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issn:2093-0.88
26.  A preliminary study: aspirin discontinuation before elective operations; when is the optimal timing? 
Purpose
To evaluate the optimum timing of aspirin cessation before noncardiac surgeries. We have conducted a pilot study to minimize the aspirin cessation time before various surgeries.
Methods
Eighty patients who were taking regular aspirin for secondary prevention undergoing elective surgical operations were enrolled in the study. We separated the patients into two groups. The control group had 35 patients who stopped aspirin intake 10 days before surgery. The study group had 45 patients who stopped their aspirin intake and underwent surgery one day after arachidonic acid aggregation tests were within normal limits. Bleeding, blood loss, and transfusion requirements were assessed perioperatively.
Results
The mean time between aspirin cessation and aspirin nonresponsiveness were found to be 4.2 days with a median value of 4 days. In addition, the mean time between aspirin cessation and operation day were found to be 5.5 days with a median value of 5 days. No perioperative bleeding, thromboembolic or cardiovascular complications were encountered.
Conclusion
Reducing time of aspirin cessation from 7-10 days to 4-5 days is a possibility for patients using aspirin for secondary prevention without increased perioperative complications.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.4.185
PMCID: PMC3791362  PMID: 24106686
Aspirin; Arachidonic acid; Blood platelets; Perioperative period; General surgery
27.  Xanthogranulomatous cholecystits in 2-month-old infant 
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare form of chronic cholecystitis that is accompanied by xanthomatous histiocytes and chronic inflammation. A 2-month-old boy presented with a right upper abdominal palpable mass. Cholecystectomy with liver wedge resection was done, under the impression that the mass might be a hepatic tumor or liver abscess. Pathologic examination showed XGC with abscess formation. Most cases of XGC were observed in adult and only a few cases were reported in children. We describe a very rare case of XGC in infancy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.4.191
PMCID: PMC3791363  PMID: 24106687
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis; Cholecystitis; Infant; Cholecystectomy
28.  Preduodenal portal vein: a 3-case series demonstrating varied presentations in infants 
Preduodenal portal vein, a rare anomaly, could be found in any age groups. In pediatrics it may present with a duodenal obstruction by itself or other coexisting anomalies; however it usually present with an asymptomatic or incidental findings during other surgery in adults. This anomaly has a clinical importance due to the possibility of accidental damage to portal vein. In addition to describing a series of 3 cases with different manifestation in infants, discuss about this anomaly with a review of relevant literature.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.4.195
PMCID: PMC3791364  PMID: 24106688
Preduodenal portal vein; Infant
29.  On-site ultrasound-guided localization for impalpable nodal recurrences in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients 
Purpose
The cervical lymph nodes are the most common sites of locoregional recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Accurate tumor localization is important for the successful removal of impalpable recurrences in the cervical lymph nodes. We evaluated the benefits of ultrasound-guided localization (UGL) performed by a single surgeon on site.
Methods
Of 53 PTC patients who underwent reoperation for impalpable nodal recurrences, 32 (group 1) were assessed only using preoperative imaging, while 21 (group 2) were additionally evaluated by on-site UGL performed by the operating surgeon. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups.
Results
Operation times were significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and the mean size of the resected lymph nodes were smaller (P = 0.013) for group 2 patients. More lymph nodes were identified and resected in group 1 (3.56 vs. 3.19), but the rate of positive lymph nodes was significantly higher in group 2 (P < 0.001). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of resection success rate, complication rate, and postoperative hospital stay. During a mean follow-up period of 27.6 months, 52 patients (98.1%) showed no evidence of recurrence on routine ultrasound, and serum thyroglobulin concentrations remained < 1 ng/mL in 49 patients (92.5%).
