This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion from the Second International Patient Safety Conference held in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to: (1) review the conceptual framework for building capacity in quality and safety in critical care. (2) examine examples of leading international experiences in building capacity. (3) review the experience in Saudi Arabia in this area. (4) discuss the role of building capacity in simulation for patient safety in critical care and (5) review the experience in building capacity in an ongoing improvement project for severe sepsis and septic shock.
Building capacity; critical care; safety culture; sepsis; simulation
Thoracic sarcoidosis is a common disease, with well-described and recognizable radiographic features. Nevertheless, most physicians are not familiar with the rare atypical often-confusing manifestations of thoracic sarcoid. Although these findings have been previously reviewed, but more recent advances in imaging and laboratory science, need to be incorporated. We present a review of literature and illustrate the review with unpublished data, intended to provide a more recent single comprehensive reference to assist with the diagnosis when atypical radiographic findings of thoracic sarcoidosis are encountered. Thoracic involvement accounts for most of morbidity and mortality associated with sarcoidosis. An accurate timely identification is required to minimize morbidity and mortality. It is essential to recognize atypical imaging findings and relate these to clinical manifestations and histology.
Atypical; cardiology; chest; radiology; sarcoidosis
Hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) may be managed by either respiratory specialists (RS) or general medicine physicians (GMP). While previous studies have audited the hospital AECOPD management of RS, only a small number of studies have evaluated the management of GMP.
The aims of this study were to firstly examine the differences in AECOPD management of GMP and RS and secondly compare their care to national COPD guidelines.
A retrospective review was undertaken of consecutive AECOPD patients admitted to two hospitals (one hospital where all AECOPD patients were managed by RS and another where all AECOPD patients were managed by GMP) over a 3-month period. Electronic medical records, medical case notes, pathology and radiology data for the admission were reviewed.
There were 201 COPD exacerbations in 169 patients (49.7% male, mean age 72.3). GMP managed 84 (41.7%) exacerbations. In comparison to RS, GMP performed fewer spirometry tests, blood gas analysis and less frequently treated patients with guideline-recommended medications. Referral to pulmonary rehabilitation was poor for both groups of clinicians. Median length of stay was shorter in GMP patients versus RS patients (3 days vs. 5 days, P = 0.001). There were no differences in the 12-month re-admission (41.7% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.664) and mortality rates (10.7% vs. 6%, P = 0.292) between both groups of patients.
Our study found differences in the hospital AECOPD management of GMP and RS, but these did not translate into different clinical outcomes between their patients. We also found suboptimal adherence to national COPD guidelines, suggesting that there is scope for improvement in the AECOPD management of both groups of clinicians.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; disease exacerbation; guideline; hospitalization; specialization
Targeting epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) is an innovative approach to managing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which harbors EGFR mutation. However, the efficacy of these agents like erlotinib in patients without the mutation is not known.
This systematic review included Phase III randomized clinical trials that compared single agent erlotinib to other management options in the setting of NSCLC with reported outcome data on patients with EGFR wild type (EGFRWT) tumors. Outcome data include overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR). Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies.
Three studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 2044 patients with outcome data on 674 patients with EGFRWT tumors (33%). Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant improvement in OS with erlotinib (hazard ratio of 0.780; 95% confidence interval: 0.654-0.930, P = 0.006). Data were not available to perform PFS or RR analysis. The quality of this evidence is considered to be moderate to high.
Our study revealed a significant benefit of erlotinib in patient with EGFRWT tumors compared with other approaches. These findings add another therapeutic option to patients generally considered difficult to treat.
Epidermal growth factor; erlotinib; non-small cell lung cancer
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been associated with neonatal lung morbidity and MMP dysregulation contributes to the pathology of chronic and acute lung disorders. Most of the previous studies were performed in the 1st weeks of life of the preterm newborns. There are no data on the serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 or tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) from preterm infants recovering from lung morbidities. We aimed to compare MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels in preterm and term infants hospitalized with their first episode of wheezing.
