Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the liver is a very rare lesion that has radiologic similarity with malignant liver tumor. Differential diagnosis of IMT from a malignant lesion of the liver is very important because surgical resection is not mandatory for IMT. Lipiodol computed tomography is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Herein, we describe a case of IMT that had dense lipiodol uptake in the tumor and mimicked HCC. To our knowledge, previously, only one case of IMT with dense lipiodol retention has been reported.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Lipiodol CT; Liver
Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare cause of abdominal pain which results from compression of the celiac artery (CA) or rarely, the superior mesenteric artery by a ligament formed by the right and left crura of the diaphragm. We report a case of open surgical decompression of the CA by division of the median arcuate ligament for a 37-year-old female patient who had suffered from chronic postprandial epigastric pain and severe weight loss. We described clinical features, characteristic angiographic findings and details of the surgical procedure for the patient with this rare vascular problem.
Median arcuate ligament; Celiac artery stenosis
To present the author's experience with various treatment methods of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) and to determine effective treatment methods of GLM.
Fifty patients who were diagnosed with GLM were classified into five groups based on the initial treatment methods they underwent, which included observation (n = 8), antibiotics (n = 3), steroid (n = 13), drainage (n = 14), and surgical excision (n = 12). The treatment processes in each group were examined and their clinical characteristics, treatment processes, and results were analyzed respectively.
Success rates with each initial treatment were observation, 87.5%; antibiotics, 33.3%; steroids, 30.8%; drainage, 28.6%; and surgical excision, 91.7%. In most cases of observation, the lesions were small and the symptoms were mild. A total of 23 patients underwent surgical excision during treatment. Surgical excision showed particularly fast recovery, high success rate (90.3%) and low recurrence rate (8.7%).
The clinical course of GLM is complex and the outcome of each treatment type are variable. Surgery may play an important role when a lesion is determined to be mass-forming or appears localized as an abscess pocket during breast examination or imaging study.
Breast; Granulomatous mastitis; Treatment; Excision
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement is the most sensitive screening test for thyroid dysfunction. TSH is a well-known thyroid growth factor but its pathogenic role in thyroid oncogenesis remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between clinicopathologic characteristics of nonfunctioning thyroid nodules and preoperative TSH serum concentrations.
Serum TSH concentrations can be affected by many factors. After exclusion of these confounding factors, a total of 126 patients who underwent thyroidectomy from Januray 2009 to December 2010 were included in this study. Average age was 45.4 ± 10.6 years and male:female ratio was 1:2.9. There were 11 patients with benign nodules, 34 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) of less than 5 mm in maximal diameter, 66 patients with PTMCs of more than 5 mm but not more than 10 mm in maximal diameter, and 15 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) of more than 10 mm in maximal diameter.
TNM stages of PTCs correlated with higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations. There were trends of higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations in patients who had extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.059) and advanced N stages (P = 0.120) but did not reach statistical significance. Patients' age, sex, and tumor volume did not seem to affect preoperative TSH serum concentrations significantly.
In patients who have PTCs without clinical, immunological, or ultrasonographic evidence of thyroiditis, higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations within the normal range might suggest advanced TNM stages.
Thyroid stimulating hormone; Thyroid nodule; Papillary thyroid carcinoma; TNM stage
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis, and to determine the rate of its complications for it.
A retrospective review of 1,247 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent primary thyroidectomy was performed. Among them, 316 patients had thyroiditis (group I) while 931 patients had no thyroiditis (group II), as reflected in the final pathologic reports. The two groups' clinicopathologic results and rate of complications were compared.
Female gender, preoperative hypothyroidism, total thyroidectomy, no extrathyroid extension, no lymphovascular invasion, and no perineural invasion were associated with group I. More central lymph nodes were removed in group I than in group II, but there were fewer central lymph nodes with metastasis in group I than in group II. For the lateral lymph nodes, the two groups had the same numbers of removed nodes and nodes with metastatic tumor. Multivariate analysis revealed female predominance, more cases of preoperative hypothyroidism, more dissected lymph nodes, and fewer lymph nodes with metastasis in group I. Among the patients who underwent lobectomy, postoperative hypothyroidism occurred more in group I than in group II (P < 0.001). There was no difference in postoperative complications between the two groups.
Papillary thyroid cancer with thyroiditis showed less aggressive features. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred more in the patients with thyroiditis.
