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26.  Design of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Amino-bis-tetrahydrofuran Derivatives as P2-Ligands to Enhance Backbone-Binding Interactions: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Protein-ligand X-ray Studies 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(17):6994-7006.
Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of very potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to improve backbone ligand-binding site interactions, we have incorporated basic-amines at the C4 position of the bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) ring. We speculated that these substituents would make hydrogen bonding interactions in the flap region of HIV-1 protease. Synthesis of these inhibitors was performed diastereoselectively. A number of inhibitors displayed very potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Inhibitors 25f, 25i, and 25j were evaluated against a number of highly-PI-resistant HIV-1 strains and they exhibited improved antiviral activity over darunavir. Two high resolution X-ray structures of 25f and 25g-bound HIV-1 protease revealed unique hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone carbonyl group of Gly48 as well as with the backbone NH of Gly48 in the flap region of the enzyme active site. These ligand-binding site interactions are possibly responsible for their potent activity.
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PMCID: PMC4765732  PMID: 26306007
HIV-1 protease inhibitors; Darunavir; amino-bis-THF; multidrug-resistant; design; synthesis; X-ray crystal structure; backbone binding
27.  Structure-Based Design of Human TLR8-Specific Agonists with Augmented Potency and Adjuvanticity 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2015;58(19):7833-7849.
Human Toll-like receptor 8 (hTLR8) is expressed in myeloid dendritic cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Engagement by TLR8 agonists evokes a distinct cytokine profile which favors the development of type 1 helper T cells. Crystal structures of the ectodomain of hTLR8 cocrystallized with two regioisomers of a dual TLR7/8-agonistic N1-substituted imidazoquinolines showed subtle differences in their interactions in the binding site of hTLR8. We hypothesized that the potency of a previously reported best-in-class pure TLR8 agonist, 3-pentylquinoline-2-amine, could be further enhanced by “designing in” functional groups that would mimic key intermolecular interactions that we had observed in the crystal structures. We performed a focused exploration of decorating the quinoline core with alkylamino groups at all possible positions. These studies have led to the identification of a novel TLR8 agonist that was ∼20-fold more potent than the parent compound and displays prominent adjuvantic activity in a rabbit model of immunization.
PMCID: PMC4601487  PMID: 26351878
28.  6-Hydroxy-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione Derivatives as Novel d-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitors 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2015;58(18):7258-7272.
A series of 2-substituted 6-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione derivatives were synthesized as inhibitors of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO). Many compounds in this series were found to be potent DAAO inhibitors, with IC50 values in the double-digit nanomolar range. The 6-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione pharmacophore appears metabolically resistant to O-glucuronidation unlike other structurally related DAAO inhibitors. Among them, 6-hydroxy-2-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione 11h was found to be selective over a number of targets and orally available in mice. Furthermore, oral coadministration of d-serine with 11h enhanced the plasma levels of d-serine in mice compared to the oral administration of d-serine alone, demonstrating its ability to serve as a pharmacoenhancer of d-serine.
PMCID: PMC5003509  PMID: 26309148
29.  Design, Synthesis, and Cardioprotective Effects of N-Mercapto-Based Hydrogen Sulfide Donors 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2015;58(18):7501-7511.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule which plays regulatory roles in many physiological and/or pathological processes. Therefore, regulation of H2S levels could have great potential therapeutic value. In this work, we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a class of N-mercapto (N-SH)-based H2S donors. Thirty-three donors were synthesized and tested. Our results indicated that controllable H2S release from these donors could be achieved upon structural modifications. Selected donors (NSHD-1, NSHD-2, and NSHD-6) were tested in cellular models of oxidative damage and showed significant cytoprotective effects. Moreover, NSHD-1 and NSHD-2 were also found to exhibit potent protective effects in a murine model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury.
PMCID: PMC4766970  PMID: 26317692
30.  Development of Selective Covalent Janus Kinase 3 Inhibitors 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(16):6589-6606.
