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26.  Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):12-17.
Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.
PMCID: PMC3957567  PMID: 24643451
nematode management; precision agriculture; site-specific techniques; spatial autocorrelation; spatial econometrics; yield response function
27.  Biocontrol Potential of Steinernema thermophilum and Its Symbiont Xenorhabdus indica Against Lepidopteran Pests: Virulence to Egg and Larval Stages 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):18-26.
Under laboratory conditions, the biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum was tested against eggs and larval stages of two important lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (polyphagous pests), as well as Galleria mellonella (used as a model host). In terms of host susceptibility of lepidopteran larvae to S. thermophilum, based on the LC50 36 hr after treatment, G. mellonella (LC50 = 16.28 IJ/larva) was found to be more susceptible than S. litura (LC50 = 85 IJ/larva), whereas neither host was found to be significantly different from H. armigera (LC50 = 54.68 IJ/larva). In addition to virulence to the larval stages, ovicidal activity up to 84% was observed at 200 IJ/50 and 100 eggs of H. armigera and S. litura, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first report of entomopathogenic nematode pathogenicity to lepidopteran eggs. Production of infective juvenile (IJ) nematodes/insect larva was also measured and found to be positively correlated with rate of IJ for H. armigera (r = 0.990), S. litura (r = 0.892), as well as G. mellonella (r = 0.834). Both Phase I and Phase II of symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus indica were tested separately against neonates of H. armigera and S. litura by feeding assays and found to be virulent to the target pests; phase variation did not affect the level of virulence. Thus S. thermophilum as well as the nematode’s symbiotic bacteria applied separately have the potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for key lepidopteran pests.
PMCID: PMC3957568  PMID: 24643472
entomopathogenic nematode; Helicoverpa armigera; ovicidal activity; Phase I and Phase II virulence; Spodoptera litura
28.  Freezing and Desiccation Tolerance in Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Diversity and Correlation of Traits 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):27-34.
The ability of entomopathogenic nematodes to tolerate environmental stress such as desiccating or freezing conditions, can contribute significantly to biocontrol efficacy. Thus, in selecting which nematode to use in a particular biocontrol program, it is important to be able to predict which strain or species to use in target areas where environmental stress is expected. Our objectives were to (i) compare inter- and intraspecific variation in freeze and desiccation tolerance among a broad array of entomopathogenic nematodes, and (ii) determine if freeze and desiccation tolerance are correlated. In laboratory studies we compared nematodes at two levels of relative humidity (RH) (97% and 85%) and exposure periods (24 and 48 h), and nematodes were exposed to freezing temperatures (-2°C) for 6 or 24 h. To assess interspecific variation, we compared ten species including seven that are of current or recent commercial interest: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (VS), H. floridensis, H. georgiana, (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All), S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (VS), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). To assess intraspecific variation we compared five strains of H. bacteriophora (Baine, Fl1-1, Hb, Oswego, and VS) and four strains of S. carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal), and S. riobrave (355, 38b, 7-12, and TP). S. carpocapsae exhibited the highest level of desiccation tolerance among species followed by S. feltiae and S. rarum; the heterorhabditid species exhibited the least desiccation tolerance and S. riobrave and S. glaseri were intermediate. No intraspecific variation was observed in desiccation tolerance; S. carpocapsae strains showed higher tolerance than all H. bacteriophora or S. riobrave strains yet there was no difference detected within species. In interspecies comparisons, poor freeze tolerance was observed in H. indica, and S. glaseri, S. rarum, and S. riobrave whereas H. georgiana and S. feltiae exhibited the highest freeze tolerance, particularly in the 24-h exposure period. Unlike desiccation tolerance, substantial intraspecies variation in freeze tolerance was observed among H. bacteriophora and S. riobrave strains, yet within species variation was not detected among S. carpocapsae strains. Correlation analysis did not detect a relationship between freezing and desiccation tolerance.
PMCID: PMC3957569  PMID: 24643501
biocontrol; desiccation; entomopathogenic nematode; freezing; Heterorhabditis; Steinernema; tolerance
29.  Phylogenetic Status and Morphological Characters of Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae) 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):44-49.
Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae Kanzaki and Futai was re-isolated from its type host (carrier), the cerambycid beetle Anoplophora malasiaca, collected in an experimental field of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. The nematode was cultured on nematode growth medium plates seeded with Escherichia coli OP50, and its morphological characters and molecular profile were examined to modernize the description. Scanning electron microscopic and light microscopy revealed the presence of four stomatal flaps, a very long gymnostom, a single ventral papilla in males, and a horizontal slit-like vulval opening in females. The positions of the deirids, hemizonids, phasmids, and rectal glands are additionally described, and the absence of a male bursa was confirmed. Phylogenetically, the genus forms a well-supported clade in the family Diplogastridae. Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae is a member of the monophyletic Rhabditolaimus clade and is closely related to R. leuckarti and several undescribed species.
PMCID: PMC3957571  PMID: 24644370
molecular profiles; morphology; re-isolation; Rhabditolaimus anoplophorae; taxonomy
30.  Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):50-59.
A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties.
PMCID: PMC3957572  PMID: 24644371
dimorphism; evolution; morphology; new genus; new species; novelty; stoma; taxonomy; phylogeny
31.  Two New and Two Recharacterized Species from a Radiation of Pristionchus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) in Europe 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):60-74.
Two new species of Pristionchus, P. lucani n. sp. and P. bulgaricus n. sp., are described from France and Bulgaria, respectively. Additionally, new morphological and morphometric data are provided for two previously described species from Europe, P. brevicauda (Kotlán, 1928) Paramonov, 1952 and P. clavus (von Linstow, 1901) Sudhaus and Fürst von Lieven, 2003. A phylogeny including these four species was inferred from a dataset including 26 ribosomal protein-coding genes, sequences of which are original for P. bulgaricus n. sp. and P. clavus. Relationships support a radiation of all sequenced European Pristionchus species from a single, gonochoristic common ancestor, and current knowledge of species ranges supports “western” and “eastern” clades. Similar diagnostic morphologies reflect the close relationships among the new and recharacterized species, especially P. bulgaricus n. sp., P. brevicauda, and P. clavus, although mating tests as well as genetic and phylogenetic separation support their identities as unique species. Our results show that Pristionchus species in Europe are more diverse than typological characters suggest, and thus biological and molecular profiling will be essential for future delimitation of Pristionchus species from the region.
PMCID: PMC3957573  PMID: 24644372
biogeography; gonochorism; hermaphroditism; morphology; morphometrics; phylogeny; ribosomal protein genes; taxonomy
32.  Field Efficacy of Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):8-11.
A commercial formulation of furfural was recently launched in the United States as a turfgrass nematicide. Three field trials evaluated efficacy of this commercial formulation on dwarf bermudagrass putting greens infested primarily with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis, or both these nematodes, and in some cases with Mesocriconema ornatum or Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. In all these trials, furfural improved turf health but did not reduce population densities of B. longicaudatus, M. graminis, or the other plant-parasitic nematodes present. In two additional field trials, efficacy of furfural at increasing depths in the soil profile (0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, and 10 to 15 cm) against B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass was evaluated. Reduction in population density of B. longicaudatus was observed in furfural-treated plots for depths below 5 cm on several dates during both trials. However, no differences in population densities of B. longicaudatus were observed between the furfural-treated plots and the untreated control for soil depth of 0 to 5 cm during either trial. These results indicate that furfural applications can improve health of nematode-infested turf and can reduce population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in turf systems. Although the degree to which turf improvement is directly caused by nematicidal effects is still unclear, furfural does appear to be a useful nematode management tool for turf.
PMCID: PMC3957574  PMID: 24644368
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; furfural; Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; management; Meloidogyne graminis; Mesocriconema ornatum; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; spiral nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
33.  Redescription of Robustodorus megadorus with Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Its Phylogenetic Position within the Family Aphelenchoididae 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):237-252.
