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26.  Arabidopsis LIP5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, Is a Critical Target of Pathogen-Responsive MAPK Cascade in Plant Basal Defense 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(7):e1004243.
Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) play essential roles in many cellular processes. The MVB pathway requires reversible membrane association of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transports (ESCRTs) for sustained protein trafficking. Membrane dissociation of ESCRTs is catalyzed by the AAA ATPase SKD1, which is stimulated by LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5). We report here that LIP5 is a target of pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) and plays a critical role in plant basal resistance. Arabidopsis LIP5 interacts with MPK6 and MPK3 and is phosphorylated in vitro by activated MPK3 and MPK6 and in vivo upon expression of MPK3/6-activating NtMEK2DD and pathogen infection. Disruption of LIP5 has little effects on flg22-, salicylic acid-induced defense responses but compromises basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. The critical role of LIP5 in plant basal resistance is dependent on its ability to interact with SKD1. Mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 does not affect interaction with SKD1 but reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 mutant phenotypes. Using the membrane-selective FM1–43 dye and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that pathogen infection increases formation of both intracellular MVBs and exosome-like paramural vesicles situated between the plasma membrane and the cell wall in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. These results indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in plant immune system likely through relocalization of defense-related molecules.
Author Summary
Pathogen- and stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases 3 and 6 (MPK3/6) cascade plays an important role in plant basal resistance to microbial pathogens. Here we showed that Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 interact with and phosphorylate the LIP5 positive regulator of biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are unique organelles containing small vesicles in their lumen. Disruption of LIP5 causes increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Compromised disease resistance of the lip5 mutants is associated with competent flg22- and salicylic acid-induced defense responses but compromised accumulation of intracellular MVBs and exosome-like paramural vesicles, which have previously been shown to be involved in the relocalization of defense-related molecules. Phosphorylation by MPK3/6 increases LIP5 stability, which is necessary for pathogen-induced MVB trafficking and basal disease resistance. Based on these results we conclude that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in plant immune system probably through involvement in the relocalization of defense-related molecules.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004243
PMCID: PMC4092137  PMID: 25010425
27.  Facilitating Cytokine-Mediated Cancer Cell Death by Proteobacterial N-Acylhomoserine Lactones 
ACS chemical biology  2013;8(6):1117-1120.
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells over normal cells; however, tumor cells may develop TRAIL resistance. Here we demonstrate that this resistance can be overcome in the presence of bacterial acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) or AHL-producing bacteria through the combined effect of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and AHL-mediated inhibition of inflammation regulated by NF-κB signaling. This discovery unveils a previously unrecognized symbiotic link between bacteria and host immunosurveillance.
doi:10.1021/cb4000184
PMCID: PMC3755046  PMID: 23517377
28.  Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2014;45(1):239-242.
To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH) clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.
PMCID: PMC4059304  PMID: 24948939
Mycoplasma hominis; quinolones; drug resistance; mutation
29.  Phosphopeptide Enrichment with TiO2-Modified Membranes and Investigation of Tau Protein Phosphorylation 
Analytical chemistry  2013;85(12):5699-5706.
Selective enrichment of phosphopeptides prior to their analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) is vital for identifying protein phosphorylation sites involved in cellular regulation. This study describes modification of porous nylon substrates with TiO2 nanoparticles to create membranes that rapidly enrich phosphopeptides. Membranes with a 22-mm diameter bind 540 nmol of phosphoangiotensin and recover 70% of the phosphopeptides in mixtures with a 15-fold excess of non-phosphorylated proteins. Recovery is 90% for a pure phosphopeptide. Insertion of small membrane disks into HPLC fittings allows rapid enrichment of 5 mL of 1 fmol/μL phosphoprotein digests and concentration into small-volume (10’s of μL) eluates. The combination of membrane enrichment with tandem mass spectrometry reveals seven phosphorylation sites from in vivo phosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein, which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
doi:10.1021/ac400198n
PMCID: PMC3721342  PMID: 23638980
30.  Protein Phosphatase 2A Catalytic Subunit α (PP2Ac) Plays a MyD88-dependent, Central Role in the Gene-Specific Regulation of Endotoxin Tolerance (ET) 
Cell reports  2013;3(3):678-688.