The Janus Kinases (JAKs) and their downstream effectors Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription proteins (STATs) form a critical immune cell signaling circuit, which is of fundamental importance in innate immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis and dysregulation is frequently observed in immune disease and cancer. The high degree of structural conservation of the JAK ATP binding pockets has posed a considerable challenge to medicinal chemists seeking to develop highly selective inhibitors as pharmacological probes and as clinical drugs. Here we report the discovery and optimization of 2,4-substituted pyrimidines as covalent JAK3 inhibitors that exploit a unique cysteine (Cys909) residue in JAK3. Investigation of structure-activity-relationship (SAR) utilizing biochemical and transformed Ba/F3 cellular assays resulted in identification of potent and selective inhibitors such as compounds 9 and 45. A 2.9 Å co-crystal structure of JAK3 in complex with 9 confirms the covalent interaction. Compound 9 exhibited decent pharmacokinetic properties and is suitable for use in vivo. These inhibitors provide a set of useful tools to pharmacologically interrogate JAK3-dependent biology.
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PMCID: PMC4777322  PMID: 26258521
JAK3; Covalent kinase inhibitors; Structure-based design; Structure-activity relationship; Drug discovery
31.  Structure-Based Inhibitor Design for Evaluation of a CYP3A4 Pharmacophore Model 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;59(9):4210-4220.
Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a key xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that oxidizes and clears the majority of drugs. CYP3A4 inhibition may lead to drug–drug interactions, toxicity, and other adverse effects but, in some cases, could be beneficial and enhance therapeutic efficiency of coadministered pharmaceuticals that are metabolized by CYP3A4. On the basis of our investigations of analogs of ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inactivator and pharmacoenhancer, we have built a pharmacophore model for a CYP3A4-specific inhibitor. This study is the first attempt to test this model using a set of rationally designed compounds. The functional and structural data presented here agree well with the proposed pharmacophore. In particular, we confirmed the importance of a flexible backbone, the H-bond donor/acceptor moiety, and aromaticity of the side group analogous to Phe-2 of ritonavir and demonstrated the leading role of hydrophobic interactions at the sites adjacent to the heme and phenylalanine cluster in the ligand binding process. The X-ray structures of CYP3A4 bound to the rationally designed inhibitors provide deeper insights into the mechanism of the CYP3A4–ligand interaction. Most importantly, two of our compounds (15a and 15b) that are less complex than ritonavir have comparable submicromolar affinity and inhibitory potency for CYP3A4 and, thus, could serve as templates for synthesis of second generation inhibitors for further evaluation and optimization of the pharmacophore model.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4998966  PMID: 26371436
32.  Synthesis and Molecular Modeling of Novel Tetrahydro-β-carboline Derivatives with Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitory and Anticancer Properties 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2010;54(2):495-509.
New derivatives based upon the tetrahydro-β-carboline-hydantoin and tetrahydro-β-carboline-piperazinedione scaffolds were synthesized. All compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PDE5 in vitro, and numerous compounds with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range were identified including compounds derived from L-tryptophan. Compounds with high potency versus PDE5 were then evaluated for inhibitory activity against other PDEs to assess isozyme selectivity. Compound 5R,11aS-5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-ethyl-5,6,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[1′,5′:1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,3(2H)dione 14 showed a selectivity index of >200 for cGMP hydrolysis by PDE5 versus PDE11. Meanwhile, 6R,12aR-6-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-ethyl-2,3,6,7,12,12a-hexahydropyrazino[1′,2′:1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,4dione 45 demonstrated strong potency for inhibition of PDE11 with an IC50 value of 11 nM, representing the most potent PDE11 inhibitor thus far reported. Docking experiments differentiated between active and inactive analogues and revealing the conformational, steric, and lipophilic necessities for potent PDE5 inhibition. Many derivatives, including potent PDE5 inhibitors, were able to inhibit the growth of the MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cell line with low micromolar potency.
PMCID: PMC4994518  PMID: 21189023
33.  New Indole Tubulin Assembly Inhibitors Cause Stable Arrest of Mitotic Progression, Enhanced Stimulation of Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Activity, and Repression of Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(15):5789-5807.