Conclusion
On-site UGL performed by the operating surgeon is useful for accurate resection of impalpable nodal recurrences in PTC patients.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.104
PMCID: PMC3764360  PMID: 24020018
On-site ultrasound; Localization; Impalpable nodal recurrences; Papillary thyroid carcinoma
30.  The effect of duodenojejunal bypass for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients below body mass index 25 kg/m2: one year follow-up 
Purpose
The goals of this study are to evaluate the effect of duodenojejunal bypass (DJB) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients below body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2 in one year follow-up, and to compare the results of 1 week which we have reported in 2011.
Methods
In this prospective observational study, there were 31 type 2 diabetic patients who underwent DJB at Inha University Hospital from July 2009 to January 2011. We did laboratories such as 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin level and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), etc. and compared their changes of preoperative, a week, 3 months, and 12 months.
Results
Mean BMI was 23.1 ± 1.3 kg/m2, mean duration of T2DM was 8.3 ± 4.7 and mean age was 46.6 ± 7.7 years. There were a significant decrease of 75-g OGTT levels and increase of insulin secretion after 3 months. 13.3% showed diabetic remission (HbA1c < 6.0, medication cessation) and 26.7% showed diabetic improvement. The rates of remission and improvement much declined comparing with that of postoperative 1 week although those were determined by fasting and postprandial 2 hour level of glucose.
Conclusion
This is the first study of metabolic surgery in Korean diabetes patients in the healthy weight range. DJB exerted positive influences on insulin resistance as well as beta cell function. Early effects on T2DM after DJB could be estimated as one of good modalities, although the effectiveness seems to be unacceptable. Further studies are mandatory for evaluation of the effectiveness of metabolic surgery and finding prognostic factors.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.109
PMCID: PMC3764361  PMID: 24020019
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Metabolic surgery; Duodenojejunal bypass
31.  Management of giant hepatic cysts in the laparoscopic era 
Purpose
We sought to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts and surgical success, focusing on cyst recurrence.
Methods
From February 2004 to August 2011, 37 consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic cysts were evaluated and treated at Dong-A University Hospital. Indications were simple cysts (n = 20), multiple cysts (n = 6), polycystic disease (n = 2), and cystadenoma (n = 9).
Results
The median patient age was 64 years, with a mean lesion diameter of 11.4 cm. The coincidence between preoperative imaging and final pathologic diagnosis was 54% and half (n = 19) of the cysts were located in segments VII and VIII. Twenty-two patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I and II, and nine had ASA classification III. Surgical treatment of hepatic cysts were open liver resection (n = 3), laparoscopic deroofing (n = 24), laparoscopic cyst excision (n = 4), laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (n = 2), hand assisted laparoscopic procedure (n = 2), and single port laparoscopic deroofing (n = 2). The mean fellow-up was 21 months, and six patients (16%) experienced radiographic-apparent recurrence. Reoperation due to recurrence was performed in two patients. Among the factors predicting recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that interventional radiological procedures and pathologic diagnosis were statistically significant.
Conclusion
Laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts is a simple and effective method to relieve symptoms with minimal surgical trauma. Moreover, the recurrence is dependent on the type of pathology involved, and the sclerotherapy undertaken.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.116
PMCID: PMC3764362  PMID: 24020020
Liver; Hepatic cyst; Laparoscopy
32.  The role of hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery in total colectomy for colonic inertia: a retrospective study 
Purpose
To compare and assess the efficacy, safety and utility of hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) with open surgery (OS) in total colectomy with ileorectal for colonic inertia.
Methods
From January 2001 to February 2012, 56 patients diagnosed with colonic inertia who failed to respond to medical treatments underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis. Another 68 patients underwent laparotomy. Main parameters such as clinical manifestations, conversion to open procedure, operative time, incision length, pain score, intraoperative blood loss, time to first flatus and hospitalization, early postoperative complications and hospitalization cost were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative defecating frequencies were followed up in both groups.
