processes governing the selective and progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway are poorly understood. Current drug therapies for PD are symptomatic and appear to bear little effect on the progressive neurodegenerative process. Studies of postmortem PD brains and various cellular and animal models of PD in the last 2 decades strongly suggest that the generation of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors by the resident brain immune cells, microglia, plays a prominent role in mediating the progressive neurodegenerative process. This review discusses literature supporting the possibility of modulating the activity of microglia as a neuroprotective strategy for the treatment of PD.
Dopamine neuron; Parkinson’s disease; movement disorder; microglia; neuroprotection; free radical
New modalities providing safe and effective treatment of pain, especially prolonged pathological pain, have not appeared despite much effort. In this mini-review/overview we suggest that new paradigms of drug design are required to counter the underlying changes that occur in the nervous system that may elicit chronic pain states. We illustrate this approach with the example of designing, in a single ligand, molecules that have agonist activity at μ and σ opioid receptors and antagonist activities at cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. Our findings thus far provide evidence in support of this new approach to drug design. We also report on a new biophysical method, plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) spectroscopy, which can provide new insights into information transduction in g-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as illustrated by the δ opioid receptor.
drug design; neuropathic pain; bifunctional ligands; plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy; GPCRs; opioid receptors; cholecystokinin receptors
A data set was generated to examine global changes in gene expression in rat liver over time in response to a single bolus dose of methylprednisolone. Four control animals and 43 drug-treated animals were humanely killed at 16 different time points following drug administration. Total RNA preparation from the livers of these animals were hybridized to 47 individual Affymetrix RU34A gene chips, generating data for 8799 different probe sets for each chip. Data mining techniques that are applicable to gene array time series data sets in order to identify drug-regulated changes in gene expression were applied to this data set. A series of 4 sequentially applied filters were developed that were designed to eliminate probe sets that were not expressed in the tissue, were not regulated by the drug treatment, or did not meet defined quality control standards. These filters eliminated 7287 probe sets of the 8799 total (82%) from further consideration. Application of judiciously chosen filters is an effective tool for data mining of time series data sets. The remaining data can then be further analyzed by clustering and mathematical modeling techniques.
Data mining; gene arrays; glucocorticoids; mathematical modeling; pharmacogenomics
BCS; bioavailability/bioequivalence; drug absorption; excipient; osmotic potential
The administration of therapeutic proteins via the subcutaneous route (sc) is desired for compliance and convenience, but could be challenging due to perceived immunogenic potential or unwanted immune responses. There are clinical and preclinical data supporting as well as refuting the generalized notion that sc is more immunogenic. We provide a mechanistic perspective of immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins administered via the sc route and discuss strategies and opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to mitigate immunogenicity.
biotechnology; immunogenicity; mitigation of immunogenicity; protein therapeutics; subcutaneous administration
The hydration layer plays a key role in the controlled drug release of gel-forming matrix tablets. For poorly water-soluble drugs, matrix erosion is considered as the rate limiting step for drug release. However, few investigations have reported on the quantification of the relative importance of swelling and erosion in the release of poorly soluble drugs, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the hydration layer are poorly understood. Here, we employed synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography with 9-μm resolution to investigate the hydration dynamics and to quantify the relative importance of swelling and erosion on felodipine release by a statistical model. The 3D structures of the hydration layer were revealed by the reconstructed 3D rendering of tablets. Twenty-three structural parameters related to the volume, the surface area (SA), and the specific surface area (SSA) for the hydration layer and the tablet core were calculated. Three dominating parameters, including SA and SSA of the hydration layer (SAhydration layer and SSAhydration layer) and SA of the glassy core (SAglassy core), were identified to establish the statistical model. The significance order of independent variables was SAhydration layer > SSAhydration layer > SAglassy core, which quantitatively indicated that the release of felodipine was dominated by a combination of erosion and swelling. The 3D reconstruction and structural parameter calculation methods in our study, which are not available from conventional methods, are efficient tools to quantify the relative importance of swelling and erosion in the controlled release of poorly soluble drugs from a structural point of view.