We designed 39 new 2-phenylindole derivatives as potential anticancer agents bearing the 3,4,5-trimethox-yphenyl moiety with a sulfur, ketone, or methylene bridging group at position 3 of the indole and with halogen or methoxy substituent(s) at positions 4–7. Compounds 33 and 44 strongly inhibited the growth of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing multi-drug-resistant cell lines NCI/ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5. At 10 nM, 33 and 44 stimulated the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. At 20–50 nM, 33 and 44 arrested >80% of HeLa cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, with stable arrest of mitotic progression. Cell cycle arrest was followed by cell death. Indoles 33, 44, and 81 showed strong inhibition of the SAG-induced Hedgehog signaling activation in NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells with IC50 values of 19, 72, and 38 nM, respectively. Compounds of this class potently inhibited tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth, including stimulation of natural killer cell cytotoxic activity and repression of Hedgehog-dependent cancer.
PMCID: PMC4552448  PMID: 26132075
34.  A Selective, Cell-Permeable Nonphosphorylated Bicyclic Peptidyl Inhibitor against Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(15):6306-6312.
Pin1 regulates the levels and functions of phosphoproteins by catalyzing phosphorylation-dependent cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds. Previous Pin1 inhibitors contained phosphoamino acids, which are metabolically unstable and have poor membrane permeability. In this work, we report a cell-permeable and metabolically stable nonphosphorylated bicyclic peptide as a potent and selective Pin1 inhibitor, which inhibited the intracellular Pin1 activity in cultured mammalian cells but had little effect on other isomerases such as Pin4, FKBP12, or cyclophilin A.
PMCID: PMC4594195  PMID: 26196061
Bicyclic peptide; Cell-penetrating peptide; Peptide library; Peptidyl-prolyl isomerism; Pin1 inhibitor
35.  Tertiary amine pyrazolones and their salts as inhibitors of mutant superoxide dismutase 1-dependent protein aggregation for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(15):5942-5949.
Pyrazolone derivatives have previously been found to be inhibitors of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-dependent protein aggregation, which extended survival of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model. On the basis of ADME analysis, we describe herein a new series of tertiary amine-containing pyrazolones and their structure-activity relationships. Further conversion to the conjugate salts greatly improved their solubility. Phosphate compound 17 exhibited numerous benefits both to cellular activity and to CNS-related drug-like properties in vitro and in vivo, including microsomal stability, tolerated toxicity, and blood-brain barrier permeation. These results indicate that tertiary amine pyrazolones comprise a valuable class of ALS drug candidates.
PMCID: PMC4537347  PMID: 26186011
36.  N′-3-(Trifluoromethyl)phenyl Derivatives of N-Aryl-N′-methylguanidines as Prospective PET Radioligands for the Open Channel of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor: Synthesis and Structure–Affinity Relationships 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(24):9722-9730.
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dysfunction has been linked to several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, drug addiction, and schizophrenia. A radioligand that could be used with PET to image and quantify human brain NMDA receptors in the activated “open channel” state would be useful for research on such disorders and for the development of novel therapies. To date, no radioligands have shown well-validated efficacy for imaging NMDA receptors in human subjects. In order to discover improved radioligands for PET imaging, we explored structure–affinity relationships in N′-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl derivatives of N-aryl-N′-methylguanidines, seeking high affinity and moderate lipophilicity, plus necessary amenability for labeling with a positron-emitter, either carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Among a diverse set of 80 prepared N′-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl derivatives, four of these compounds (13, 19, 20, and 36) displayed desirable low nanomolar affinity for inhibition of [3H](+)-MK801 at the PCP binding site and are of interest for candidate PET radioligand development.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4980657  PMID: 26588360
37.  Development of Glucose Regulated Protein 94-Selective Inhibitors Based on the BnIm and Radamide Scaffold 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2016;59(7):3471-3488.
Glucose regulated protein 94 (Grp94) is the endoplasmic reticulum resident of the heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) family of molecular chaperones. Grp94 associates with many proteins involved in cell adhesion and signaling, including integrins, Toll-like receptors, immunoglobulins, and mutant myocilin. Grp94 has been implicated as a target for several therapeutic areas including glaucoma, cancer metastasis, and multiple myeloma. While 85% identical to other Hsp90 isoforms, the N-terminal ATP-binding site of Grp94 possesses a unique hydrophobic pocket that was used to design isoform-selective inhibitors. Incorporation of a cis-amide bioisostere into the radamide scaffold led to development of the original Grp94-selective inhibitor, BnIm. Structure–activity relationship studies have now been performed on the aryl side chain of BnIm, which resulted in improved analogues that exhibit better potency and selectivity for Grp94. These analogues also manifest superior antimigratory activity in a metastasis model as well as enhanced mutant myocilin degradation in a glaucoma model compared to BnIm.