Results
All patients received successful operation, no surgical mortality happened and none of the patients required conversion to an exploratory laparotomy in HALS group. The clinical features, the estimated blood loss, incision length, pain score, first passing flatus time, and postoperative hospitalization time were superior in HALS group (P < 0.05). The early postoperative complications and frequency of defecation were similar. However, the mean operative time was longer and hospitalization cost was higher in HALS group than those in OS group (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
HALS total colectomy can be a safe and efficient technique in the treatment of colonic inertia. HALS can result in a better cosmetic result and a quicker postoperative recovery, but requires higher direct cost.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.123
PMCID: PMC3764363  PMID: 24020021
Hand-assisted laparoscopy; Proctocolectomy; Constipation
33.  Postoperative analgesic effects of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for open appendectomy 
Purpose
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newly developed and effective peripheral block involving the nerves of the anterior abdominal wall for lower abdominal surgery. We evaluated the postoperative analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block using 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine in patients undergoing open appendectomy.
Methods
Forty-four patients undergoing appendectomy were assigned either to undergo a right sided-TAP block (group I, n = 22), or to receive standard care (group II, n = 22). All patients received standard anesthetics, and the TAP block group received ultrasound-guided right side TAP block using 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine after induction of anesthesia. All patients received acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as required during the 48 postoperative hours. Each patients was assessed for time to first rescue analgesia, verbal numerical rating pain scores (VNRS), number of rescue analgesic demands, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and drowsiness by a blinded investigator at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively.
Results
The TAP block group with levobupivacaine compared to the control group reduced VNRS significantly up to 12 hours postoperatively. There were no significant differences in time to first analgesia, number of rescue analgesics demands, nausea, vomiting, pruritus and drowsiness between the groups. There were no complications attributable to the TAP block.
Conclusion
Ultrasound-guided TAP block using 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine provided effective postoperative analgesia during the 12 postoperative hours after an open appendectomy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.128
PMCID: PMC3764364  PMID: 24020022
Appendectomy; Postoperative pain; Nerve block; Ultrasonography
34.  Negative pressure wound therapy for inguinal lymphatic complications in critically ill patients 
Purpose
In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of regulated negative pressure vacuum-assisted wound therapy for inguinal lymphatic complications in critically ill, liver transplant recipients.
Methods
The great saphenous vein was harvested for hepatic vein reconstruction during liver transplantation in 599 living-donor liver transplant recipients. Fourteen of the recipients (2.3%) developed postoperative inguinal lymphatic complications and were treated with negative pressure wound therapy, and they were included in this study.
Results
The average total duration of negative pressure wound therapy was 23 days (range, 11 to 42 days). Complete resolution of the lymphatic complications and wound healing were achieved in all 14 patients, 5 of whom were treated in hospital and 9 as outpatients. There was no clinically detectable infection, bleeding or recurrence after an average follow-up of 27 months (range, 7 to 36 months).