drug release kinetics; gel-forming matrix tablet; statistical modeling; swelling and erosion; synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography
During pregnancy, a drug’s pharmacokinetics may be altered and hence anticipation of potential systemic exposure changes is highly desirable. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) models have recently been used to influence clinical trial design or to facilitate regulatory interactions. Ideally, whole-body PBPK models can be used to predict a drug’s systemic exposure in pregnant women based on major physiological changes which can impact drug clearance (i.e., in the kidney and liver) and distribution (i.e., adipose and fetoplacental unit). We described a simple and readily implementable multitissue/organ whole-body PBPK model with key pregnancy-related physiological parameters to characterize the PK of reference drugs (metformin, digoxin, midazolam, and emtricitabine) in pregnant women compared with the PK in nonpregnant or postpartum (PP) women. Physiological data related to changes in maternal body weight, tissue volume, cardiac output, renal function, blood flows, and cytochrome P450 activity were collected from the literature and incorporated into the structural PBPK model that describes HV or PP women PK data. Subsequently, the changes in exposure (area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax)) in pregnant women were simulated. Model-simulated PK profiles were overall in agreement with observed data. The prediction fold error for Cmax and AUC ratio (pregnant vs. nonpregnant) was less than 1.3-fold, indicating that the pregnant PBPK model is useful. The utilization of this simplified model in drug development may aid in designing clinical studies to identify potential exposure changes in pregnant women a priori for compounds which are mainly eliminated renally or metabolized by CYP3A4.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9505-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PBPK models; pharmacokinetics; physiological changes; pregnancy; systemic exposure
Isoflavones have been investigated in detail for their role in the prevention and therapy of prostate cancer. This is primarily because of the overwhelming data connecting high dietary isoflavone intake with reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. A number of investigations have evaluated the mechanism(s) of anticancer action of isoflavones such as genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, equol, etc., in various prostate cancer models, both in vitro and in vivo. Genistein quickly jumped to the forefront of isoflavone cancer research, but the initial enthusiasm was followed by reports on its contradictory prometastatic and tumor-promoting effects. Use of soy isoflavone mixture has been advocated as an alternative, wherein daidzein can negate harmful effects of genistein. Recent research indicates a novel role of genistein and other isoflavones in the potentiation of radiation therapy, epigenetic regulation of key tumor suppressors and oncogenes, and the modulation of miRNAs, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells, which has renewed the interest of cancer researchers in this class of anticancer compounds. This comprehensive review article summarizes our current understanding of the role of isoflavones in prostate cancer research.
anticancer; daidzein; genistein; isoflavone; prostate cancer
Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue is strongly correlated with obesity. The exact role of macrophage in the development of obesity, however, has not been fully understood. In this study, using intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes, we tissue-specifically depleted visceral adipose tissue macrophages (VATMs) and explored their roles in initiation and progression of obesity. Two sets of experiments were conducted, using mice on a high-fat diet as the animal model. Mice were injected with clodronate liposomes at the beginning of high-fat diet feeding to investigate the role of VATMs in the initiation of obesity. Treatment starting on week 5 was designed to explore the function of VATMs in the progression of weight gain. The results show that intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes effectively depleted VATMs, which blocked high-fat diet-induced weight gain, fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Similarly, clodronate liposomes suppressed progression of weight gain in mice after being fed with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks and improved insulin sensitivity. Gene expression analysis showed that depletion of VATMs was associated with downregulation of the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis including acc1, fas, scd1, and pepck, decreased expression of genes involved in chronic inflammation including mcp1 and tnfα, and suppressed expression of macrophage specific marker genes of f4/80 and cd11c in adipose tissue. Depletion of VATMs was associated with prevention of the formation of crown-like structures in white adipose tissue and the maintenance of a low level of blood TNF-α. Collectively, these data demonstrate that VATMs appeared to play a crucial role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated diseases and suggest that adipose tissue macrophages could be regarded as a potential target for drug development in prevention and therapy of obesity and obesity-associated complications.
high-fat diet-induced obesity; inflammation; insulin resistance; liposomes; visceral adipose tissue macrophage
In the 2012 AAPS metabolites in safety testing (MIST) symposium held in Chicago, IL, USA, on October 15, 2012, regulatory experts and industrial scientists joined together to discuss their perspectives and strategies in addressing contemporary MIST recommendations (FDA 2008, International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) M3(R2), ICH M(R2) Q&A). Overall, these regulatory guidances indicate that metabolites identified in human plasma should circulate at similar or greater concentrations in at least one of the animal species used in nonclinical safety assessment of the parent drug. However, synthetic standards for the metabolites often do not exist or they are intractable to synthesize, thus introducing multiple challenges in drug development for the quantitative comparison of metabolites between human and animals. A tiered bioanalytical strategy for metabolite analysis is a prevalent approach to demonstrate coverage in animals. Recent developments in bioanalytical methodology have yielded several time- and resource-sparing strategies to provide fit-for-purpose approaches that can enable critical decisions related to metabolite quantification and monitoring in plasma. This report summarizes the presentations and panel discussions at the symposium.