Thyroiditis; Papillary thyroid cancer; Hypothyroidism
The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI) 2003 has established guidelines for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease - minerals and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). This study evaluated parathyroidectomy in SHPT patients for the achievement of the NKF-K/DOQI-recommended values of serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Between January 2005 and December 2010, parathyroidectomy was performed as recommended by the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines in 81 patients with SHPT and CKD-MBD. Serum PTH, calcium, and phosphate levels were measured prior to and 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after parathyroidectomy.
Calcium, phosphate, and PTH levels dropped shortly after parathyroidectomy; however, a slight increase showed in the long term. Calcium levels increased for up to 60 months. Phosphate and PTH levels increased for up to 36 months but tended to decrease slightly at 60 months. The mean values were within the target ranges, except for PTH at 36 months. The target parameters of serum phosphate (42.9-61.1% of patients) and serum calcium (a peak of 61.1% of patients at 36 months, but only 28.6% at 60 months) were achieved the most. Less than 34% of patients achieved the recommended range for PTH.
Parathyroidectomy was not an optimal procedure for achieving all the biochemical parameters recommended by the NKF-K/DOQI. Although it was helpful in attaining the recommended values for serum calcium and phosphate in SHPT patients resistant to medical therapy, the PTH levels did not fall within the recommended range.
Parathyroidectomy; Parathyroid hormone; Calcium; Phosphates
This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a fat clearing technique for accurate nodal staging of rectal cancer patients after preoperative chemoradiotherapy
A total of 19 patients with rectal cancer within 10 cm from anal verge were divided into two groups: non-CRT group (n = 10) and CRT group (n = 9). For pathologic assessment, lymph node (LN) harvest was performed using conventional manual dissection followed by a fat clearing technique.
A median of 3.0 additional LNs in non-CRT group and 3.8 LNs in CRT group were identified by the fat clearing technique. When subanalysis was performed in patients with fewer than 12 retrieved LNs, a median of 4.0 extra LNs in non-CRT group and 3.5 extra LNs in CRT group were identified after the fat clearing technique. None of additionally identified nodes were metastatic. In both groups, the median size of retrieved LNs following the fat clearing technique was smaller than that obtained by manual dissection (2.0 mm vs. 3.0 mm, P < 0.001).
The fat clearing technique allowed detection of additional LNs that were missed by the manual method, but these detected LNs were not proven to be metastatic.
Fat clearing technique; Preoperative chemoradiotherapy; Rectal neoplasms
It is unknown whether patients with advanced rectal cancer develop severe constipation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether constipation severity is associated with pathologic progression of rectal cancer.
We analyzed 472 patients with rectal cancer who underwent elective surgical resection between January 2005 and December 2010. Constipation severity was prospectively evaluated in 407 patients (86.2%) using the Cleveland Clinic Constipation Score System. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify clinicopathologic variables associated with constipation. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the prognostic value of constipation severity on disease-free and overall survival.
Multivariable analysis showed that sex (regression coefficient [B] = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 2.60; P < 0.001), body mass index (B = -0.95; 95% CI, -1.83 to -0.64; P = 0.036), tumor size (B = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.20 to 1.88; P = 0.016), T stage (B = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.27; P = 0.005), and distant metastasis (B = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.03 to 2.30; P = 0.045) were associated with constipation severity. Severe constipation (score ≥ 8) was independently associated with 3-year disease-free survival (vs. scores of 0-3; hazard ratio [HR], 2.39; 95% CI, 1.15 to 4.98; P = 0.020) and 5-year overall survival (HR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.23 to 4.30; P = 0.009) in multivariable analysis.
Our results suggest that preoperative constipation severity is associated with advanced pathologic stage and poor oncologic outcomes in patients with rectal cancer.
Rectal neoplasms; Constipation; Questionnaire
A 56-year-old male with primary leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid is presented. The paucity of diagnostic maneuvers, including tumor markers, fine needle aspiration, and frozen section biopsy, are stressed, in addition to the fulminate course of the disease.
Acute gastric volvulus requires emergency surgery, and a laparoscopic approach for both acute and chronic gastric volvulus was reported recently to give good results. The case of a 50-year-old patient with acute primary gastric volvulus who was treated by laparoscopic reduction and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is described here. This approach seems to be feasible and safe for not only chronic gastric volvulus, but also acute gastric volvulus.
Stomach volvulus; Intestinal volvulus; Laparoscopy; Endoscopy; Gastrostomy
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced breast cancer and is increasingly considered for patients with operable disease. Recently, as many clinical trials have demonstrated favorable outcomes of anthracycline-taxane based regimen, this approach has been widely used in the neoadjuvant setting.