Conclusion
Negative pressure wound therapy is an effective, readily-available treatment option that is less invasive than exploration and ligation of leaking lymphatics and provides good control of drainage and rapid wound closure in critically ill patients.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.134
PMCID: PMC3764365  PMID: 24020023
Wound; Lymphatic; Complication; Negative pressure; Therapy
35.  Pinch-off syndrome 
Subclavian venous catheterization was previously frequently performed, but because of life-threatening complications such as hemothorax, pneumothorax, mediastinal hematoma, and myocardial injury, its use has become less common. However, this practice has some advantages in patient mobility, secured dressing, and rapidity and adequacy of vascular access. In some situations where patient comfort is an especially important consideration, such as with totally implantable venous port insertion for chemotherapy, the subclavian route can be a good choice if an experienced and well-trained faculty is available. The authors have had recent experience with pinch-off syndrome-in other words, spontaneous catheter fracture-in 3 patients who had undergone venous port implantation through the right subclavian route. Through these cases, we intend to review the dangers of subclavian venous catheterization, the causes of pinch-off syndrome, and its clinical presentation, progress, treatments, and prevention.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.139
PMCID: PMC3764366  PMID: 24020024
Pinch off syndrome; Subclavian venous catheterization; Spontaneous catheter fracture; Implantable venous port
36.  Endovascular repair of bilateral iliac artery aneurysm with branched iliac stents: case report and review of the current literature 
Common iliac artery aneurysm (CIA) often occurs in conjunction with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which extends into one or both CIAs in 20% to 30% of patients. Conventional endovascular treatment includes coil embolization of the internal iliac artery (IIA), followed by extension of the main bifurcated AAA stent-graft into the external iliac artery. However, complications from intentional occlusion of unilateral or bilateral IIAs are frequent and sometimes serious. Several methods try to preserve the unilateral or bilateral IIA. Here we report a case of concomitant bilateral CIA and AAA successfully treated with bilateral branched iliac stent-grafts.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.145
PMCID: PMC3764367  PMID: 24020025
Iliac aneurysm; Endovascular procedure
37.  Malignant thyroid bed mass after total thyroidectomy 
Purpose
Ultrasonographic (US) criteria on malignant thyroid bed mass have been suggested, including taller than wide shape, loss of echogenic hilum, abnormal vascularity, and microcalcification. The relationship between fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology findings and US findings on thyroid bed mass is unknown. We have retrospectively assessed the malignant thyroid bed mass after total thyroidectomy due to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 2,048 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy due to PTC. FNA was performed in 97 patients on the thyroid bed under US surveillance. The 97 suspicious thyroid bed masses were divided into two groups: metastatic thyroid bed group (n = 34) and nonmetastatic group (n = 63). The groups were evaluated according to various clinical, serologic, and US findings.
Results
Within a median 47.0 months of follow-up, the proportion of malignant thyroid bed mass was high in large tumor size (1.37 cm vs. 1.03 cm), isthmic position (10.3% vs. 3.9%), and previous N1a (55.9% vs. 34.9%). US findings revealed that the presence of microcalcification or macrocalcification (47.1% vs. 19.0%) and thyroid bed mass height (5.4 mm vs. 3.9 mm) were the only discriminable criteria for central compartment recurrence. But, degree of echogenicity, loss of hilum, and irregularity of margin failed to discriminate malignant thyroid bed mass.
Conclusion
US findings on malignant thyroid bed mass were different from previously reported general criteria on lateral metastatic nodes. Additional FNA cytology should be performed on patients, even low-risk patients, who present the above findings.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.97
PMCID: PMC3764368  PMID: 24020017
Ultrasonography; Fine-needle biopsy; Thyroidectomy; Papillary thyroid cancer
38.  Efficacy and safety of hyaluronate membrane in the rabbit cecum-abdominal wall adhesion model 
Purpose
Tissue adhesion is a well-known postsurgical phenomenon, causing pain, functional obstruction, and difficult reoperative surgery. To overcome these problems, various synthetic and natural polymer membranes have been developed as postoperative tissue adhesion barriers. However, limitation in their use has hindered its actual application. We prepared a hyaluronate membrane (HM) to evaluate its efficacy and safety as an adhesion barrier compared to a commercialized product (Interceed, Ethicon).
Methods
To evaluate the antiadhesion effect, a cecum-abdominal wall abrasion model was adopted in a rabbit. The denuded cecum was covered by Interceed or HM or neither and apposed to the abdominal wall (each, n = 10). Four weeks after surgery, the level of adhesion was graded. Acute and chronic toxicity of the three groups were also evaluated.
Results
Blood samples drawn to evaluate acute toxicity at postoperative day 3 and 7 showed no significant difference among the three groups. The grade and area of adhesion were significantly lower in the HM compared to those of the control and Interceed at four weeks after surgery. Histologic evaluations, which was carried out to estimate tissue reactions at the site of application, as well as to assess chronic toxicity for the major organs, were not significantly different in the three groups.