We prospectively evaluated 18 preterm infants with a history of chronic lung disease, respiratory distress syndrome or oxygen therapy and 14 age- and sex-matched term infants who were admitted for a first episode of wheezing. We quantified total serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 to assess whether these serum markers levels were associated with the first episode of wheezing in infants with a history of oxygen therapy during the neonatal period.
Upon hospitalization, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels were higher in preterm infants than in term infants. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between MMP-9 levels or the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio between preterm and term infants. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for MMP-2 was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.89). The area under the curve for TIMP-1 was 0.78 (95% CI 0.61-0.94). MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels did not correlate with gestational age, gender or severity of wheezing.
The negative proportion of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 that we detected in term infants was not present in preterm infants. The balance of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 may have been disrupted by lung damage in the premature infants. Overproduction of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in the serum may be associated with the pathogenesis of wheezing in preterm infants.
Matrix metalloproteinases; matrix metalloproteinases-2; matrix metalloproteinases-9; preterm; tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases-1; wheezing
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO) analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure.
A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS.
Of the study population 151 (27%) women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73%) self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%), the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%), the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%), and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%).
The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.
Breath carbon monoxide analyzer; environmental tobacco smoke; pregnancy; Saudi Arabia
In patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS), the severity of bronchial stenosis affects the restenosis rate after the silicone stent is removed. In PTBS patients with incomplete bronchial obstruction, who had a favorable prognosis, the timing of stent removal to ensure airway patency is not clear.
We evaluated the time for silicone stent removal in patients with incomplete PTBS.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
A retrospective study examined PTBS patients who underwent stenting and removal of a silicone stent.
Incomplete bronchial stenosis was defined as PTBS other than total bronchial obstruction, which had a luminal opening at the stenotic segment on bronchoscopic intervention. The duration of stenting was defined as the interval from stent insertion to removal. The study included 44 PTBS patients and the patients were grouped at intervals of 6 months according to the duration of stenting.
Patients stented for more than 12 months had a significantly lower restenosis rate than those stented for less than 12 months (4% vs. 35%, P = 0.009). Multiple logistic regression revealed an association between stenting for more than 12 months and a low restenosis rate (odds ratio 12.095; 95% confidence interval 1.097-133.377). Moreover, no restenosis was observed in PTBS patients when the stent was placed more than 14 months previously.
In patients with incomplete PTBS, stent placement for longer than 12 months reduced restenosis after stent removal.
Airway obstruction; bronchoscopy; device removal; stents; tuberculosis
The purpose of this study was to assess the available pediatric pulmonary services, in terms of workforce, resources, and distribution across Saudi Arabia. This would help in proper utilization of resources and direct future planning.
A cross-sectional survey among pediatric pulmonologists registered in the Saudi Thoracic Society.
Among 43 practicing pediatric pulmonologist in Saudi Arabia, 29 have responded to the survey (response rate of 67.4%). The majority of practicing pediatric pulmonologists were young graduates with less than 5 years’ experience (44.8%) and were North American training programs graduates (69%). The majority of the respondents (51%) were located in Riyadh, 27% in Jeddah, 14% in the Eastern region and 3% in Madinah and Al-Majma’a. Most of the respondents had access to basic diagnostic tools required in the subspecialty, a majority of them (85%) lack dedicated pediatric pulmonary function laboratories. Nearly, 80% of the hospitals performed less than 50 flexible bronchoscopies/year.
Pediatric pulmonology is a growing subspecialty in Saudi Arabia with well-trained and experienced physicians. Our study represents an overview of the available pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia, which would help in future planning and better utilization of the available resources.
Pediatrics; pulmonary; respiratory; Saudi Arabia
We present an interesting case of a complete vanishing of the left main bronchus in a lung transplant recipient who had a successful outcome due to acute respiratory support with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in order to perform airway dilation.
Acute; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; left main bronchus; lung transplantation; vanishing; venovenous
Bronchial atresia (BA) is characterized by a mucus-filled bronchocele in a blind-ending segmental or lobar bronchus with hyperinflation of the obstructed segment of the lung. We describe a neonate who presented on his 9th day of life with respiratory distress. Chest computed tomography showed a soft tissue density involving the right middle lobe (RML). RML lobectomy confirmed the diagnosis of BA. Cytomegalovirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and tracheal aspirates which may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of BA.