SUMMARY
MyD88, the intracellular adaptor of most TLRs, mediates either pro-inflammatory or immunosuppressive signaling that contributes to chronic inflammation-associated diseases. Although gene-specific chromatin modifications regulate inflammation, the role of MyD88 signaling in establishing such epigenetic landscapes under different inflammatory states remains elusive. Using quantitative proteomics to enumerate the inflammation-phenotypic constituents of MyD88 interactome, we found that in endotoxin-tolerant macrophages PP2Ac enhances its association with MyD88, and is constitutively activated. Knockdown of PP2Ac prevents suppression of pro-inflammatory genes and resistance to apoptosis. Through sitespecific dephosphorylation constitutively active PP2Ac disrupts the signal-promoting TLR4-MyD88 complex, and broadly suppresses the activities of multiple pro-inflammatory/proapoptotic pathways as well, shifting pro-inflammatory MyD88 signaling to a pro-survival mode. Constitutively active PP2Ac translocated with MyD88 into the nuclei of tolerant macrophages establishes the immunosuppressive pattern of chromatin modifications and represses chromatin remodeling to selectively silence pro-inflammatory genes, coordinating the MyD88-dependent inflammation control at both signaling and epigenetic levels under endotoxin-tolerant conditions.
doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.01.029
PMCID: PMC4060247  PMID: 23434512
31.  A correlational study of suicidal ideation with psychological distress, depression, and demoralization in patients with cancer 
Supportive Care in Cancer  2014;22(12):3165-3174.
Purpose
This study aims to study the effects of depression and demoralization on suicidal ideation and to determine the feasibility of the Distress Thermometer as a screening tool for patients with cancer who experience depression and demoralization, and thus to establish a model screening process for suicide prevention.
Methods
Purposive sampling was used to invite inpatients and outpatients with lung cancer, leukemia, and lymphoma. Two hundred participants completed the questionnaire, which included the Distress Thermometer (DT), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Demoralization Scale-Mandarin Version (DS-MV), and Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. All data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and SAS 9.3.
Results
Tobit regression analysis showed that demoralization influenced suicidal ideation more than depression did (t = 2.84, p < 0.01). When PHQ-9 ≥ 10 and DS-MV ≥42 were used as criteria for the DT, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the AUC values were 0.77–0.79, with optimal cutoff points for both of DT ≥5; sensitivity 76.9 and 80.6 %, respectively; and specificity of 73.9 and 72.2 %, respectively.
Conclusions
Demoralization had more influence on suicidal ideation than depression did. Therefore, attention should be paid to highly demoralized patients with cancer or high demoralization comorbid with depression for the purposes of suicide evaluation and prevention. The DT scale (with a cutoff of ≥5 points) has discriminative ability as a screening tool for demoralization or depression and can also be used in clinical settings for the preliminary screening of patients with cancer and high suicide risk.
doi:10.1007/s00520-014-2290-4
PMCID: PMC4218975  PMID: 24935648
Demoralization syndrome; Depression; Distress thermometer; Suicide risk factor
32.  H2O2 mediates the crosstalk of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid in tomato responses to heat and oxidative stresses 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2014;65(15):4371-4383.
Summary
Brassinosteroids induce H2O2 accumulation from RBOH1-NADPH oxidase, which first induces ABA biosynthesis and stress tolerance, in turn leading to prolonged H2O2 production in both apoplast and chloroplast and stress tolerances.