Conclusion
This study showed that the antiadhesion efficacy of HM was superior to commercialized antiadhesion membrane, Interceed. Low inflammatory response and nontoxicity were also demonstrated. From these results, we suggest that the HM is a good candidate as a tissue adhesion barrier.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.51
PMCID: PMC3729986  PMID: 23908960
Hyaluronic acid; Membranes; Tissue adhesions
39.  Intramural hematomas of the gastrointestinal system: a 5-year single center experience 
Purpose
Although spontaneous intramural hematomas of the gastrointestinal tract are very rare, they may be observed with the use of oral anticoagulant, though less frequently in cases of hematological malignancy and other bleeding disorders. Cases diagnosed as spontaneous intramural hematoma have been assessed in our clinic.
Methods
The cases, which were diagnosed as spontaneous intramural hematoma in the gastrointestinal tract (SIHGT) following anamnesis, physical examination, biochemical, radiological and endoscopic findings from July 2008 to July 2012, have been assessed retrospectively.
Results
Seven out of 13 cases were women and the mean age was 65.1 years (34 to 82 years). The most frequent complaint on admission was abdominal pain. The most frequent location of SIHGT was the ileum (n = 8). Oral anticoagulant use was the most common cause of etiology (n = 12). In 10 cases, International normalized ratio values were higher than treatment range (2 to 3, where mechanical valve replacement was 2.5 to 3.5) and mean value was 7.6 (1.70 to 23.13). While 12 cases were discharged without problems with medical treatment, one case with acute myeloid leukemia died in the intensive care unit following cerebrovascular attack.
Conclusion
Spontaneus bleeding and hematomas that may arise in connection with bleeding diathesis may be fatal in cases with long-term oral anticoagulant treatment and insufficient follow-up. In management of these cases, it may be necessary to arrange conservative follow up and/or initialize low molecular weight heparin, and administer vitamin K as well as replace blood products and coagulation factors when indicated.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.58
PMCID: PMC3729987  PMID: 23908961
Gastrointestinal tract; Hematoma; Anticoagulants; Hemorrhage; Tomography
40.  Comparision of the Limberg flap with the V-Y flap technique in the treatment of pilonidal disease 
Purpose
In this study, we investigated whether there is a factor that can aid determi nation of the preferred technique by comparing the early and late results of two different surgical techniques for the treatment of pilonidal sinus.
Methods
The medical records of 176 patients in whom the Limberg flap (LF) or V-Y flap techniques were applied for reconstruction after the excision were evaluated retrospectively.
Results
The development rates of postoperative hematoma, wound separation, wound infection, and seroma were 2.8%, 5.1%, 5.6%, and 6.3%, respectively, while total flap necrosis was not observed in any patient. Return to daily activities was achieved after a mean of 17.1 days (13 to 21 days) days in the LF group and 32.7 days (18 to 47 days) in the V-Y flap group. During the average follow-up of 65 months (36 to 110 months), nine patients (5.1%) developed recurrent disease. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to early surgical complications (P = 0.286) or disease recurrence (P = 0.094), whereas the resumption of daily activities was longer in patients with a V-Y flap (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
The early postoperative and long-term results of the LF and V-Y flap techniques for the treatment of pilonidal sinus were similar. Because the resumption of daily activities at work is achieved later in patients undergoing the V-Y flap compared with the LF technique, patients' employment (or position in working life) must be considered when determining the most appropriate surgical technique.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.63
PMCID: PMC3729988  PMID: 23908962
Hyaluronate membrane; Pilonidal sinus; Limberg flap; V-Y flap
41.  A comparison of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy and conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy: from the diagnosis to the hospital cost 
Purpose
Recently many cases of appendectomy have been conducted by single-incision laparoscopic technique. The aim of this study is to figure out the benefits of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (TULA) compared with conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy (CTLA).
Methods
From 2010 to 2012, 89 patients who were diagnosed as acute appendicitis and then underwent laparoscopic appendectomy a single surgeon were enrolled in this study and with their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Cases of complicated appendicitis confirmed on imaging tools and patients over 3 points on the American Society of Anesthesia score were excluded.