MIST; safety assessment of human metabolites; metabolite exposure coverage in safety test; ICH M3(R2); LC/MS/MS
The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences among bioequivalence approaches used by international regulatory authorities when reviewing applications for marketing new generic drug products which are systemically active and intended for oral administration. We focused on the 13 jurisdictions and organizations participating in the International Generic Drug Regulators Pilot. These are Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, the European Medicines Association, Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, the USA, and the World Health Organization. We began with a comparison of how the various jurisdictions and organizations define a generic product and its corresponding reference product. We then compared the following bioequivalence approaches: recommended bioequivalence study designs, method of pharmacokinetic calculations and bioequivalence acceptance limits, recommendations for modifying bioequivalence study designs and limits for highly variable drugs and narrow therapeutic index drugs, provisions for waiving bioequivalence study requirements (granting biowaivers), and implementation of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. We observed that, overall, there are more similarities than differences in bioequivalence approaches among the regulatory authorities surveyed.
bioequivalence; biopharmaceutics classification system; biowaivers; generic drugs; regulatory authority
Silica colloidal crystals are a new type of media for protein electrophoresis, and they are assessed for their promise in rapidly measuring aggregation of monoclonal antibodies. The nature of silica colloidal crystals is described in the context of the need for a high-throughput separation tool for optimizing the formulations of protein drugs for minimal aggregation. The fundamental relations between molecular weight and mobility in electrophoresis are used to make a theoretical comparison of selectivity between gels and colloidal crystals. The results show that the selectivity is similar for these media, but slightly higher, 10%, for gels, and the velocity is inherently lower than that for gels due to the smaller free volume fraction. These factors are more than compensated for by lower broadening in colloidal crystals. These new media give plate heights of only 0.15 μm for the antibody monomer and 0.42 μm for the antibody dimer. The monoclonal antibody is separated from its dimer in 72 s over a distance of only 6.5 mm. This is five times faster than size-exclusion chromatography, with more than tenfold miniaturization, and amenable to parallel separations, all of which are promising for the design of high-throughput devices for optimizing protein drug formulations.
colloidal crystal; electrophoresis; high throughput; miniaturization; monoclonal antibody; plate height
Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Follow-up studies have attributed this protective activity to the metabolic products of glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites produced by crucifers. The metabolic products of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, sulforaphane, and indole-3-carbinol respectively, have been the subject of intense investigation by cancer researchers. Sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol inhibit prostate cancer by both blocking initiation and suppressing prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. Research has largely focused on the anti-initiation and cytoprotective effects of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol through induction of phases I and II detoxification pathways. With regards to suppressive activity, research has focused on the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol to antagonize cell signaling pathways known to be dysregulated in prostate cancer. Recent investigations have characterized the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol derivatives to modulate the activity of enzymes controlling the epigenetic status of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we will summarize the well-established, “classic” non-epigenetic targets of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, and highlight more recent evidence supporting these phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators for prostate cancer chemoprevention.
epigenetic; I3C; prostate cancer; sulforaphane
Phytochemicals from diet and herbal medicines are under intensive investigation for their potential use as chemopreventive agents to block and suppress carcinogenesis. Chemical diversity of phytochemicals, together with complex metabolic interactions between phytochemicals and biological system, can overwhelm the capacity of traditional analytical platforms, and thus pose major challenges in studying chemopreventive phytochemicals. Recent progresses in metabolomics have transformed it to become a robust systems biology tool, suitable for examining both chemical and biochemical events that contribute to the cancer prevention activities of plant preparations or their bioactive components. This review aims to discuss the technical platform of metabolomics and its existing and potential applications in chemoprevention research, including identifying bioactive phytochemicals in plant extracts, monitoring phytochemical exposure in humans, elucidating biotransformation pathways of phytochemicals, and characterizing the effects of phytochemicals on endogenous metabolism and cancer metabolism.