The production of H2O2 is critical for brassinosteroid (BR)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the relationship between BR and ABA in the induction of H2O2 production and their roles in response to heat and paraquat (PQ) oxidative stresses were studied in tomato. Both BR and ABA induced increases in RBOH1 gene expression, NADPH oxidase activity, apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, and heat and PQ stress tolerance in wild-type plants. BR could only induced transient increases in these responses in the ABA biosynthetic mutant notabilis (not), whereas ABA induced strong and prolonged increases in these responses in the BR biosynthetic mutant d ^im compared with wild-type plants. ABA levels were reduced in the BR biosynthetic mutant but could be elevated by exogenous BR. Silencing of RBOH1 compromised BR-induced apoplastic H2O2 production, ABA accumulation, and PQ stress responses; however, ABA-induced PQ stress responses were largely unchanged in the RBOH1-silenced plants. BR induces stress tolerance involving a positive feedback mechanism in which BR induces a rapid and transient H2O2 production by NADPH oxidase. The process in turn triggers increased ABA biosynthesis, leading to further increases in H2O2 production and prolonged stress tolerance. ABA induces H2O2 production in both the apoplastic and chloroplastic compartments.
doi:10.1093/jxb/eru217
PMCID: PMC4112640  PMID: 24899077
Abscisic acid; brassinosteroid; hydrogen peroxide; NADPH oxidase; Solanum lycopersicum; VIGS.
33.  Chloroplastic thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 play important roles in brassinosteroids-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2014;65(15):4335-4347.
Summary
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was used in this study to characterize the role of thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 in brassinosteroid-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d ^im plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson–Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
doi:10.1093/jxb/eru207
PMCID: PMC4112637  PMID: 24847092
Antioxidant; Benson–Calvin cycle; chloroplast; 2-Cys peroxiredoxin; glutathione; photosynthesis.
34.  Rational Design of Berberine-Based FtsZ Inhibitors with Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97514.
Inhibition of the functional activity of Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protein, an essential and highly conserved bacterial cytokinesis protein, is a promising approach for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid widely used in traditional Chinese and native American medicines for its antimicrobial properties, has been recently reported to inhibit FtsZ. Using a combination of in silico structure-based design and in vitro biological assays, 9-phenoxyalkyl berberine derivatives were identified as potent FtsZ inhibitors. Compared to the parent compound berberine, the derivatives showed a significant enhancement of antibacterial activity against clinically relevant bacteria, and an improved potency against the GTPase activity and polymerization of FtsZ. The most potent compound 2 strongly inhibited the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with MIC values between 2 and 4 µg/mL, and was active against the Gram-negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with MIC values of 32 and 64 µg/mL respectively. The compound perturbed the formation of cytokinetic Z-ring in E. coli. Also, the compound interfered with in vitro polymerization of S. aureus FtsZ. Taken together, the chemical modification of berberine with 9-phenoxyalkyl substituent groups greatly improved the antibacterial activity via targeting FtsZ.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097514
PMCID: PMC4019636  PMID: 24824618
35.  Clinical trial of thalidomide combined with radiotherapy in patients with esophageal cancer 
AIM: To investigate the short-term efficacy and tolerability of radiotherapy plus thalidomide in patients with esophageal cancer (EC).
METHODS: Serum samples from 86 EC patients were collected before, during, and after radiotherapy, and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level was examined by ELISA. According to the change in serum VEGF level during radiotherapy, the patients were divided into two groups: in the drug group, VEGF level was increased or remained unchanged, and thalidomide was administered up to the end of radiotherapy; in the non-drug group, VEGF level was decreased and radiotherapy was given alone. Thirty healthy volunteers served as controls. The efficacy and safety of radiotherapy plus thalidomide therapy were investigated.
RESULTS: The 86 EC patients had a significantly higher level of VEGF compared with the 30 healthy controls before radiotherapy (P < 0.01), and the VEGF level was significantly correlated with primary tumor size, lymph node metastasis, histopathologic type, and clinical stage (P < 0.01). Of 83 evaluable cases, VEGF level was significantly decreased after radiotherapy in 32 patients in the drug group (P < 0.05), with an effective rate of 71.88%. The incidence of dizziness and/or burnout in the drug group and non-drug group was 62.50% and 15.69%, respectively (P = 0.000), and the incidence of somnolence was 12.50% and 0%, respectively (P = 0.019). No significant differences were observed.