Results
Among the total of 89 patients, there were 51 patients in the TULA group and 38 patients in the CTLA group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) of postoperative day (POD) #1 was higher in the TULA group than in the CTLA group (P = 0.048). The operative time and other variables had no statistical significances (P > 0.05).
Conclusion
Despite the insufficiency of instruments and the difficulty of handling, TULA was not worse in operative time, VAS after POD #2, and the total operative cost than CTLA. And, if there are no disadvantages of TULA, TULA may be suitable in substituting three-port laparoscopic surgery and could be considered as one field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery with the improvement and development of the instruments and revised studies.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.68
PMCID: PMC3729989  PMID: 23908963
Laparoscopic appendectomy; Single incision
42.  Association between pregnancy and acute appendicitis in South Korea: a population-based, cross-sectional study 
Purpose
To estimate the prevalence of acute appendicitis and the relationship between pregnancy and acute appendicitis among South Korean women in 2009.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study over 1 year period using a national registry data. We analyzed a national patient sample (n = 1,116,040) from a database complied by the South Korean National Health Insurance in 2009.
Results
We identified 15,974 cases of acute appendicitis from 2009. The prevalence rate of acute appendicitis was 228 ± 2 per 100,000 persons. The prevalence in men was higher than in women. The peak prevalence of the disease in both genders occurred in patients aged 10 to 14 years. After that, prevalence declined with age. The prevalence of acute appendicitis in women aged 20 to 39 years was negatively associated with age and pregnancy (P < 0.001) but was not associated with socioeconomic status. The prevalence of perforated appendicitis cases by age is represented by a U-shaped curve. The prevalence was highest in people less than five years of age and in people older than 60 years.
Conclusion
We found that the prevalence of acute appendicitis decreased with increasing age after early teens, and that the prevalence of acute appendicitis in pregnant women was lower than in nonpregnant women.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.75
PMCID: PMC3729990  PMID: 23908964
Aging; Appendicitis; Pregnancy; Prevalence
43.  Is single port incisionless-intracorporeal conventional equipment-endoscopic surgery feasible in patients with retrocecal acute appendicitis? 
Purpose
Since laparoscopic appendectomy was first described, various modifications, such as single port incisionless-intracorporeal conventional equipment-endoscopic surgery (SPICES), have been described for reducing pain and improving cosmetic results. In the retrocecal and retrocolic positions, attachments to the lateral peritoneum and cecum may lead to difficulties during SPICES, which is performed with only one port. Here, we present the effects of variations in the position of the vermiform appendix in treating acute appendicitis with SPICES.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 52 children who underwent SPICES for acute appendicitis between March 2010 and November 2011 in our institution. One group (group A) consisted of 30 patients (mean age, 10.5 ± 2.5 years) with retrocecal appendix, while the other group (group B) included 22 patients (mean age, 10.9 ± 2.3 years) with the appendix lying free in the peritoneal cavity.
Results
There were no significant differences between groups in terms of patient age, gender, success rate of SPICES, mean operating time, mean follow-up period, overall complication rates or mean postoperative hospitalization period.
Conclusion
These results suggest that SPICES is a safe and feasible approach even in patients with retrocecal acute appendicitis.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.80
PMCID: PMC3729991  PMID: 23908965
Laparoscopy; Laparoscopic surgical procedure; Appendicitis; Appendectomy
44.  Minimally invasive surgery in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: outcome and selection criteria 
Purpose
The aim of the study was to determine clinical indications for performing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) with acceptable results by reviewing our experience in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) repair and comparing outcomes of MIS with open surgery.
Methods
Medical records of patients who underwent CDH repair were reviewed retrospectively between January 2008 and December 2012, and outcomes were compared between MIS and open repair of CDH.