chemoprevention; metabolism; metabolomics; phytochemical
The investigation of therapeutic protein drug–drug interactions has proven to be challenging. In May 2012, a roundtable was held at the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists National Biotechnology Conference to discuss the challenges of preclinical assessment and in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of these interactions. Several weeks later, a 2-day workshop co-sponsored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development was held to facilitate better understanding of the current science, investigative approaches and knowledge gaps in this field. Both meetings focused primarily on drug interactions involving therapeutic proteins that are pro-inflammatory cytokines or cytokine modulators. In this meeting synopsis, we provide highlights from both meetings and summarize observations and recommendations that were developed to reflect the current state of the art thinking, including a four-step risk assessment that could be used to determine the need (or not) for a dedicated clinical pharmacokinetic interaction study.
cytochrome P450s; drug–drug interactions; pro-inflammatory cytokines; small molecule; therapeutic protein
Predicting the penetration of drugs across the human blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a significant challenge during their development. A variety of in vitro systems representing the BBB have been described, but the optimal use of these data in terms of extrapolation to human unbound brain concentration profiles remains to be fully exploited. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling of drug disposition in the central nervous system (CNS) currently consists of fitting preclinical in vivo data to compartmental models in order to estimate the permeability and efflux of drugs across the BBB. The increasingly popular approach of using in vitro–in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) to generate PBPK model input parameters could provide a more mechanistic basis for the interspecies translation of preclinical models of the CNS. However, a major hurdle exists in verifying these predictions with observed data, since human brain concentrations can’t be directly measured. Therefore a combination of IVIVE-based and empirical modelling approaches based on preclinical data are currently required. In this review, we summarise the existing PBPK models of the CNS in the literature, and we evaluate the current opportunities and limitations of potential IVIVE strategies for PBPK modelling of BBB penetration.
blood–brain barrier; central nervous system; in vitro–in vivo extrapolation; PBPK; pharmacokinetics
A number of classical pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted in transplant patients. However, they suffer from some limitations, for example, (1) the study design was limited to intense blood sampling in small groups of patients during a certain posttransplant period, (2) patient factors were evaluated one at a time to identify their association with the pharmacokinetic parameters, and (3) mean pharmacokinetic parameters often cannot be precisely estimated due to large intraindividual variability. Population pharmacokinetics provides a potential means of addressing these limitations and is a powerful tool to evaluate the magnitude and consistency of drug exposure. Population pharmacokinetic studies of cyclosporine focused solely on developing limited sampling strategies and Bayesian estimators to estimate drug exposure, have been summarized before, and are, therefore, not a subject of this review. The major focus of this review is to describe factors (demographic factors, hepatic and gastrointestinal functions, drug–drug interactions, genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters) that have been identified to contribute to the large portion of observed variability in the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in transplant patients. This review summarizes and interprets the conclusions as well as the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling methodologies used in such studies. A highly diversified collection of structural models, variability models, and covariate submodels have been evaluated and validated using internal or external validation methods. This review also highlights areas where additional research is warranted to improve the models since a portion of model variability still remains unexplained.
cyclosporine; population pharmacokinetics; transplant patients
Biotherapeutic-reactive antibodies in treatment-naïve subjects (i.e., pre-existing antibodies) have been commonly detected during clinical immunogenicity assessments; however information on pre-existing antibody prevalence, physiological effects, and impact on posttreatment anti-drug antibody (ADA) induction remains limited. In this analysis, pre-existing antibody prevalence and impact on posttreatment ADA induction were determined using ADA data from 12 biotherapeutics analyzed in 32 clinical studies. Approximately half (58%) of the biotherapeutics were associated with some level of pre-existing antibodies and 67% of those were associated with posttreatment ADA induction. Across all studies, 5.6% of study subjects demonstrated presence of pre-existing antibodies, among which, 17% of the individual subjects had posttreatment increases in their ADA titers while 16% had decreased titers and 67% had no change in titers. However, in studies conducted in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population, 14.8% of RA patients were associated with pre-existing antibodies and 30% of those had posttreatment titer increases. The results suggest that in most study subjects, pre-existing antibodies pose a low risk for posttreatment ADA induction. That said, the high risk of induction implicated for RA patients, primarily observed in treatments evaluating novel antibody-based constructs, indicates that further understanding of the contribution of product and disease-specific factors is needed. Cross-industry efforts to collect and analyze a larger data set would enhance understanding of the prevalence, nature, and physiological consequences of pre-existing antibodies, better inform the immunogenicity risk profiles of products associated with these antibodies and lead to better fit-for-purpose immunogenicity management and mitigation strategies.