CONCLUSION: Thalidomide can down-regulate serum VEGF level in EC patients, and combined with radiotherapy may improve treatment outcome. Thalidomide was well tolerated by EC patients.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i17.5098
PMCID: PMC4009547  PMID: 24803825
Thalidomide; Radiotherapy; Esophageal cancer; Vascular endothelial growth factor
36.  MicroRNA-143 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis and sensitizes chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin in colorectal cancers 
Cell Cycle  2013;12(9):1385-1394.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death in the world. Recently, downregulation of microRNA-143 (miR-143) has been observed in CRC tissues. Here in this study, we found that miR-143 expression was downregulated both in CRC patients’ blood samples and tumor specimens. MiR-143 expression levels were strongly correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), a known oncogene, was a novel direct target of miR-143, whose expression levels were inversely correlated with miR-143 expression in human CRC specimens. Overexpression of miR-143 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, tumor growth and angiogenesis and increased chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin treatment in an IGF-IR-dependent manner. Taken together, these results revealed that miR-143 levels in human blood and tumor tissues are associated with CRC cancer occurrence, metastasis and drug resistance, and miR-143 levels may be used as a new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for CRC in the future.
doi:10.4161/cc.24477
PMCID: PMC3674066  PMID: 23574723
microRNA-143; tumorigenesis; angiogenesis; IGF-IR; chemotherapy
37.  Analysis of Autoinducer-2 Quorum Sensing in Yersinia pestis 
Infection and Immunity  2013;81(11):4053-4062.
The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing system has been linked to diverse phenotypes and regulatory changes in pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the AI-2 system in Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. In strain CO92, the AI-2 signal is produced in a luxS-dependent manner, reaching maximal levels of 2.5 μM in the late logarithmic growth phase, and both wild-type and pigmentation (pgm) mutant strains made equivalent levels of AI-2. Strain CO92 possesses a chromosomal lsr locus encoding factors involved in the binding and import of AI-2, and confirming this assignment, an lsr deletion mutant increased extracellular pools of AI-2. To assess the functional role of AI-2 sensing in Y. pestis, microarray studies were conducted by comparing Δpgm strain R88 to a Δpgm ΔluxS mutant or a quorum-sensing-null Δpgm ΔypeIR ΔyspIR ΔluxS mutant at 37°C. Our data suggest that AI-2 quorum sensing is associated with metabolic activities and oxidative stress genes that may help Y. pestis survive at the host temperature. This was confirmed by observing that the luxS mutant was more sensitive to killing by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting a potential requirement for AI-2 in evasion of oxidative damage. We also show that a large number of membrane protein genes are controlled by LuxS, suggesting a role for quorum sensing in membrane modeling. Altogether, this study provides the first global analysis of AI-2 signaling in Y. pestis and identifies potential roles for the system in controlling genes important to disease.
doi:10.1128/IAI.00880-13
PMCID: PMC3811820  PMID: 23959719
38.  A case of horizontal gene transfer from Wolbachia to Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line 
Mobile Genetic Elements  2014;4:e28914.
Horizontal gene transfer plays an essential role in evolution and ecological adaptation, yet this phenomenon has remained controversial, particularly where it occurs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. There are a handful of reported examples of horizontal gene transfer occurring between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in the literature, with most of these documented cases pertaining to invertebrates and endosymbionts. However, the vast majority of these horizontally transferred genes were either eventually excluded or rapidly became nonfunctional in the recipient genome. In this study, we report the discovery of a horizontal gene transfer from the endosymbiont Wolbachia in the C6/36 cell line derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Moreover, we report that this horizontally transferred gene displayed high transcription level. This finding and the results of further experimentation strongly suggest this gene is functional and has been expressed and translated into a protein in the mosquito host cells.