We compared women who received adriamycine and docetaxel (AD) with adriamycin, cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel (AC-T) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AD group was scheduled for six cycles of AD (50 mg/m2 and 75 mg/m2, respectively) at a 3-week interval. The AC-T group was scheduled for four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2, respectively) followed by four cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) at a 3-week interval.
The responses of chemotherapy were equivalent (overall response rate [AD, 75.7% vs. AC-T, 80.9%; P = 0.566], pathologic complete response [pCR] rate [breast and axilla: AD, 10.8% vs. AC-T, 12.8%; P = 1.000; breast only: AD, 18.9% vs. AC-T, 14.9%, P = 0.623], breast conserving surgery rate [P = 0.487], and breast conserving surgery conversion rate [P = 0.562]). The pCR rate in the breast was higher in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive cases (HER2 positive 33.3% vs. negative 10%, P = 0.002). Although nonhematologic toxicities were comparable, hematologic toxicities were more severe in the AD group. Most women in the AD group suffered from grade 3/4 neutropenia (P < 0.001) and neutropenic fever (P < 0.001).
Tumor responses were not different in various variables between the two groups. However, AC-T was a more tolerable regimen than AD in patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Breast neoplasms; Neoadjuvant therapy
The empirical use of a chemotherapy regimen shows different results in individual breast cancer patient treatment. Recent studies showed the effectiveness of the adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA). However, little is known about the correlation between chemosensitivity and breast cancer molecular subtypes. Therefore, we investigated whether the result of ATP-CRA is associated with a molecular subtype of breast cancer.
Two hundred eighty-seven patients diagnosed with breast cancer and receiving ATP-CRA at Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University between September 2007 and December 2010 were enrolled in this study. Hormone receptor status, HER2/neu expression, and results of chemosensitivity tests of the patients was analyzed.
In all of four subtypes, the combination of two agents showed significant higher mean cell death rate than a single agent. Within the breast cancer cell lines in this study, the range of chemosensitivity response was very wide and varied for each patient. For this reason, the molecular subtype of breast cancer is inconclusive in choosing an effective chemotherapeutic agent and in vitro chemosensitivity test, prior to therapy, could be a useful method for planning chemotherapy for each patient.
Chemosensitivity response to anticancer agents was found to vary depending on the individual breast cancer patients. The molecular subtype of breast cancer is inconclusive to choose the effective chemotherapeutic agent and the in vitro chemosensitivity test, prior to therapy, could be more useful for planning chemotherapy for each patient.
Adjuvant chemotherapy; Breast neoplasms; Adenosine triphosphate
To evaluate the antiadhesive effects and safety of an oxidized regenerated cellulose (Interceed) after thyroidectomy.
Seventy-six thyroidectomized patients were prospectively randomized into two groups with regard to the use of Interceed. We evaluated each group for their adhesive symptoms using four subjective and four objective items at the 2nd week, 3rd and 6th month after thyroidectomy. All patients were examined for vocal cord motility by indirect laryngoscope at each period.
Total adhesion scores at each postoperative follow-up period decreased with time, but were not significantly different in each group. The median score for swallowing discomfort for liquid was significantly lower in the Interceed group than in the control group 2 weeks after surgery. In addition, the severity of skin adhesion to the trachea was reduced in the Interceed group compared with the control group 6 months after surgery. During the study, there were no adverse effects or significant differences in postoperative complications between the groups.
Interceed appeared to be safe and effective in improving neck discomfort at early postoperative periods and preventing skin adhesion to the trachea 6 months after thyroidectomy.
Adhesion; Neck discomfort; Oxidized regenerated cellulose; Thyroidectomy
There are fewer patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Korea compared with Western countries. The incidence of GERD has increased in recent years however, concerning many physicians. Here, we report our early experiences of using a recently introduced method of laparoscopic antireflux surgery for the treatment of GERD in Korean patients.
Fifteen patients with GERD were treated using antireflux surgery between May 2009 and February 2012 at the University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with 360° wrapping was performed on all patients.
Eleven male and four female patients were evaluated and treated with an average age of 58.1 ± 14.1 years. The average surgical time was 118.9 ± 45.1 minutes, and no complications presented during surgery. After surgery, the reflux symptoms of each patient were resolved; only two patients developed transient dysphagia, which resolved within one month. One patient developed a 6-cm hiatal hernia that had to be repaired and reinforced using mesh.