Bronchial atresia; congenital; cytomegalovirus; infection; neonate
The morbidity and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome remain to be high. Over the last 50 years, the clinical management of these patients has undergone vast changes. Significant improvement in the care of these patients involves the development of mechanical ventilation strategies, but the benefits of these strategies remain controversial. With a growing trend of extracorporeal support for critically ill patients, we provide a historical review of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) including its failures and successes as well as discussing extracorporeal devices now available or nearly accessible while examining current clinical indications and trends of ECMO in respiratory failure.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome; extracorporeal life support; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
There are reports of greater survival rates in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients of female gender. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of gender in survival of NSCLC patients treated surgically with curative intent (stage I/II).
In a retrospective cohort design, we screened 498 NSCLC patients submitted to thoracotomies at the hospital Sγo Lucas, in Porto Alegre, Brazil from 1990 to 2009. After exclusion of patients that did not fit to all the inclusion criteria, we analyzed survival rates of 385 subjects. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model was used to evaluate potential confounding factors.
Survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 65.3% and 49.5% for women and 46.5% and 33.2% for men, respectively (P = 0.006). Considering only stage I patients, the survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 76.2% and 55.1% for women and 50.7% and 35.4% for men, respectively (P = 0.011). No significant differences in survival rates were found among stage II patients.
Our results show female gender as a possible protective factor for better survival of stage I NSCLC patients, but not among stage II patients. This study adds data to the knowledge that combined both genders survival rates for NSCLC is not an adequate prognosis.
Gender; lung cancer mortality; nonsmall cell lung cancer surgery; nonsmall cell lung cancer survival
To evaluate tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and trends over a period of 20 years (1991-2010) and assess the impact of the National TB Control Program (NTP) on incidence trends.
This is a retrospective study of TB surveillance data reported by the Ministry of Health. We evaluated TB incidence data by nationality, age, and region of the country and assessed incidence trends over 20 years of study. Chi-squared test was used to assess trend change and its significance.
There were a total of 64,345 reported TB cases over the study period. Of these 48% were Non-Saudis. TB annual incidence rate ranged between 14 and 17/100,000. For Saudis, the rate ranged between 8.6 and 12.2/100,000. Non-Saudis had 2-3 times higher incidence. Disease trend was rising over the first 10 years of the study period then it started to fall slightly. The incidence increased with age, but only people older than 45 years showed a declining trend. Regional variations were observed. Makkah and Jazan regions had the highest incidence rates. Disease trends were rising over the last 10 years in Makkah and Central regions.
TB control seems to be facing some challenges in several regions of the Kingdom. NTP needs to evaluate and improve TB control strategies in order to reduce disease incidence to elimination levels.
Epidemiology; incidence trend; Saudi Arabia; tuberculosis
Fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a common procedure performed in immunocompromised patients with undiagnosed pulmonary pathology. Identifying patients with the highest potential diagnostic yield may help to avoid morbidity in patients unlikely to benefit from the procedure. We sought to determine which patient factors, specifically chest computed tomography (CT) findings, affected diagnostic yield of BAL.
Retrospective chart review of immunocompromised patients who underwent FOB with BAL from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2011 at an academic medical center was performed. The lung lobe lavaged, characteristics of pulmonary infiltrate on radiograph, patient symptoms, and diagnostic yield were collected. A positive diagnostic yield was defined as a positive microbiological culture, finding on cytopathologic staining, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, alveolar eosinophilia or a positive immunologic or nucleic acid assay.
The overall diagnostic yield was 52.6%. Infiltrates that were predominantly reticular or nodular by CT had a lower diagnostic yield than predominantly consolidated, ground-glass, or tree-in-bud infiltrates (36.5% vs. 61.2%, P = 0.0058). The diagnostic yield was significantly improved in patients with both fever and chest symptoms compared to patients without symptoms (61.3% vs. 29.6%, P = 0.0066).