Graphical abstract
PMCID: PMC4979570  PMID: 27003516
38.  Biological Efficacy and Toxicity of Diamidines in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Models 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(15):5770-5780.
Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a disease characterized by errors in alternative splicing, or “mis-splicing”. The causative agent of mis-splicing in DM1 is an inherited CTG repeat expansion located in the 3′ untranslated region of the DM protein kinase gene. When transcribed, CUG repeat expansion RNA sequester MBNL proteins, which constitute an important family of alternative splicing regulators. Sequestration of MBNL proteins results in the mis-splicing of its regulated transcripts. Previous work has demonstrated that pentamidine, a diamidine which is currently FDA-approved as an anti-parasitic agent, was able to partially reverse mis-splicing in multiple DM1 models, albeit at toxic concentrations. In this study, we characterized a series of pentamidine analogues in order to determine their ability to reverse mis-splicing and their toxicity in vivo. Experiments in cell and mouse models demonstrated that compound 13, also known as furamidine, effectively reversed mis-splicing with equal efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to pentamidine.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4972181  PMID: 26103061
39.  2-Triazole-Substituted Adenosines: A New Class of Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists, Partial Agonists, and Antagonists 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2006;49(25):7373-7383.
“Click chemistry” was explored to synthesize two series of 2-(1,2,3-triazolyl)adenosine derivatives (1–14). Binding affinity at the human A1, A2A, and A3ARs (adenosine receptors) and relative efficacy at the A3AR were determined. Some triazol-1-yl analogues showed A3AR affinity in the low nanomolar range, a high ratio of A3/A2A selectivity, and a moderate-to-high A3/A1 ratio. The 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl regiomers typically showed decreased A3AR affinity. Sterically demanding groups at the adenine C2 position tended to reduce relative A3AR efficacy. Thus, several 5′-OH derivatives appeared to be selective A3AR antagonists, i.e., 10, with 260-fold binding selectivity in comparison to the A1AR and displaying a characteristic docking mode in an A3AR model. The corresponding 5′-ethyluronamide analogues generally showed increased A3AR affinity and behaved as full agonists, i.e., 17, with 910-fold A3/A1 selectivity. Thus, N6-substituted 2-(1,2,3-triazolyl)-adenosine analogues constitute a novel class of highly potent and selective nucleoside-based A3AR antagonists, partial agonists, and agonists.
PMCID: PMC4968940  PMID: 17149867
40.  Impact of Stepwise NH2-Methylation of Triapine on the Physicochemical Properties, Anticancer Activity, and Resistance Circumvention 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2016;59(14):6739-6752.
One of the most promising classes of iron chelators are α-N-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones with Triapine as the most prominent representative. In several clinical trials Triapine showed anticancer activity against hematological diseases, however, studies on solid tumors failed due to widely unknown reasons. Some years ago, it was recognized that “terminal dimethylation” of thiosemicarbazones can lead to a more than 100-fold increased activity, probably due to interactions with cellular copper depots. To better understand the structural requirements for the switch to nanomolar cytotoxicity, we systematically synthesized all eight possible N-methylated derivatives of Triapine and investigated their potential against Triapine-sensitive as well as -resistant cell lines. While only the “completely” methylated compound exerted nanomolar activity, the data revealed that all compounds with at least one N-dimethylation were not affected by acquired Triapine resistance. In addition, these compounds were highly synergistic with copper treatment accompanied by induction of reactive oxygen species and massive necrotic cell death.
PMCID: PMC4966696  PMID: 27336684
41.  Adenine Nucleotide Analogues Locked in a Northern Methanocarba Conformation: Enhanced Stability and Potency as P2Y1 Receptor Agonists 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2002;45(10):2090-2100.