Results
From 2008 to 2012, 35 patients were operated on for CDH. Among these patients, 20 patients underwent open surgery, and 15 patients underwent MIS. Patients with delayed presentations (60.0% [9/15] in the MIS group vs. 20.0% [4/20] in the open surgery group; P = 0.015) and small diaphragmatic defect less than 3 cm (80.0% [12/15] in the MIS group vs. 0.0% [0/20] in the open surgery group; P < 0.001) were more frequently in the MIS group than the open surgery group. All 10 patients who also had other anomalies underwent open surgery (P = 0.002). Moreover, nine patients who needed a patch for repair underwent open surgery (P = 0.003). Patients in the MIS group showed earlier enteral feeding and shorter hospital stays. There was no recurrence in either group.
Conclusion
CDH repair with MIS can be suggested as the treatment of choice for patients with a small sized diaphragmatic defect, in neonates with stable hemodynamics and without additional anomalies, or in infants with delayed presen tation of CDH, resulting in excellent outcomes.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.84
PMCID: PMC3729992  PMID: 23908966
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Minimally invasive surgical procedure; Open repair laparotomy; Outcome
45.  Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma with dense lipiodol uptake 
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the liver is a very rare lesion that has radiologic similarity with malignant liver tumor. Differential diagnosis of IMT from a malignant lesion of the liver is very important because surgical resection is not mandatory for IMT. Lipiodol computed tomography is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Herein, we describe a case of IMT that had dense lipiodol uptake in the tumor and mimicked HCC. To our knowledge, previously, only one case of IMT with dense lipiodol retention has been reported.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.89
PMCID: PMC3729993  PMID: 23908967
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Lipiodol CT; Liver
46.  Open surgical decompression of celiac axis compression by division of the median arcuate ligament 
Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare cause of abdominal pain which results from compression of the celiac artery (CA) or rarely, the superior mesenteric artery by a ligament formed by the right and left crura of the diaphragm. We report a case of open surgical decompression of the CA by division of the median arcuate ligament for a 37-year-old female patient who had suffered from chronic postprandial epigastric pain and severe weight loss. We described clinical features, characteristic angiographic findings and details of the surgical procedure for the patient with this rare vascular problem.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.93
PMCID: PMC3729994  PMID: 23908968
Median arcuate ligament; Celiac artery stenosis
47.  Experience of treatment of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis 
Purpose
To present the author's experience with various treatment methods of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) and to determine effective treatment methods of GLM.
Methods
Fifty patients who were diagnosed with GLM were classified into five groups based on the initial treatment methods they underwent, which included observation (n = 8), antibiotics (n = 3), steroid (n = 13), drainage (n = 14), and surgical excision (n = 12). The treatment processes in each group were examined and their clinical characteristics, treatment processes, and results were analyzed respectively.
Results
Success rates with each initial treatment were observation, 87.5%; antibiotics, 33.3%; steroids, 30.8%; drainage, 28.6%; and surgical excision, 91.7%. In most cases of observation, the lesions were small and the symptoms were mild. A total of 23 patients underwent surgical excision during treatment. Surgical excision showed particularly fast recovery, high success rate (90.3%) and low recurrence rate (8.7%).
Conclusion
The clinical course of GLM is complex and the outcome of each treatment type are variable. Surgery may play an important role when a lesion is determined to be mass-forming or appears localized as an abscess pocket during breast examination or imaging study.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.1.1
PMCID: PMC3699681  PMID: 23833753
Breast; Granulomatous mastitis; Treatment; Excision
48.  Clinical implications of preoperative thyrotropin serum concentrations in patients who underwent thyroidectomy for nonfunctioning nodule(s) 
Purpose
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement is the most sensitive screening test for thyroid dysfunction. TSH is a well-known thyroid growth factor but its pathogenic role in thyroid oncogenesis remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between clinicopathologic characteristics of nonfunctioning thyroid nodules and preoperative TSH serum concentrations.