Based on a new record of the rare species Robustodorus megadorus from Utah, the generic diagnosis was amended to include the following characters: a labial disc surrounded by six pore-like sensilla; the absence of a cephalic disc; a lobed cephalic region devoid of annulation; a hexagonal inner cuticular structure of the pouch surrounding the stylet cone; large stylet knobs, rounded in outline and somewhat flattened on their lateral margins; a large spermatheca with an occluded lumen and lacking sperm; the excretory pore located between the median bulb and nerve ring. The stylet orifice consists of an open, ventral, elongate slit or groove. These characters distinguish the genus from the closely related genus Aphelenchoides. A lectotype and paralectotypes were designated. Results of phylogenetic analyses of the 18S and D2-D3 of 28S rRNA gene sequences revealed that R. megadorus occupies a basal position within one of the two main clades of the subfamily Aphelenchoidinae and shares close relationships with a species group of the genus Aphelenchoides that includes A. blastophthorus, A. fragariae, A. saprophilus, A. xylocopae, and A. subtenuis. Several specimens in our collection of R. megadorus were infected with Pasteuria sp. as were some of the paralectotypes.
PMCID: PMC3873900  PMID: 24379482
Aphelenchoides megadorus; DNA; morphology; Pasteuria; phylogeny; Robustodorus megadorus; scanning electron microscopy
34.  First Record of Steinernema kraussei (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) from Turkey and Its Virulence against Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):253-259.
During a survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey in 2009–2012, a steinernematid species was recorded and isolated using the Galleria-baiting method. The isolate was identified as Steinernema kraussei based on its morphological and molecular properties. The analysis of the ITS rDNA sequence placed the Turkish population of S. kraussei in the “feltiae-kraussei” group in the clade that contains different isolates of the species. This is the first record of S. kraussei from Turkey. The efficacy of S. kraussei was tested on Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea) larvae at different densities (100, 300, and 500 infective juveniles (IJs) g−1 dry sand ) in laboratory conditions at 25 °C. The highest mortality (98%) was obtained with 500 IJs g−1 dry sand within 7 d after inoculation. Our results indicate that the new isolate is a highly promising biological control agent against A. segetum, one of the most serious soil pests of agricultural area and fruits worldwide.
PMCID: PMC3873901  PMID: 24379483
Entomopathogenic nematode; Steinernema kraussei; biological control; Agrotis segetum; Turkey
35.  Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):260-264.
Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ≥ 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm).
PMCID: PMC3873902  PMID: 24379484
Agrostis palustris; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; creeping bentgrass; Cynodon dactylon; furfural; nematicide; nematode management; sting nematode; turfgrass
36.  Sunn Hemp Cover Cropping and Organic Fertilizer Effects on the Nematode Community Under Temperate Growing Conditions 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):265-271.
Field experiments were conducted in Maryland to investigate the influence of sunn hemp cover cropping in conjunction with organic and synthetic fertilizers on the nematode community in a zucchini cropping system. Two field treatments, zucchini planted into a sunn hemp living and surface mulch (SH) and zucchini planted into bare-ground (BG) were established during three field seasons from 2009 to 2011. In 2009, although SH slightly increased nematode richness compared with BG by the first harvest (P < 0.10), it reduced nematode diversity and enrichment indices (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively) and increased the channel index (P < 0.01) compared to BG at the final harvest. This suggests a negative impact of SH on nematode community structure. The experiment was modified in 2010 and 2011 where the SH and BG main plots were further split into two subplots to investigate the added influence of an organic vs. synthetic fertilizer. In 2010, when used as a living and surface mulch in a no-till system, SH increased bacterivorous, fungivorous, and total nematodes (P < 0.05) by the final zucchini harvest, but fertilizer type did not influence nematode community structure. In 2011, when incorporated into the soil before zucchini planting, SH increased the abundance of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes early in the cropping season. SH increased species richness also at the end of the season (P < 0.05). Fertilizer application did not appear to influence nematodes early in the season. However, in late season, organic fertilizers increased enrichment and structure indices and decreased channel index by the end of the zucchini cropping cycle.
PMCID: PMC3873903  PMID: 24379485
Crotalaria juncea; free-living nematode; living mulch; no-till; strip-till; surface mulch
37.  Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):272-278.
Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested.
PMCID: PMC3873904  PMID: 24379486
Anaerobic soil disinfestation; ASD; Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba; Canavalia ensiformis; cover crops; cowpea; Eruca sativa; Helianthus annuus; jack bean; management; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; mustard; pearl millet; Pennisetum glaucum; root-knot nematodes; sorghum-sudangrass; sunflower; Vigna unguiculata
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):279-330.