doi:10.4161/mge.28914
PMCID: PMC4013104  PMID: 24812591
horizontal gene transfer; endosymbiont; Wolbachia; mosquito; Aedes Albopictus; C6/36 cell line
39.  Antagonism of a Zinc Metalloprotease Using a Unique Metal-Chelating Scaffold: Tropolones as Inhibitors of P. aeruginosa Elastase†‡ 
Tropolone emerged from the screening of a chelator fragment library (CFL) as an inhibitor of the Zn2+-dependent virulence factor, Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (LasB). Based on this initial hit, a series of substituted tropolone-based LasB inhibitors was prepared, and a compound displaying potent activity in vitro and in a bacterial swarming assay was identified. Importantly, this inhibitor was found to be specific for LasB over other metalloenzymes, validating the usage of tropolone as a viable scaffold for identifying first-in-class LasB inhibitors.
doi:10.1039/c3cc41191e
PMCID: PMC3618488  PMID: 23482955
40.  Ribosomal Protein S29 Regulates Metabolic Insecticide Resistance through Binding and Degradation of CYP6N3 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94611.
Background
Many diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes, including malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, and West Nile fever. Chemical control plays a major role in managing mosquito-borne diseases. However, excessive and continuous application of insecticides has caused the development of insecticide resistance in many species including mosquito, and this has become the major obstacle to controlling mosquito-borne diseases. Insecticide resistance is the result of complex polygenic inheritance, and the mechanisms are not well understood. Ribosomal protein RPS29 was found to be associated with DM resistance in our previous study. In this study, we aim to further investigate the involvement of RPS29 in deltamethrin resistance.
Methodology and Principal Findings
In this study, tandem affinity purification was used to identify proteins that can interact with RPS29. Among the candidate proteins, CYP6N3, a member of the CYP450 superfamily, was identified, and binding to RPS29 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by GST pull-down and immunofluorescence. CCK-8 assay was used to investigate the RPS29-CTP6N3 interaction in relation to DM resistance. CYP6N3 overexpression significantly enhanced DM resistance and insect cell viability, but this was reversed by RPS29 overexpression. Western blot was used to study the mechanism of interaction between RPS29 and CYP6N3. RPS29 increases CYP6N3 protein degradation through the proteasome.
Conclusions and Significance
These observations indicate that CYP6N3, a novel RPS29-interacting partner, could stimulate deltamethrin resistance in mosquito cells and RPS29 overexpression targeted CYP6N3 for proteosomal degradation, abrogating the CYP6N3-associated resistence to deltamethrin. Our findings provide a novel mechanism associated with CYP450s mediated DM resistance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094611
PMCID: PMC3984272  PMID: 24728095
41.  The adhesion of mussel foot protein-3 to TiO2 surfaces: the effect of pH 
Biomacromolecules  2013;14(4):1072-1077.
The underwater adhesion of marine mussels relies on mussel foot proteins (mfps) rich in the catecholic amino acid 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa). As a side-chain, Dopa is capable of strong bidentate interactions with a variety of surfaces, including many minerals and metal oxides. Titanium is among the most widely used medical implant material and quickly forms a TiO2 passivation layer under physiological conditions. Understanding the binding mechanism of Dopa to TiO2 surfaces is therefore of considerable theoretical and practical interest. Using a surface forces apparatus, we explored the force-distance profiles and adhesion energies of mussel foot protein 3 (mfp-3) to TiO2 surfaces at three different pHs (pH3, 5.5 and 7.5). At pH3, mfp-3 showed the strongest adhesion force on TiO2, with an adhesion energy of ~ −7.0 mJ/m2. Increasing the pH gives rise to two opposing effects: (1) increased oxidation of Dopa, thus decreasing availability for the Dopa-mediated adhesion, and (2) increased bidentate Dopa-Ti coordination, leading to the further stabilization of the Dopa group and thus an increasing of adhesion force. Both effects were reflected in the resonance-enhanced Raman spectra obtained at the three deposition pHs. The two competing effects give rise to a higher adhesion force of mfp-3 on TiO2 surface at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.5. Our results suggest that Dopa-containing proteins and synthetic polymers have great potential as coating materials for medical implant materials, particularly if redox activity can be controlled.