CT findings of reticular and nodular infiltrates portend a worse diagnostic yield from BAL than those that are alveolar in nature. Symptomatic patients are more likely to have diagnostic FOB with BAL than asymptomatic patients.
Bronchoscopy; computed tomography; immunodeficiency; respiratory infection; respiratory symptoms
To investigate the surgical approach and outcomes, as well as prognostic factors for pulmonary metastasectomy.
Clinical data of 201 patients treated by pulmonary metastasectomy between January 1990 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred thirty three patients were received an approach of thoracotomy while 68 with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). There were 54 lobectomies, 139 wedge resections and 8 pneumonectomies. Hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes dissection or sampling was carried out in 38 patients with lobectomy. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis.
The 5 years survival rate of patients after metastasectomy was 50.5%, and the median survival time was 65.9 months. The median survival time of patients with hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis was 23 months. By univariate analysis, significant prognostic factors included disease-free interval (DFI), number of metastases, number of affected lobe, surgical approach (open vs. VATS) and pathology types. DFI, number of metastases, and pathology types were revealed by Cox multivariate analysis as independent prognostic factors.
Surgical resection of pulmonary metastases is safe and effective. Palpation of the lung is still seen as necessary to detect the occult nodule. More accurate and sensitive pre-operative mediastinal staging are required.
Prognosis; pulmonary metastasis; surgery
Didactic lectures are frequently used to improve compliance with practice guidelines. This study assessed the knowledge of health-care providers (HCPs) at a tertiary-care hospital of its evidence-based thromboprophylaxis guidelines and the impact of didactic lectures on their knowledge.
The hospital launched a multifaceted approach to improve thromboprophylaxis practices, which included posters, a pocket-size guidelines summary and didactic lectures during the annual thromboprophylaxis awareness days. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to HCPs before and after lectures on thromboprophylaxis guidelines (June 2010). The questionnaire, formulated and validated by two physicians, two nurses and a clinical pharmacist, covered various subjects such as risk stratification, anticoagulant dosing and the choice of anticoagulants in specific clinical situations.
Seventy-two and 63 HCPs submitted the pre- and post-test, respectively (62% physicians, 28% nurses, from different clinical disciplines). The mean scores were 7.8 ± 2.1 (median = 8.0, range = 2-12, maximum possible score = 15) for the pre-test and 8.4 ± 1.8 for the post-test, P = 0.053. There was no significant difference in the pre-test scores of nurses and physicians (7.9 ± 1.7 and 8.2 ± 2.4, respectively, P = 0.67). For the 35 HCPs who completed the pre- and post-tests, their scores were 7.7 ± 1.7 and 8.8 ± 1.6, respectively, P = 0.003. Knowledge of appropriate anticoagulant administration in specific clinical situations was frequently inadequate, with approximately two-thirds of participants failing to adjust low-molecular-weight heparin doses in patients with renal failure.
Education via didactic lectures resulted in a modest improvement of HCPs′ knowledge of thromboprophylaxis guidelines. This supports the need for a multifaceted approach to improve the awareness and implementation of thromboprophylaxis guidelines.
Clinical practice guidelines; continuing medical education; health knowledge; practice guidelines; questionnaires; venous thromboembolism
This study compares early and late outcomes for treatment by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) versus treatment by thoracotomy for clinical N0, but post-operatively unexpected, pathologic N2 disease (cN0-pN2).
Clinical records of patients with unexpected N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent VATS were retrospectively reviewed, and their early and late outcomes were compared to those of patients undergoing conventional thoracotomy during the same period.
VATS lobectomy took a longer time than thoracotomy (P < 0.001), but removal of thoracic drainage and patient discharge were earlier for patients in the VATS group (P < 0.001). There was no difference in lymph node dissection, mortality and morbidity between the two groups (P > 0.05). The median follow-up time for 287 patients (89.7%) was 37.0 months (range: 7.0-69.0). The VATS group had a longer survival time than for the thoracotomy group (median 49.0 months vs. 31.7 months, P < 0.001). The increased survival time of the VATS group was due to patients with a single station of N2 metastasis (P = 0.001), rather than to patients with multiple stations of N2 metastasis (P = 0.225).