PMCID: PMC3873905
39.  Taxonomic and Molecular Identification of Hemicaloosia, Hemicycliophora, Gracilacus and Paratylenchus Species (Nematoda: Criconematidae) 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):145-171.
Populations of Hemicycliophora epicharoides, H. gigas, H. labiata, H. pruni, H. shepherdi, H. vidua, H. zuckermani, Gracilacus straeleni, and Paratylenchus labiosus were obtained from different geographical areas in the continental United States and characterized morphological and molecularly. Two new species of Hemicycliophorinae: Hemicaloosia uarki n. sp from Pinetree, St. Francis County, Arkansas, and Hemicycliophora wyei n. sp from Wayne County, North Carolina, are also described. Hemicaloosia uarki n. sp. is characterized by having two lip annuli separated from the rest of body and directed anteriorly, a long stylet (106-124 μm), long body length (1,081-1,326 μm) and a single lateral fields demarcated by interruptions of the body annuli. Hemicycliophora wyei n. sp. showed a lateral fields demarked by two faint lines with transverse anastomoses and/or breaks of the striae; an elongated not offset conical tail with distinct annulations and a rounded tip and long vulval lips with a vulval sleeve. The molecular characterizations of the new (H. uarki n. sp. and H. wyei n. sp.) and known species of Criconematidae using the ITS1 rDNA gene sequence and the molecular phylogenetic relationships are provided.
PMCID: PMC3792835  PMID: 24115782
Gracilacus straeleni; Hemicaloosia uarki n. sp.; Hemicycliophora epicharoides; Hemicycliophora gigas; Hemicycliophora labiata; Hemicycliophora pruni; Hemicycliophora shepherdi; Hemicycliophora vidua; Hemicycliophora wyei n. sp.; Hemicycliophora zuckermani; internal transcribed spacer 1; molecular biology; morphology; Paratylenchus labiosus, phylogeny
40.  Two Androdioecious and One Dioecious New Species of Pristionchus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae): New Reference Points for the Evolution of Reproductive Mode 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):172-194.
Rhabditid nematodes are one of a few animal taxa in which androdioecious reproduction, involving hermaphrodites and males, is found. In the genus Pristionchus, several cases of androdioecy are known, including the model species P. pacificus. A comprehensive understanding of the evolution of reproductive mode depends on dense taxon sampling and careful morphological and phylogenetic reconstruction. In this article, two new androdioecious species, P. boliviae n. sp. and P. mayeri n. sp., and one gonochoristic outgroup, P. atlanticus n. sp., are described on morphological, molecular, and biological evidence. Their phylogenetic relationships are inferred from 26 ribosomal protein genes and a partial SSU rRNA gene. Based on current representation, the new androdioecious species are sister taxa, indicating either speciation from an androdioecious ancestor or rapid convergent evolution in closely related species. Male sexual characters distinguish the new species, and new characters for six closely related Pristionchus species are presented. Male papillae are unusually variable in P. boliviae n. sp. and P. mayeri n. sp., consistent with the predictions of “selfing syndrome.” Description and phylogeny of new androdioecious species, supported by fuller outgroup representation, establish new reference points for mechanistic studies in the Pristionchus system by expanding its comparative context.
PMCID: PMC3792836  PMID: 24115783
gonochorism; hermaphroditism; morphology; P. boliviae n. sp.; P. mayeri n. sp.; phylogeny; Pristionchus atlanticus n. sp.; selfing syndrome; taxonomy
41.  Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):195-201.
Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. ‘Russet Burbank,’ ‘Desiree,’ ‘Modac,’ ‘Norland,’ ‘Umatilla,’ and ‘Yukon Gold’ were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties ‘Maris Piper,’ ‘Atlantic,’ and ‘Satina,’ all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD and reproduced on potato, the pathogenicity of this nematode on potato remains to be determined.
PMCID: PMC3792837  PMID: 24115784
behavior; diffusates; Globodera; hatching; potato; resistance; tomato
42.  Site-Specific Management of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Idaho Potatoes Using 1,3-Dichloropropene; Approach, Experiences, and Economics 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):202-213.