Preference for the Northern (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of nucleotide 5′-triphosphate agonists at P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y11 receptors, but not P2Y6 receptors, was established using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a 3.1.0-bicyclohexane) ring as a ribose substitute (Kim et al. J. Med. Chem. 2002, 45, 208–218.). We have now combined the ring-constrained (N)-methanocarba modification of adenine nucleotides with other functionalities known to enhance potency at P2 receptors. The potency of the newly synthesized analogues was determined in the stimulation of phospholipase C through activation of turkey erythrocyte P2Y1 or human P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors stably expressed in astrocytoma cells. An (N)-methanocarba-2-methylthio-ADP analogue displayed an EC50 at the hP2Y1 receptor of 0.40 nM and was 55-fold more potent than the corresponding triphosphate and 16-fold more potent than the riboside 5′-diphosphate. 2-Cl–(N)-methanocarba-ATP and its N6-Me analogue were also highly selective, full agonists at P2Y1 receptors. The (N)-methanocarba-2-methylthio and 2-chloromonophosphate analogues were full agonists exhibiting micromolar potency at P2Y1 receptors, while the corresponding ribosides were inactive. Although β,γ-methylene-ATP was inactive at P2Y receptors, β,γ-methylene-(N)-methanocarba-ATP was a potent hP2Y1 receptor agonist with an EC50 of 160 nM and was selective versus hP2Y2 and hP2Y4 receptors. The rates of hydrolysis of Northern (N) and Southern (S) methanocarba analogues of AMP by rat 5′-ectonucleotidase were negligible. The rates of hydrolysis of the corresponding triphosphates by recombinant rat NTPDase1 and 2 were studied. Both isomers were hydrolyzed by NTPDase 1 at about half the rate of ATP hydrolysis. The (N) isomer was hardly hydrolyzed by NTPDase 2, while the (S) isomer was hydrolyzed at one-third of the rate of ATP hydrolysis. This suggests that new, more stable and selective nucleotide agonists may be designed on the basis of the (N)-conformation, which greatly enhanced potency at P2Y1 receptors.
PMCID: PMC4959107  PMID: 11985476
42.  Dimers of melampomagnolide B exhibit potent anticancer activity against hematological and solid tumor cells 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(22):8896-8906.
A series of novel carbamate and carbonate dimers of melampomagnolide B (MMB) have been synthesized by reaction of the MMB-triazole carbamate synthon 6 with various terminal diamino and dihydroxy alkanes. The resulting dimeric products 7b, 7c and 7f were selected and evaluated for anticancer activity against a panel of 60 human hematological and solid tumor cell lines. The most active compounds, 7b, 7c and 7f, exhibited GI50 values in the range 250-780 nM against the majority of leukemia cell lines in the tumor cell panel. Specifically, compounds 7b and 7f exhibited potent growth inhibition against non-small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H522 (GI50 = 160 nM) and HOP-92 (GI50 = 170 nM), respectively. Also, compound 7f also potently inhibited the growth of melanoma cell lines LOX IMVI, MALME-3M, and UACC-62 (GI50 values = 170, 190 and 190 nM, respectively); breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 (GI50 = 190 nM); colon cancer cell line HCT-116 (GI50 = 190 nM); and renal cancer cell line RXF 393 (GI50 = 160 nM). Compound 7f and the simple dicarbonate dimer of MMB (8) showed anticancer activity 300-fold and 1 × 106-fold, respectively, more cytotoxic than 7f and DMAPT at a concentration of 10 μM against rat 9L-SF gliosarcoma cells. The dimeric compounds 7a-7j & 8 were also screened for antileukemic activity against M9-ENL1 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells and primary AML cell specimens. These compounds exhibited two to twelve-fold more potent antileukemic activity (EC50 = 0.5-2.9 μM) against the M9-ENL1 cell line when compared to parthenolide (EC50 = 6.0 μM). The dimeric analogues were also active against the primary AML cell specimens in the nanomolar to lower micromolar range and exhibited two to ten-fold more potent antileukemic activity (EC50 = 0.86-4.2 μM) when compared to parthenolide (EC50 = 2.5-16 μM). Thus, dimer 7f exhibited promising anticancer activity against a variety of both hematological and solid human tumor cell lines, while dimer 8 was superior to 7f against 9L-SF gliosarcoma, M9-EML1 and AML cells. These two novel dimeric analogs of MMB warrant further investigation with regard to their mechanism of action, especially as it relates to the activity of dimeric forms of active monomeric molecules and the implications this may have on structure-activity relationships and drug design.
PMCID: PMC4959447  PMID: 26540463
43.  2-Aminopyridines with a Truncated Side Chain to Improve Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitory Potency and Selectivity 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(14):5548-5560.