It is both feasible and safe to perform VATS lobectomy on patients with unexpected N2 NSCLC. VATS provides better survival rates for those patients with just one station of metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes.
Non-small cell lung cancer; outcomes; staging; surgery
We describe two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in young healthy adults with no underlying structural lung disease. The onset of pneumothorax was following physical activity including playing musical instruments and blowing of balloons. There is sparse data evaluating the pathophysiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to increased mouth pressures. These cases highlight the possible physical effect of valsalva manoeuvre on transpulmonary pressures, and the potential risk of developing pneumothorax in otherwise healthy individuals. This aspect of pneumothorax development is worthy of further exploration, to better elucidate the mechanism and enhance our understanding of this common respiratory presentation.
Musical/wind instruments; spontaneous pneumothorax; valsalva
Gastrobronchial fistula is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with significant morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 30-year-old man who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity and presented later with a history of chronic productive cough. Upper gastrointestinal series showed the presence of a communicating fistula between the stomach and the left lung bronchial tree.
Gastric leak; gastrobronchial fistula; laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; subphrenic collection
The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients’ knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients’ educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center.
The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients’ medication knowledge and the pharmacists’ performance during counseling.
The average age of the participants was 52.9 ± 17.6 years. The participants’ education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study (P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications’ side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge (P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent knowledge of medication side effects compared to only 12.5% for those who did not.
The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications’ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.
Discharge counseling; educational level; medication knowledge; patient counseling
To evaluate treatment results and toxicities in patients who received concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by consolidation with docetaxel and cisplatin in locally advanced unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Ninety three patients were included in this retrospective study. The patients received 66 Gy radiotherapy and weekly 20 mg/m2 docetaxel and 20 mg/m2 cisplatin chemotherapy concomitantly. One month later than the end of CRT, consolidation chemotherapy with four cycles of docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 were administered at each 21 days.
Median age of the patients was 57 (range, 30-74). Following concomitant CRT, 14 patients (15%) showed complete and 50 patients (54%) showed partial response (total response rate was 69%). The median follow-up was 13 months (range: 2-51 months). The median overall survival was 18 months (95% confidential interval [CI]: 13.8-22.1 months); local control was 15 months (95% CI: 9.3-20.6 months); progression-free survival was 9 months (95% CI: 6.5-11.4 months). Esophagitis in eight (9%) patients, neutropenia in seven (8%) patients and pneumonitis in eight (9%) patients developed as grade III-IV toxicity due to concomitant CRT.
Concomitant CRT with docetaxel and cisplatin followed by docetaxel and cisplatin consolidation chemotherapy might be considered as a feasible, and well tolerated treatment modality with high response rates despite the fact that it has not a survival advantage in patients with locally advanced unresectable NSCLC.
Cisplatin; concomitant chemoradiotherapy; docetaxel; non-small cell lung cancer
To highlight a potentially fatal complication of broncho-vascular fistula arising from the self expanding metallic stent (SEMS) placement. We retrospectively analyzed five patients with benign and malignant airway diseases, who developed tracheo/broncho-vascular fistulas following SEMS placement in our tertiary care setting. All patients received either Wallstent or Ultraflex® stent (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) between 1999 and 2007. All patients had received adjunct therapy such as balloon bronchoplasty, laser therapy or electrocautery. Most patients presented with massive hemoptysis. A total of 483 SEMS were placed during this period. SEMS placement can be complicated by Broncho-vascular fistula formation. True incidence and precise time interval between the insertion of stent and onset of this complication is unknown. Additional therapeutic modalities to maintain stent patency may enhance the risk of fistula formation. SEMS should only be used in a select sub-group of patients, after exhaustive evaluation of other treatment options. These cases provide evidence that broncho-vascular fistulas can develop at any time following SEMS placement, suggesting the need for a more cautious approach, especially while using them for a long term management. In benign airway disease, the stent should be removed as soon as healing has taken place.
Benign airways disease; bronchial stents; complications; endobronchial growth; ultraflex; wall stent