Fumigation for nematode management in irrigated potato production systems of Idaho is widely practiced. Soil injection is the only labeled application method for 1,3-dichloropropene that is conventionally applied on a whole-field basis. Plant-parasitic nematode species exhibit spatially variable population densities that provide an opportunity to practice site-specific fumigation to reduce chemical usage and production costs. During 2002 to 2008, 62 fields intended for commercial potato production in eastern Idaho were sampled using a geo-referenced grid sampling system for plant-parasitic nematode population densities. In total, 4,030 grid samples were collected representing nearly 3,200 ha of commercial potato production. Collectively, 73% of the grid samples had Columbia root knot (CRN) (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) population densities below detectable levels. Site-specific fumigation is the practice of varying application rate of a fumigant based on nematode population density. In 2007, 640 ha of potato production were site-specific fumigated for CRN nematode control in eastern Idaho. On average, this practice resulted in a 30% reduction in chemical usage and production cost savings of $209/ha when 1,3-dichloropropene was used as the sole source of nematode suppression. Reductions in usage of 1,3-dichloropropene can exceed 50% if used in combination with a nonfumigant nematicide such as oxamyl. This combination approach can have production cost savings exceeding $200/ha. Based on farm-gate receipts and USDA inspections provided by potato producers from 2001 to 2011, potato tuber yield and quality have not been adversely affected using site-specific fumigation.
PMCID: PMC3792838  PMID: 24115785
Columbia root-knot nematode; 1,3-dichloropropene; management; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; oxamyl; potato; site-specific precision agriculture; spatial distribution; technique
43.  Nematode Genera in Forest Soil Respond Differentially to Elevated CO2 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):214-222.
Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests.
PMCID: PMC3792839  PMID: 24115786
climate change; ecology; FACE; interaction; nematode biomass; soil function; soil productivity
44.  Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 on Overseeded Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):223-227.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus is an important parasite of both warm-season bermudagrass and winter overseed grasses used on golf courses in the southeastern United States. Field trials were conducted to study the effects of a commercial formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 applied to overseed grasses during the winter and early spring on population density of B. longicaudatus and bermudagrass health in late spring after bermudagrass broke dormancy. These studies found that P. lilacinus reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus in most cases, but not below damaging levels. Multiple applications of 1 × 1010 spores/m2 were generally more effective than 2 × 1010 spores/m2 in reducing nematode numbers and improving turf roots. These results indicate that application of this formulation of P. lilacinus strain 251 to overseeded turf in the spring may be a useful integrated pest management tool for B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass, but is not sufficient as a stand-alone nematode management tactic.
PMCID: PMC3792840  PMID: 24115787
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biological control; Paecilomyces lilacinus, sting nematode; turfgrass
45.  Effect of Soybean Monoculture on the Bacterial Communities Associated with Cysts of Heterodera glycines 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):228-235.
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, can cause significant reductions in soybean yield and quality in many parts of the world. Natural biological control may play an important role in regulating SCN population. In this study the bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts obtained from fields under different lengths of soybean monoculture were explored. Soil samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 from six fields that had been used for soybean monoculture for 2 to 41 yr. SCN population densities were determined and bacterial communities from SCN cysts were investigated by Biolog and PCR-DGGE methods. SCN population densities initially increased in the first 5 yr of soybean monoculture but then declined steeply as years of soybean monoculture increased. Catabolic diversity of bacterial communities associated with cysts tended to decline as number of years of monoculture increased. Some specific PCR-DGGE bands, mainly representing Streptomyces and Rhizobium, were obtained from the cysts collected from the long-term monoculture fields. Principal component analysis of Biolog and PCR-DGGE data revealed that bacterial communities associated with cysts could be divided into two groups: those from cysts obtained from shorter (< 8 yr) vs. longer (> 8 yr) monoculture. This research demonstrates that the composition of the bacterial communities obtained from SCN cysts changes with length of soybean monoculture; the suppressive impact of these bacterial communities to SCN is yet to be determined.