The use of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of GERD is safe and feasible. It is also an efficacious method for controlling the symptoms of GERD in Korean patients. However, the use of this surgery still needs to be standardized (e.g., type of surgery, bougienage size, wrap length) and the long-term outcomes need to be evaluated.
Gastroesophageal reflux; Antireflux surgery; Nissen fundoplication; Laparoscopy
The optimal time between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery for rectal cancer has been debated. This study evaluated the influence of this interval on oncological outcomes.
We compared postoperative complications, pathological downstaging, disease recurrence, and survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection <8 weeks (group A, n = 105) to those who had surgery ≥8 weeks (group B, n = 48) after neoadjuvant CRT.
Of 153 patients, 117 (76.5%) were male and 36 (23.5%) were female. Mean age was 57.8 years (range, 28 to 79 years). There was no difference in the rate of sphincter preserving surgery between the two groups (group A, 82.7% vs. group B, 77.6%; P = 0.509). The longer interval group had decreased postoperative complications, although statistical significance was not reached (group A, 28.8% vs. group B, 14.3%; P = 0.068). A total of 111 (group A, 75 [71.4%] and group B, 36 [75%]) patients were downstaged and 26 (group A, 17 [16.2%] and group B, 9 [18%]) achieved pathological complete response (pCR). There was no significant difference in the pCR rate (P = 0.817). The longer interval group experienced significant improvement in the nodal (N) downstaging rate (group A, 46.7% vs. group B, 66.7%; P = 0.024). The local recurrence (P = 0.279), distant recurrence (P = 0.427), disease-free survival (P = 0.967), and overall survival (P = 0.825) rates were not significantly different.
It is worth delaying surgical resection for 8 weeks or more after completion of CRT as it is safe and is associated with higher nodal downstaging rates.
Rectal neoplasm; Neoadjuvant therapy; Chemoradiotherapy; Preoperative period; Surgery
Tumor invasion to the portal vein (PV) or superior mesenteric vein (SMV) can be encountered during the surgery for pancreatic cancer. Venous reconstruction is required, but the optimal surgical methods and conduits remain in controversies.
From January 2007 to July 2012, 16 venous reconstructions were performed during surgery for pancreatic cancer in 14 patients. We analyzed the methods, conduits, graft patency, and patient survival.
The involved veins were 14 SMVs and 2 PVs. The operative methods included resection and end-to-end anastomosis in 7 patients, wedge resection with venoplasty in 2 patients, bovine patch repair in 3 patients, and interposition graft with bovine patch in 1 patient. In one patient with a failed interposition graft with great saphenous vein (GSV), the SMV was reconstructed with a prosthetic interposition graft, which was revised with a spiral graft of GSV. Vascular morbidity occurred in 4 cases; occlusion of an interposition graft with GSV or polytetrafluoroethylene, segmental thrombosis and stenosis of the SMV after end-to-end anastomosis. Patency was maintained in patients with bovine patch angioplasty and spiral vein grafts. With mean follow-up of 9.8 months, the 6- and 12-month death-censored graft survival rates were both 81.3%.
Many of the involved vein segments were repaired primarily. When tension-free anastomosis is impossible, the spiral grafts with GSV or bovine patch grafts are good options to overcome the size mismatch between autologous vein graft and portomesenteric veins. Further follow-up of these patients is needed to demonstrate long-term patency.
Portal vein; Superior mesenteric vein; Reconstruction; Pancreaticoduodenectomy
The purpose of this study is to review the roll changes of surgical treatment for peripheral artery disease in endovascular era.
One hundred and twelve surgically treated cases of peripheral artery disease at a single institution during the period from 2006 to 2011 were studied retrospectively. The cases were divided into two groups of different time periods, one before 2009 (surgical period group) and the other from 2009 onward (endovascular period group). We analyzed the type and location of surgery as well as clinical characteristics of patients and treatment results.
Fifty-three cases were for the surgical period group and 59 cases for the endovascular group. No difference in the demographic characteristics and the distribution of major atherosclerosis risk factors was found between the two groups. Additionally, the technical and functional success rate was similar in both groups. However, it is found that there were more acute cases in the endovascular period group than in the surgical period group. The number of cases in need of suprainguinal or below knee exposure was similar in both groups. In hybrid cases, suprainguinal or below knee exposures were more frequently needed during the former period than the latter period.
The role of surgical treatment is currently in the process of changing. Surgical treatment seems to be a complementary alternative to endovascular treatment for chronic limb ischemia. However, it still seems to play a major role for acute limb ischemia.