doi:10.1021/bm301908y
PMCID: PMC3635841  PMID: 23452271
42.  Acupuncture for Essential Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Sham-Controlled Clinical Trials 
Background. Acupuncture is frequently advocated as an adjunct treatment for essential hypertension. The aim of this review was to assess its adjunct effectiveness in treating hypertension. Methods. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP through November, 2012, for eligible randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture. Outcome measures were changes in diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Results. A total of 4 randomized controlled trials were included. We found no evidence of an improvement with the fact that acupuncture relative to sham acupuncture in SBP change (n = 386; mean difference = −3.80 mmHg, 95% CI = −10.03–2.44 mmHg; I2 = 99%), and an insignificant improvement in DBP change (n = 386; mean difference = −2.82 mmHg, 95% CI = −5.22–(−0.43) mmHg; I2 = 97%). In subgroup analyses, acupuncture significantly improved both SBP and DBP in patients taking antihypertensive medications. Only minor acupuncture-related adverse events were reported. Conclusions. Our results are consistent with acupuncture significantly lowers blood pressure in patients taking antihypertensive medications. We did not find that acupuncture without antihypertensive medications significantly improves blood pressure in those hypertensive patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/279478
PMCID: PMC3960742  PMID: 24723957
43.  Immunomodulation and the quorum sensing molecule 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone: The importance of chemical scaffolding for probe development† 
As a guide for chemical probe design, focused analogue synthetic studies were undertaken upon the lactone ring of 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone. We have concluded that hydrolytic instability of the heterocyclic ring is pivotal for its ability to modulate immune signaling and probe preparation was aligned with these findings.
doi:10.1039/c3cc38851d
PMCID: PMC3566768  PMID: 23328974
44.  Expression of IGFBP-6 in a proliferative vitreoretinopathy rat model and its effects on retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation and migration 
AIM
To investigate the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6) in a proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) model and its effects on proliferation and migration in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.
METHODS
A PVR Wistar rat model was established by the intravitreal injection of RPE-J cells combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The expression levels of IGFBP-6 were tested by ELISA. ARPE-19 cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTS method, and cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assays.
RESULTS
The success rate of the PVR model was 89.3% (25/28). IGFBP-6 was expressed at higher levels in the vitreous, serum and retina of rats experiencing advanced PVR (grade 3) than in the control group (vitreous: 152.80±15.08ng/mL vs 105.44±24.81ng/mL, P>0.05; serum: 93.48±9.27ng/mL vs 80.59±5.20ng/mL, P<0.05; retina: 3.02±0.38ng/mg vs 2.05±0.53ng/mg, P<0.05). In vitro, IGFBP-6 (500ng/mL) inhibited the IGF-II (50ng/mL) induced ARPE-19 cell proliferation (OD value at 24h: from 1.38±0.05 to 1.30±0.02; 48h: from 1.44±0.06 to 1.35±0.05). However, it did not affect basal or VEGF-, TGF-β- and PDGF-induced cell proliferation. IGFBP-6 (500ng/mL) reduced the IGF-II (50ng/mL)-induced would healing rate [24h: from (43.91±3.85)% to (29.76±2.49)%; 48 h: from (66.09±1.67)% to (59.88±3.43)%].
CONCLUSION
Concentrations of IGFBP-6 increased in the vitreous, serum, and retinas only in advanced PVR in vivo. IGFBP-6 also inhibited IGF-II-induced cell proliferation in a not dose or time dependent manner and migration. IGFBP-6 participates in the development of PVR and might play a protective role in PVR.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2014.01.05
PMCID: PMC3949454  PMID: 24634859
insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6; proliferative vitreoretinopathy; retinal pigment epithelial cells
45.  Prediction of Early Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer by Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:135841.