PMCID: PMC3792841  PMID: 24115788
bacterial community; biodiversity; biological control; cyst; Heterodera glycines; monoculture; soybean; soybean cyst nematode
46.  Erratum 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):236.
PMCID: PMC3792842
47.  Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina): A Mycetophagous and Entomoparasitic Nematode in Infested Coconut Fruits from Balochistan, Pakistan 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(2):106-111.
Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. was isolated from infested coconut fruits in Winder, Balochistan, Pakistan. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous (insect-parasitic females) and mycetophagous (fungus-feeding) free-living females, males, and juveniles. The new species D. cocophilus resembles those species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid, namely, D. apopkaetus Chitambar, 1991; D. leptosoma Gagarin, 2001; D. ipini Massey, 1974; D. laricis (Blinova and Korentchenko, 1986) Ebsarry, 1991; D. (siricidicola) canii Bedding, 1974; D. (s) imperialis Bedding, 1974; D. nevexii Bedding, 1974; D. (wilsoni) proximus Bedding, 1974; D. (s) rudyi Bedding, 1974; D. (s) siricidicola Bedding, 1968; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni Bedding, 1968 and D. minimus Chizhov and Sturhan, 1998. The new species differs from D. ipini in the absence of a post uterine sac vs. present; a = 17 to 30 vs. 35 to 40; stylet = 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm and vulva-anus = 21 to 28 vs. 35 to 48 μm. From D. apopkaetus it differs in tail length in female 22 to 28 vs. 31 to 43 μm and in the male it is 24 to 32 vs. 30 to 46 μm. It differs from D. leptosoma in the c ratio in females, c = 21 to 37 vs. 16 to 22, presence of 6 lines in lateral field vs. 10 lines and slightly longer spicules 16 to 18 vs. 15 to 16 μm. From D. laricis it differs in a shorter stylet length 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm; in the c ratio in males 16 to 22 vs. 22 to 35 and hemizonid from anterior end 76 to 90 vs. 90 to 119 μm. It also differs from the following species: D. (siricidicola) canii; D. (s) imperialis; D. nevexii; D. (wilsoni) proximus; D. (s) rudyi; D. (s) siricidicola; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni and D. minimus in having shorter tail length, lower values of a,b,c ratios and a slightly anteriorly located vulva in females.
PMCID: PMC3700737  PMID: 23833325
coconut; Deladenus cocophilus; Hexatylina; morphology; Nematoda; new species; Pakistan; taxonomy
48.  Effects of Soil Compaction and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton Root Architecture and Plant Growth 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(2):112-121.
The effects of a soil hardpan and Meloidogyne incognita on cotton root architecture and plant growth were evaluated in microplots in 2010 and 2011. Soil was infested with M. incognita at four different levels with or without a hardpan. The presence of a hardpan resulted in increased plant height, number of main stem nodes, and root fresh weight for cotton seedlings both years. Meloidogyne incognita decreased height and number of nodes for seedlings in 2010. Nematode infestation increased seedling root length and enhanced root magnitude, altitude, and exterior path length in 2010. This was also the case for root length and magnitude in 2011 at lower infestation levels suggesting compensatory growth. A hardpan had no consistent effect on these root parameters but increased root volume in both years. A hardpan hastened crop maturity and increased the number of fruiting branches that were produced, while M. incognita infection delayed crop development and reduced plant height and number of bolls. Both M. incognita infection and a hardpan reduced taproot length and root dry weight below the hardpan in both years. Root topological indices under all the treatments ranged from 1.71 to 1.83 both years indicating that root branching followed a herringbone pattern. The techniques for characterizing root architecture that were used in this study provide a greater understanding of changes that result from disease and soil abiotic parameters affecting root function and crop productivity.
PMCID: PMC3700738  PMID: 23833326
ecology; host-parasite relationship; root-knot nematode; root topology; soil hardpan
49.  Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(2):122-127.
The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio ‘a’, anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C’ were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio ‘a’ were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C’ were highly variable characters (CV > 12%).
PMCID: PMC3700739  PMID: 23833327
Female; juveniles; morphology; morphometrical; M. incognita; perineal pattern
50.  The Journal of Nematology Style Guide, Fourth Edition 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(2):128-144.
PMCID: PMC3700740  PMID: 23833328

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