We have analyzed a recently obtained crystal structure of human neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), then designed and synthesized several 2-aminopyridine derivatives containing a truncated side chain to avoid the hydrophobic pocket that differentiates human and rat nNOS in an attempt to explore alternative binding poses along the substrate access channel of human nNOS. Introduction of an N-methylethane-1,2-diamine side chain and conformational constraints such as benzonitrile and pyridine as the middle aromatic linker were sufficient to increase human and rat nNOS binding affinity and inducible and endothelial NOS selectivity. We found that 14b is a potent inhibitor; the binding modes with human and rat nNOS are unexpected, inducing side chain rotamer changes in Gln478 (rat) at the top of the active site. Compound 19c exhibits Ki values of 24 and 55 nM for rat and human nNOS, respectively, with 153-fold iNOS and 1040-fold eNOS selectivity. 19c has 18% oral bioavailability.
PMCID: PMC4514563  PMID: 26120733
nitric oxide synthase; neurodegenerative diseases; human nNOS; selective inhibition
44.  Synthesis and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Siderophore Biosynthesis Inhibitors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(14):5459-5475.
MbtA catalyzes the first committed biosynthetic step of the mycobactins, which are important virulence factors associated with iron acquisition in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MbtA is a validated therapeutic target for antitubercular drug development. 5′-O-[N-(salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (1) is a bisubstrate inhibitor of MbtA and exhibits exceptionally potent biochemical and antitubercular activity. However, 1 suffers from sub-optimal drug disposition properties resulting in a short half-life (t1/2), low exposure (AUC), and low bioavailability (F). Four strategies were pursued to address these liabilities including the synthesis of prodrugs, increasing the pKa of the acyl-sulfonyl moiety, modulation of the lipophilicity, and strategic introduction of fluorine into 1. Complete pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of all compounds was performed. The most successful modifications involved fluorination of the nucleoside that provided substantial improvements in t1/2 and AUC. Increasing the pKa of the acyl-sulfonyl linker yielded incremental enhancements while modulation of the lipophilicity and prodrug approaches led to substantially poorer PK parameters.
PMCID: PMC4667731  PMID: 26110337
45.  High Affinity Dopamine D3 Receptor (D3R)-Selective Antagonists Attenuate Heroin Self-Administration in Wild-Type but not D3R Knockout Mice 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2015;58(15):6195-6213.
The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a promising target for the development of pharmacotherapeutics to treat substance use disorders. Several D3R-selective antagonists are effective in animal models of drug abuse, especially in models of relapse. Nevertheless, poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, and/or predicted toxicity have impeded success in translating these drug candidates to clinical use. Herein, we report a series of D3R-selective 4-phenylpiperazines with improved metabolic stability. A subset of these compounds was evaluated for D3R functional efficacy and off-target binding at selected 5-HT receptor subtypes, where significant overlap in SAR with D3R has been observed. Several high affinity D3R antagonists, including compounds 16 (Ki = 0.12 nM) and 32 (Ki = 0.35 nM), showed improved metabolic stability compared to the parent compound, PG648 (6). Notably, 16 and the classic D3R antagonist SB277011A (2) were effective in reducing self-administration of heroin in wild-type but not D3R knockout mice.
PMCID: PMC4937837  PMID: 26203768
46.  Methanocarba Modification of Uracil and Adenine Nucleotides: High Potency of Northern Ring Conformation at P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y11 but Not P2Y6 Receptors 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2002;45(1):208-218.