Peripheral arterial disease; Hybrid; Thrombectomy; Embolectomy
Single-site laparoscopic surgery has become increasingly common. We herein report an easy and low-cost thoracic trocar technique (TTT) for these types of procedures and recommend the simpler name "transumbilical scarless surgery" (TUSS) to minimize confusion in nomenclature.
We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent TUSS by TTT using a thoracic trocar and surgical glove in our hospital between November 2011 and November 2012. Operating time, postoperative stay, and complications were detailed.
A total of 101 TUSS by TTT were successfully performed, comprising appendectomy (n = 63), ovarian cyst excision (n = 7), splenectomy (n = 5), nephroureterectomy (n = 5), orchidopexy (n = 4), pyeloplasty (n = 3), nephrolithotomy (n = 2), orchiectomy (n = 2), varicocelectomy (n = 2), lymphangioma excision (n = 2), ureterectomy (n = 1), Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia repair (n = 1), ovarian detorsion (n = 1), antegrade continence enema (n = 1), intestinal resection anastomosis (n = 1), and intestinal duplication excision (n = 1). Kirschner wires were used for some organ traction. Nine patients required an additional port, but no major complications occurred. The postoperative stay (mean ± standard deviation) was 3.2 ± 1.4 days, and operating time was 58.9 ± 38.3 minutes.
We recommend the simpler name of TUSS to minimize confusion in nomenclature for all transumbilical single-incision laparoendoscopic surgeries. TTT is an easy and low-cost TUSS technique.
Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Laparoscopy; Appendectomy
Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is a true congenital diverticulum that is remnant by incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. It is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, with an estimated prevalence of 2% (0.3% to 3% in autopsy studies). About 90% of MD occurs within 100 cm of the ileocecal valve. A primary malignant tumor arising within an MD is extremely uncommon. Malignancies are reported to account for only 0.5% to 3.2% of the complications. Carcinoids are the most common malignant tumors occurring in MD. Adenocarcinomas are extremely uncommon and very poor prognosis has been reported. We report a case of radiographically diagnosed chronic inflammatory mass caused by adenocarcinoma arising from MD in the ileum with malrotation of the midgut incidentally discovered at exploration.
Meckel diverticulum; Adenocarcinoma; Intestinal malrotation
A parastomal hernia is the most common surgical complication following stoma formation. As the field of laparoscopic surgery advances, different laparoscopic approaches to repair of parastomal hernias have been developed. Recently, the Sugarbaker technique has been reported to have lower recurrence rates compared to keyhole techniques. As far as we know, the Sugarbaker technique has not yet been performed in Korea. We herein present a case report of perhaps the first laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair with a modified Sugarbaker technique to be successfully carried out in Korea. A 79-year-old woman, who underwent an abdominoperineal resection for an adenocarcinoma of the rectum 9 years ago, presented with a large parastomal and incisional hernias, and was treated with a laparoscopic repair with a modified Sugarbaker technique. Six months after surgery, follow-up with the patient has shown no evidence of recurrence.
Laparoscopy; Abdominal hernia; Surgical stomas; Surgical procedures; Minimally invasive
Regional lymph node (LN) metastases are detected in 57-85% of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and are associated with increased tumor recurrence. However, the management of lymphatic disease in patients with PTC has been ongoing source of debate. We have prospectively assessed the usefulness and accuracy of sentinel LN (SLN) biopsy for the detection of LN metastases in patients with PTC on preoperative imaging using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and 99mTc phytate.
We prospectively assessed 39 patients with PTC who had risk factors for recurrence or with the necessity of intraoperative LN sampling for suspicious LN metastases on preoperative imaging from August 2010 to March 2011. The patients underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SPETC/CT and intraoperative SLN biopsy (SLNB).
99mTc lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT localized SLN in 38 patients (97.4%), with the gamma probe identifying 2.15 mean SLNs in the lateral neck of the 39 patients. Skip metastasis was found in one patient, and lateral compartment LN metastasis in 17 (43.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SLNB for lateral compartment LN metastasis were 88.2%, 100%, and 94.8%, respectively. SLNB was more accurate and useful for lateral than for central compartment LN metastasis.
SPECT/CT improved SLN detection and anatomical localization compared with lymphoscintigraphy. SLNB in patients with risk factors for recurrence or the necessity of intraoperative LN sampling for suspected LN metastases on preoperative imaging was accurate in detecting LN metastases and may help in deciding whether to perform lateral compartment dissection in patients with PTC.