Purpose. To determine whether change of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer underwent chest MR imaging including DWI before and at the end of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor's mean ADC value and diameters on MR images were calculated and compared. The grouping reference was based on serial CT scans according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Logistic regression was applied to assess treatment response prediction ability of ADC value and diameters. Results. The change of ADC value in partial response group was higher than that in stable disease group (P = 0.004). ROC curve showed that ADC value could predict treatment response with 100% sensitivity, 64.71% specificity, 57.14% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 82.7% accuracy. The area under the curve for combination of ADC value and longest diameter change was higher than any parameter alone (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusions. The change of ADC value may be a sensitive indicator to predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Prediction ability could be improved by combining the change of ADC value and longest diameter.
doi:10.1155/2014/135841
PMCID: PMC3943194  PMID: 24688359
46.  Cell cycle–related genes as modifiers of age of onset of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome: a large-scale study in non-Hispanic white patients 
Carcinogenesis  2012;34(2):299-306.
Heterogeneity in age of onset of colorectal cancer in individuals with mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) suggests the influence of other lifestyle and genetic modifiers. We hypothesized that genes regulating the cell cycle influence the observed heterogeneity as cell cycle–related genes respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for repair and induce transcription of genes that facilitate repair. We examined the association of 1456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 128 cell cycle–related genes and 31 DNA repair–related genes in 485 non-Hispanic white participants with Lynch syndrome to determine whether there are SNPs associated with age of onset of colorectal cancer. Genotyping was performed on an Illumina GoldenGate platform, and data were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) methods. Ten SNPs were independently significant in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model after correcting for multiple comparisons (P < 5×10–4). Furthermore, risk modeling using CART analysis defined combinations of genotypes for these SNPs with which subjects could be classified into low-risk, moderate-risk and high-risk groups that had median ages of colorectal cancer onset of 63, 50 and 42 years, respectively. The age-associated risk of colorectal cancer in the high-risk group was more than four times the risk in the low-risk group (hazard ratio = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.16–6.92). The additional genetic markers identified may help in refining risk groups for more tailored screening and follow-up of non-Hispanic white patients with Lynch syndrome.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs344
PMCID: PMC3564440  PMID: 23125224
47.  The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease 
Neural Regeneration Research  2014;9(3):329-336.
Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system development. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system development and related diseases.
doi:10.4103/1673-5374.128232
PMCID: PMC4146145  PMID: 25206819
nerve regeneration; brain injury; spinal cord injury; review; Olig family; oligodendrocytes; astrocytes; central nervous system disease; demyelination; development; differentiation; NSFC grant; neural regeneration
48.  E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP and NBR1-Mediated Selective Autophagy Protect Additively against Proteotoxicity in Plant Stress Responses 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(1):e1004116.
Plant stress responses require both protective measures that reduce or restore stress-inflicted damage to cellular structures and mechanisms that efficiently remove damaged and toxic macromolecules, such as misfolded and damaged proteins. We have recently reported that NBR1, the first identified plant autophagy adaptor with a ubiquitin-association domain, plays a critical role in plant stress tolerance by targeting stress-induced, ubiquitinated protein aggregates for degradation by autophagy. Here we report a comprehensive genetic analysis of CHIP, a chaperone-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana implicated in mediating degradation of nonnative proteins by 26S proteasomes. We isolated two chip knockout mutants and discovered that they had the same phenotypes as the nbr1 mutants with compromised tolerance to heat, oxidative and salt stresses and increased accumulation of insoluble proteins under heat stress. To determine their functional interactions, we generated chip nbr1 double mutants and found them to be further compromised in stress tolerance and in clearance of stress-induced protein aggregates, indicating additive roles of CHIP and NBR1. Furthermore, stress-induced protein aggregates were still ubiquitinated in the chip mutants. Through proteomic profiling, we systemically identified heat-induced protein aggregates in the chip and nbr1 single and double mutants. These experiments revealed that highly aggregate-prone proteins such as Rubisco activase and catalases preferentially accumulated in the nbr1 mutant while a number of light-harvesting complex proteins accumulated at high levels in the chip mutant after a relatively short period of heat stress. With extended heat stress, aggregates for a large number of intracellular proteins accumulated in both chip and nbr1 mutants and, to a greater extent, in the chip nbr1 double mutant. Based on these results, we propose that CHIP and NBR1 mediate two distinct but complementary anti-proteotoxic pathways and protein's propensity to aggregate under stress conditions is one of the critical factors for pathway selection of protein degradation.