anti-drug antibodies; immunogenicity risk; pre-existing antibodies
The current study utilized a combined pharmacokinetic and genomic approach to demonstrate the feasibility of a new quality control method by using a panel of special differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as unique fingerprint to serve as marker of in vivo bioactivity for a representative traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, Si-Wu-Tang (SWT). The method involves firstly obtaining possible in vivo active components, i.e., the “absorbable” components from the permeate of the Caco-2 monolayer model to simulate oral administration of two specific SWT products (CU-SWT, J-SWT), their component single herbs (Angelicae, Chuanxiong, Paeoniae, and Rehmanniae), and a standard mixture of active compounds (ferulic acid, ligustilide, senkyunolide A). Then, these respective absorbable components were incubated with MCF-7 cells to determine the gene expression profile using microarray processing/analysis as well as real-time PCR. From the available DEGs identified following the incubation, the magnitude of change in DEGs by real-time PCR was found to be consistent with that by microarray. The designated DEGs from the CU-SWT permeate were found to be distinct from other 19 products. Furthermore, the changes in the DEGs resulting from MCF-7 cells treated by eight replicate extracts of CU-SWT on three separate days were consistent. These results demonstrated sufficient specificity and consistency of the DEG panel which could serve as a unique bioactive “fingerprint” for the designated SWT product. The present method for DEG determination may be applied to other TCM products and with further definitive study can potentially provide a unique method for quality control of TCM in the future.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-013-9491-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
gene expression signature; pharmacokinetics; quality control; Si-Wu-Tang; traditional Chinese medicine
In order to generate further characterisation data for the lyophilised product Erwinia chrysanthemil-asparaginase, reconstituted drug product (DP; marketed as Erwinase or Erwinaze) was analysed for subvisible (2–10 μm) particulate content using both the light obscuration (LO) method and the newer flow-imaging microscopy (FIM) technique. No correlation of subvisible particulate counts exists between FIM and LO nor do the counts correlate with activity at both release and on stability. The subvisible particulate content of lyophilised Erwinia l-asparaginase appears to be consistent and stable over time and in line with other parenteral biopharmaceutical products. The majority (ca. 75%) of subvisible particulates in l-asparaginase DP were at the low end of the measurement range by FIM (2–4 μm). In this size range, FIM was unable to definitively classify the particulates as either protein or non-protein. More sensitive measurement techniques would be needed to classify the particulates in lyophilised l-asparaginase into type (protein and non-protein), so the LO technique has been chosen for on-going DP analyses. E. chrysanthemil-asparaginase has a lower rate of hypersensitivity compared with native Escherichia coli preparations, but a subset of patients develop hypersensitivity to the Erwinia enzyme. A DP lot that had subvisible particulate counts on the upper end of the measurement range by both LO and FIM had the same incidence of allergic hypersensitivity in clinical experience as lots at all levels of observed subvisible particulate content, suggesting that the presence of l-asparaginase subvisible particulates is not important with respect to allergic response.
Erwinia; flow-imaging microscopy; l-asparaginase; light obscuration; subvisible particulates
Demonstrating bioequivalence (BE) for nasal spray/aerosol products for local action has been very challenging because the relationship between the drug in systemic circulation and the drug reaching the nasal site of action has not been well established. Thus, the current BE standard for these drug/device combination products is based on a weight-of-evidence approach, which contains three major elements: equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delivery. In addition, formulation sameness and device similarity are evidences to support BE. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the scientific rationale of the current BE standard and their development history for nasal spray/aerosol products, as well as the Food and Drug Administration’s review and approval status of generic nasal sprays/aerosols with the application of these BE standard.
bioequivalence; generic; locally acting drug; nasal aerosol; nasal spray