Methods
Serum TSH concentrations can be affected by many factors. After exclusion of these confounding factors, a total of 126 patients who underwent thyroidectomy from Januray 2009 to December 2010 were included in this study. Average age was 45.4 ± 10.6 years and male:female ratio was 1:2.9. There were 11 patients with benign nodules, 34 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) of less than 5 mm in maximal diameter, 66 patients with PTMCs of more than 5 mm but not more than 10 mm in maximal diameter, and 15 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) of more than 10 mm in maximal diameter.
Results
TNM stages of PTCs correlated with higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations. There were trends of higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations in patients who had extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.059) and advanced N stages (P = 0.120) but did not reach statistical significance. Patients' age, sex, and tumor volume did not seem to affect preoperative TSH serum concentrations significantly.
Conclusion
In patients who have PTCs without clinical, immunological, or ultrasonographic evidence of thyroiditis, higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations within the normal range might suggest advanced TNM stages.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.1.15
PMCID: PMC3699682  PMID: 23833755
Thyroid stimulating hormone; Thyroid nodule; Papillary thyroid carcinoma; TNM stage
49.  Papillary thyroid carcinoma with thyroiditis: lymph node metastasis, complications 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis, and to determine the rate of its complications for it.
Methods
A retrospective review of 1,247 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent primary thyroidectomy was performed. Among them, 316 patients had thyroiditis (group I) while 931 patients had no thyroiditis (group II), as reflected in the final pathologic reports. The two groups' clinicopathologic results and rate of complications were compared.
Results
Female gender, preoperative hypothyroidism, total thyroidectomy, no extrathyroid extension, no lymphovascular invasion, and no perineural invasion were associated with group I. More central lymph nodes were removed in group I than in group II, but there were fewer central lymph nodes with metastasis in group I than in group II. For the lateral lymph nodes, the two groups had the same numbers of removed nodes and nodes with metastatic tumor. Multivariate analysis revealed female predominance, more cases of preoperative hypothyroidism, more dissected lymph nodes, and fewer lymph nodes with metastasis in group I. Among the patients who underwent lobectomy, postoperative hypothyroidism occurred more in group I than in group II (P < 0.001). There was no difference in postoperative complications between the two groups.
Conclusion
Papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis showed less aggressive features. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred more in the patients with thyroiditis.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.1.20
PMCID: PMC3699683  PMID: 23833756
Thyroiditis; Papillary thyroid cancer; Hypothyroidism
50.  Achievement of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative: recommended serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone values with parathyroidectomy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism 
Purpose
The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI) 2003 has established guidelines for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease - minerals and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). This study evaluated parathyroidectomy in SHPT patients for the achievement of the NKF-K/DOQI-recommended values of serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Methods
Between January 2005 and December 2010, parathyroidectomy was performed as recommended by the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines in 81 patients with SHPT and CKD-MBD. Serum PTH, calcium, and phosphate levels were measured prior to and 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after parathyroidectomy.
Results
Calcium, phosphate, and PTH levels dropped shortly after parathyroidectomy; however, a slight increase showed in the long term. Calcium levels increased for up to 60 months. Phosphate and PTH levels increased for up to 36 months but tended to decrease slightly at 60 months. The mean values were within the target ranges, except for PTH at 36 months. The target parameters of serum phosphate (42.9-61.1% of patients) and serum calcium (a peak of 61.1% of patients at 36 months, but only 28.6% at 60 months) were achieved the most. Less than 34% of patients achieved the recommended range for PTH.
Conclusion
Parathyroidectomy was not an optimal procedure for achieving all the biochemical parameters recommended by the NKF-K/DOQI. Although it was helpful in attaining the recommended values for serum calcium and phosphate in SHPT patients resistant to medical therapy, the PTH levels did not fall within the recommended range.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.1.25
PMCID: PMC3699684  PMID: 23833757
Parathyroidectomy; Parathyroid hormone; Calcium; Phosphates

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