Author Summary
Environmental stresses such as heat cause generation of misfolded and damaged proteins, which are highly toxic and must be efficiently removed. In plants, NBR1, the first isolated autophagy receptor with an ubiquitin-association domain, plays a critical role in plant stress tolerance by targeting ubiquitinated protein aggregates under stress conditions for degradation by autophagy. To study how stress-induced misfolded and damaged proteins are detected and ubiquitinated in plant cells, we analyzed the chaperone-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP from Arabidopsis thaliana for its role in protection against proteotoxicity in plant stress responses. Disruption of Arabidopsis CHIP caused increased sensitivity to a spectrum of abiotic stresses as found in the Arabidopsis nbr1 mutants. Disruption of both Arabidopsis CHIP and NBR1 further compromised plant stress tolerance, indicating that their roles are additive. Furthermore, in the chip nbr1 double mutant, compromised heat tolerance was associated with increased accumulation of insoluble proteins derived mostly from heat-sensitive but biologically important proteins such as Rubisco activase, catalases and proteins required for protein synthesis and folding. Importantly, stress-induced protein aggregates were still highly ubiquitinated in the chip mutants. These results strongly suggest that CHIP and NBR1 function in two distinct but complementary anti-proteotoxic pathways in plant stress responses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004116
PMCID: PMC3907298  PMID: 24497840
49.  Genome sequence of Anopheles sinensis provides insight into genetics basis of mosquito competence for malaria parasites 
BMC Genomics  2014;15:42.
Background
Anopheles sinensis is an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, which is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of recurring malaria throughout Asia, and particularly in China, Korea, and Japan.
Results
We performed 454 next-generation sequencing and obtained a draft sequence of A. sinensis assembled into scaffolds spanning 220.8 million base pairs. Analysis of this genome sequence, we observed expansion and contraction of several immune-related gene families in anopheline relative to culicine mosquito species. These differences suggest that species-specific immune responses to Plasmodium invasion underpin the biological differences in susceptibility to Plasmodium infection that characterize these two mosquito subfamilies.
Conclusions
The A. sinensis genome produced in this study, provides an important resource for analyzing the genetic basis of susceptibility and resistance of mosquitoes to Plasmodium parasites research which will ultimately facilitate the design of urgently needed interventions against this debilitating mosquito-borne disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-42
PMCID: PMC3901762  PMID: 24438588
Genome; Anopheles sinensis; Malaria
50.  Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: a case report and review of the literature 
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a rare malignant tumor that has a poor prognosis. It affects predominantly young males. In the current report, a 14-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for evaluation of abdominal distension, and abdominal pain. Imaging examination revealed a high prevalence of multiple intraperitoneal and liver parenchymal cystic and solid tumors. After an explorative surgery, the pathological findings confirmed the presentation of desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumor could easily have been overlooked since there was no specific evidence for this condition available in the clinical and imaging examinations. In the present study, ultrasound examination detected solid cystic masses, which suggested the presence of necrosis and hemorrhage. Immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumor in this patient.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-12-9
PMCID: PMC3976550  PMID: 24410799
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor; Imaging; Pathology

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