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7.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC479028
8.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC479026
9.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC479013
10.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC479011
11.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC478998
12.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC478996
13.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC478982
14.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC478980
15.  Detection and treatment of hypertension in an inner London community. 
A postal survey of a random sample of the population living near St Mary's Hospital, Paddington was taken to determine earlier experience in these people of blood pressure measurement and treatment. Eighty-five per cent of those who could return their questionnaires did so; eighty per cent of the respondents said they had had their blood pressure measured in the past, and 60% reported such a measurement during the previous three years. The respondents aged between 40 and 59 years were invited for a blood pressure screening measurement and 52% responded. Seventy-seven per cent of those found to be hypertensive on screening (systolic greater than or equal to 160 mmHg and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 100 mmHg) said they had had their blood pressure measured during the preceding three years. The reason for the poor control of hypertension in a community, therefore, is more likely to be a failure of doctors to take action on hypertension than a failure to detect it in the first place.
PMCID: PMC478979  PMID: 1009279
16.  Incomplete right bundle branch block and vital capacity. 
Right bundle branch block (RBBB) is occasionally encountered in young persons who lack any other evidence of overt cardiac disease (Hiss and Lamb, 1962; Lancaster, Schechter, and Massing, 1972). The block may be complete or incomplete, the latter being more common. Right bundle branch block has been studied in relation to body weight, obesity, serum cholesterol and glucose levels, and blood pressure, but the results have been negative (Ostrander, 1964; Kannel et al., 1962). Data presented here suggest that incomplete RBBB is related to vital capacity.
PMCID: PMC478978  PMID: 1009278
17.  Adrenosympathetic overactivity under conditions of work stress. 
Serial measurements of urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline, and 11-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion were performed on 32 healthy men under two conditions of work stress; piecework and work on assembly line. A statistically significant increase in adrenaline, noradrenaline, and 11-hydroxycorticosteroids was observed for piecework and assembly line workers compared with salaried and 'ordinary' workers. The results support the assumption that psychosocial factors of an everyday type have significant effects on the sympathoadrenomedullary and adrenocortical function.
PMCID: PMC478977  PMID: 1009277
18.  Obstetric and neonatal care related to outcome. A comparison of two maternity hospitals. 
Infants of birthweight up to 2500 g born in 1966 in two district hospitals were followed-up until their school medical examination at six years. Neonatal mortality rates differed in the two cohorts despite similar maternal age, parity, and social class distribution; differences in the management of labour and in neonatal care may have been responsible. Numbers were small but the prevalence of mild or more severe handicaps among the survivors did not differ significantly between the cohorts; an improved mortality was not achieved at the expense of an increased overall morbidity, although there was a suggestion of a difference in cerebral palsy prevalence. It is suggested that the neonatal mortality rate in conjunction with the prevalence of handicaps among the survivors of low birthweight infants be used as an indicator of the efficacy of perinatal care.
PMCID: PMC478976  PMID: 137759
19.  Drug problems dealt with by 62 London casualty departments. A preliminary report. 
A study of the whole spectrum of drug incidents dealt with in one month by 62 casualty departments in the Greater London area was carried out in the summer of 1975. Apart from demonstrating the large number of such incidents, this preliminary report presents an analysis of the drugs responsible for these episodes, basic demographic characteristics of the drug users, and an estimate of the contribution of drug dependence.
PMCID: PMC478975  PMID: 1009276
20.  NHS resources: scales of variation. 
The dangers inherent in comparing measures of health service provision and usage at high levels of aggregation and of ignoring variations at lower levels are illustrated with particular reference to regional and subregional level in the NHS. Analysis of variance indicates that, for a wide range of variables, there is more variation at the subregional level than regional level.
PMCID: PMC478974  PMID: 827320
21.  Relationship of weight gain in infancy to subcutaneous fat and relative weight at 10 1/2 years of age. 
In a representative sample of 895 schoolchildren, aged between 9 years 10 months and 11 years 2 months, the risk of being overweight or obese was compared between those who had gained weight rapidly during infancy and those whose weight gain had been normal. A substantially increased risk ratio was found only in boys for whom a correlation analysis showed that the total weight gain during the first year of life was associated with the total body mass in relation to height, more or less independently of the degree of fatness at 10 1/2 years of age. In girls, a direct but very weak association was found between weight gain in infancy and the degree of fatness at 10 1/2 years. The implications of these findings with respect to aetiology and the possibilities of prevention are briefly discussed.