The potency of nucleotide antagonists at P2Y1 receptors was enhanced by replacing the ribose moiety with a constrained carbocyclic ring (Nandanan, et al. J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 829—842). We have now synthesized ring-constrained methanocarba analogues (in which a fused cyclopropane moiety constrains the pseudosugar ring) of adenine and uracil nucleotides, the endogenous activators of P2Y receptors. Methanocarba-adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was fixed in either a Northern (N) or a Southern (S) conformation, as defined in the pseudorotational cycle. (N)-Methanocarba-uridine was prepared from the 1-amino-pseudosugar ring by treatment with β-ethoxyacryloyl cyanate and cyclization to form the uracil ring. Phosphorylation was carried out at the 5′-hydroxyl group through a multistep process: Reaction with phosphoramidite followed by oxidation provided the 5′-monophosphates, which then were treated with 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole for condensation with additional phosphate groups. The ability of the analogues to stimulate phospholipase C through activation of turkey P2Y1 or human P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, and P2Y11 receptors stably expressed in astrocytoma cells was measured. At recombinant human P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors, (N)-methanocarba-ATP was 138- and 41-fold, respectively, more potent than racemic (S)-methanocarba-ATP as an agonist. (N)-methanocarba-ATP activated P2Y11 receptors with a potency similar to ATP. (N)-Methanocarba-uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP) was equipotent to UTP as an agonist at human P2Y2 receptors and also activated P2Y4 receptors with an EC50 of 85 nM. (N)-Methanocarba-uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP) was inactive at the hP2Y6 receptor. The vascular effects of (N)-methanocarba-UTP and (N)-methanocarba-UDP were studied in a model of the rat mesenteric artery. The triphosphate was more potent than UTP in inducing a dilatory P2Y4 response (pEC50 = 6.1 ± 0.2), while the diphosphate was inactive as either an agonist or antagonist in a P2Y6 receptor-mediated contractile response. Our results suggest that new nucleotide agonists may be designed on the basis of the (N) conformation that favors selectivity for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y11 receptors.
PMCID: PMC4957029  PMID: 11754592
48.  Perturbation of the c-Myc–Max Protein–Protein Interaction via Synthetic α-Helix Mimetics 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2015;58(7):3002-3024.
The rational design of inhibitors of the bHLH-ZIP oncoprotein c-Myc is hampered by a lack of structure in its monomeric state. We describe herein the design of novel, low-molecular-weight, synthetic α-helix mimetics that recognize helical c-Myc in its transcriptionally active coiled-coil structure in association with its obligate bHLH-ZIP partner Max. These compounds perturb the heterodimer’s binding to its canonical E-box DNA sequence without causing protein–protein dissociation, heralding a new mechanistic class of “direct” c-Myc inhibitors. This model was corroborated by additional biophysical methods including NMR spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Several compounds demonstrated a 2-fold or greater selectivity for c-Myc–Max heterodimers over Max–Max homodimers with IC50 values as low as 5.6 µM. Finally, these compounds inhibited the proliferation of c-Myc-over-expressing cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner that correlated with the loss of expression of a c-Myc-dependent reporter plasmid despite the fact that c-Myc–Max heterodimers remained intact.
Graphical abstract
PMCID: PMC4955407  PMID: 25734936
c-Myc; Max; Protein–Protein Interaction; α-Helix Mimetic; 10074-G5; JY-3-094; JKY-2-169; JQ-1
49.  Novel Cephalosporins Selectively Active on Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2016;59(13):6027-6044.
We report two series of novel cephalosporins that are bactericidal to Mycobacterium tuberculosis alone of the pathogens tested, which only kill M. tuberculosis when its replication is halted by conditions resembling those believed to pertain in the host, and whose bactericidal activity is not dependent upon or enhanced by clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. The two classes of cephalosporins bear an ester or alternatively an oxadiazole isostere at C-2 of the cephalosporin ring system, a position that is almost exclusively a carboxylic acid in clinically used agents in the class. Representatives of the series kill M. tuberculosis within macrophages without toxicity to the macrophages or other mammalian cells.
PMCID: PMC4947980  PMID: 27144688
50.  Trisubstituted Pyrimidines as Efficacious and Fast-Acting Antimalarials 
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  2016;59(13):6101-6120.
In this paper we describe the optimization of a phenotypic hit against Plasmodium falciparum, based on a trisubstituted pyrimidine scaffold. This led to compounds with good pharmacokinetics and oral activity in a P. berghei mouse model of malaria. The most promising compound (13) showed a reduction in parasitemia of 96% when dosed at 30 mg/kg orally once a day for 4 days in the P. berghei mouse model of malaria. It also demonstrated a rapid rate of clearance of the erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum in the SCID mouse model with an ED90 of 11.7 mg/kg when dosed orally. Unfortunately, the compound is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes, probably due to a 4-pyridyl substituent. Nevertheless, this is a lead molecule with a potentially useful antimalarial profile, which could either be further optimized or be used for target hunting.
PMCID: PMC4947981  PMID: 27314305

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