Papillary thyroid cancer; Sentinel lymph node biopsy; Single photon emission computed tomography; X-ray computed tomography
Primary mammalian hepatocytes largely retain their liver-specific functions when they are freshly derived from donors. However, long-term cultures of functional hepatocytes are difficult to establish. To increase the longevity and maintain the differentiated functions of hepatocytes in primary culture, cells can be cultured in a sandwich configuration of collagen. In such a configuration, hepatocytes can be cultured for longer periods compared with cultures on single layers of collagen. However, research regarding mouse hepatocytes in sandwich culture is lacking.
Primary mouse hepatocytes were sandwiched between two layers of collagen to maintain the stability of their liver-specific functions. After gelation, 2 mL of hepatocyte culture medium was applied.
After 24 hours, 5, 10 days of culture, the collagen gel sandwich maintained the cellular border and numbers of bile canaliculi more efficiently than a single collagen coating in both high and low density culture dishes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A), alphafetoprotein, albumin, tryptophan oxygenase (TO), the tyrosine aminotransferase gene, glucose-6-phosphatase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase for mouse primary hepatocytes cultured on collagen coated dishes and collagen gels showed superior hepatocyte-related gene expression in cells grown using the collagen gel sandwich culture system. AAT, HNF4A, albumin, TO were found to be expressed in mouse hepatocytes cultured on collagen gels for 5 and 10 days. In contrast, mouse hepatocytes grown on collagen-coated dishes did not express these genes after 5 and 10 days of culture.
The collagen gel sandwich method is suitable for primary culture system of adult mouse hepatocytes.
Collagen; Culture; Hepatocyte
Free tumor cells in peritoneal fluid in patients with pancreatic cancer may have prognostic significance but there are few reports on methods for the effective detection of free tumor cells. The aims of this study were to identify free cancer cells in peritoneal fluid with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique and to investigate its prognostic significance.
Twenty-eight patients with resectable pancreatic cancer who underwent surgical resection were included. Peritoneal washing and peritoneal drainage fluid were examined by FISH for p53 deletion.
Among the study subjects, the R0 resection rate was 75%. None of the patients had positive cytology with Papanicolaou's method. p53 deletion was detected in 9 peritoneal washings (32.1%) and in 5 peritoneal drainage fluids (17.9%). After a median of 18 months of follow-up, 25 patients (89.3%) experienced recurrence and 14 patients (50.0%) had peritoneal seeding. Patients with p53 deletion detected in the peritoneal drainage fluid had positive radial margin (60.0% vs. 17.4%, P = 0.046) more frequently and a lower peritoneal metastasis free survival (median, 11.1 months vs. 30.3 months; P = 0.030). Curative resection (P < 0.001) and p53 deletion in peritoneal drainage fluid (P = 0.030) were independent risk factors of peritoneal metastasis free survival after multivariate analysis.
FISH technique detects free cancer cells with higher sensitivity compared to Papanicolaou's method. p53 deletion detected in peritoneal drainage fluid is correlated with positive radial resection margin and results in early peritoneal seeding. Patients with p53 deletion in peritoneal drainage fluid need more aggressive adjuvant treatment.
Pancreatic neoplsms; Peritoneal fluid; Fluorescent in situ hybridization; p53 gene
Few studies have examined whether bioengineering can improve fecal incontinence. This study designed to determine whether injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts improves sphincter function in a dog model of fecal incontinence.
The anal sphincter of dogs was injured and the dogs were observed without and with (n = 5) the injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts into the site of injury. Autologous myoblasts purified from the gastrocnemius muscles were transferred to the beads. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of the pudendal nerve, anal sphincter pressure, and histopathology were determined 3 months after treatment.
The amplitudes of the CMAP in the injured sphincter were significantly lower than those measured before injury (1.22 mV vs. 3.00 mV, P = 0.04). The amplitudes were not different between dogs with and without the injection of autologous myoblast beads (P = 0.49). Resting and squeezing pressures were higher in dogs treated with autologous myoblast beads (2.00 mmHg vs. 1.80 mmHg; 6.13 mmHg vs. 4.02 mmHg), although these differences were not significant in analyses of covariance adjusted for baseline values. The injection site was stained for smooth muscle actin, but showed evidence of foreign body inflammatory reactions.
This was the first study to examine whether bioengineering could improve fecal incontinence. Although the results did not show definite evidence that injection of autologous myoblast beads improves sphincter function, we found that the dog model was suitable and reliable for studying the effects of a potential treatment modality for fecal incontinence.
Fecal incontinence; Bioengineering; Dogs; Myoblasts