PMCID: PMC478973  PMID: 1009275
22.  Weight gain in infancy and physical development between 7 and 10 1/2 years of age. 
Heights and weights were measured in 963 10-year-old children, whose weight data from the first year of life were available. Rapid weight gain in infancy was arbitrarily defined on the basis of sex-specific percentiles of weight gain at four-month intervals and from birth to 12 months. In girls, no significant association between rapid weight gain in infancy and overweight at 10 1/2 years was found. In boys, the association was significant for severe overweight (greater than 120% of standard weight for height). An estimation of the possible benefit of an intervention programme (food restriction in all male infants with rapid weight gain) showed, however, that at the very best 12% of the boys treated in this way could be expected to gain some benefit. The result of a correlation analysis between weight gain in infancy and change in height and relative weight between 7 and 10 1/2 years suggested that the factors which determined weight gain in infancy were no longer operative at ages between 7 and 10 1/2 years.
PMCID: PMC478972  PMID: 1009274
23.  Survival of healthy older people. 
The purpose of this study was to discover any relationships which might exist between measurable variables recorded when a healthy group of men and women, aged 70 years and over, were examined and their subsequent survival time. It was found that height, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, haemoglobin, hand grip power, cardiothoracic ratio, and pulse rate are of no predictive value in the estimation of survival time. Survival is not influenced by marital status or occupational class. For both sexes the degree of kyphosis and age are useful predictive criteria in respect of survival time. However, much research work requires to be done to explain why many people die at the time they do.
PMCID: PMC478971  PMID: 1009273
24.  Low mortality rates in industrial cohort studies due to selection for work and survival in the industry. 
Occupational groups are often described as being relatively healthy because their mortality rates are lower than those of the national average. Although correct this confuses the issue for those who are interested in assessing the effects of exposure to a particular chemical. In a further analysis of data collected in a study of all men ever exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride in Great Britain, three factors have been shown to contribute to the low mortality rates that were observed. The three factors: the selection of a healthy population for employment, the survival in the industry of the healthier men, and the length of time that this population has been pursued, have been quantified. The mortality experience within five years of entering this industry was shown to be as low as 37% of that expected; for circulatory disease and respiratory disease it was as low as 21%. There was a progressive increase in standardized mortality ratio with the length of time since entry so that the effect had almost disappeared 15 years after entry. To avoid confounding the selection effect with the survival effect the latter was measured by separating men who survived 15 years after entering the industry according to whether or not they were still in the industry after this period. Those who had left experienced an overall standardized mortality ratio some 50% higher than those still in the industry. This effect, although consistent in the age groups between 25 and 74 years and for all cause groups studied, was greatest in those aged between 25 and 44 years and for lung cancer and respiratory disease.
PMCID: PMC478970  PMID: 1009272
25.  Influence of personal and family factors on ventilatory function of children. 
We wanted to assess the relative influence of various personal and family factors upon the development of ventilatory function in young children. The relationship of several such factors to peak expiratory flow rates measured at the age of five years was studied in 454 children. These children were members of a birth cohort born between 1963 and 1965 in Harrow, north-west London, who were examined regularly from birth through the first five years of life. Beside its expected association with height, peak expiratory flow rate at the age of five years was also related to a lesser extent with peak expiratory flow rate in parents. Children with a history of lower respiratory illness had mean peak flow rates which were lower than those of children who escaped these illnesses. The earlier the onset of the illness and the more frequent its recurrence, the more marked its effect on ventilatory function. The group of children with a history of asthma and bronchitis had the lowest mean peak expiratory flow rate, but a history of bronchitis or pneumonia alone (that is, without asthma) was also associated with reduced ventilatory function. Respiratory illness beginning in the first year of life was the most potentially modifiable determinant of peak expiratory flow rate in children in this study.
PMCID: PMC478969  PMID: 1009271

Résultats 1-25 (1279)