This study was undertaken in the belief that the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine could prevent apoptosis in the penumbra region following ischemia, taking into account findings that show 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 receptor blockers can prevent apoptosis.
We created 5 groups, each containing 6 animals. Nothing was done on the K-I group used for comparisons with the other groups to make sure adequate ischemia had been achieved. The K-II group was sacrificed on the 1st day after transient focal cerebral ischemia and the K-III group on the 3rd day. The D-I group was administered quetiapine following ischemia and sacrificed on the 1st day while the D-II group was administered quetiapine every day following the ischemia and sacrificed on the 3rd day. The samples were stained with the immunochemical TUNEL method and the number of apoptotic cells were counted.
There was a significant difference between the first and third day control groups (K-II/K-III : p=0.004) and this indicates that apoptotic cell death increases with time. This increase was not encountered in the drug groups (D-I/D-II : p=1.00). Statistical analysis of immunohistochemical data revealed that quetiapine decreased the apoptotic cell death that normally increased with time.
Quetiapine is already in clinical use and is a safe drug, in contrast to many substances that are used to prevent ischemia and are not normally used clinically. Our results and the literature data indicate that quetiapine could help both as a neuronal protector and to resolve neuropsychiatric problems caused by the ischemia in cerebral ischemia cases.
Quetiapine; Neuronal apoptosis; Neuroprotective; Transient focal cerebral ischemia
Although removal of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is essential surgical technique, studies about quantitative measurements of the space broadening by the anterior clinoidectomy are rare. The purposes of this study are to investigate the dimension of the ACP, to quantify the improved exposure of the parasellar space after extradural anterior clinoidectomy and to measure the correlation of each structure around the paraclinoidal area.
Eleven formalin-fixed Korean adult cadaveric heads were used and frontotemporal craniotomies were done bilaterally. The length of C6 segment of the internal carotid artery on its lateral and medial side and optic nerve length were checked before and after anterior clinoidectomy. The basal width and height of the ACP were measured. The relationships among the paraclinoidal structures were assessed. The origin and projection of the ophthalmic artery (OA) were investigated.
The mean values of intradural basal width and height of the ACP were 10.82 mm and 7.61 mm respectively. The mean length of the C6 lateral and medial side increased 49%. The mean length of optic nerve increased 97%. At the parasellar area, the lengths from the optic strut to the falciform liament, distal dural ring, origin of OA were 6.69 mm, 9.36 mm and 5.99 mm, respectively. The distance between CN III and IV was 11.06 mm.
With the removal of ACP, exposure of the C6 segments and optic nerve can expand 49% and 97%, respectively. This technique should be among a surgeon's essential skills for treating lesions around the parasellar area.
Anterior clinoid process; Extradural anterior clinoidectomy; Optic strut; Ophthalmic segment
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate and compare the incidence of diffusion-weighted image (DWI) lesions between the Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) and the Target coil for treating unruptured intracranial aneurysm.
From 2010 to 2011, consecutive 222 patients with an intracranial aneurysm underwent coil embolization. Inclusion criterias were : 1) unruptured intracranial aneurysm, 2) one or more GDC or Target coils used with or without other coils, 3) DWI examination within 24 hours after coiling, and 4) coiling performed without a balloon or stent.
Ninety patients (92 cases) met the inclusion criteria. DWI lesions were detected in 55 (61.1%) of 90 patients. In the GDC group (n=44), DWI lesions were detected in 31 (70.5%). The average number of DWI lesions was 5.0±8.7 (mean±SD; range, 1-40) in aneurysm-related territory. In the Target coil group (n=48), DWI lesions were detected in 24 (50.0%). The number of DWI lesion was 2.1±5.4 (range, 1-32) in aneurysm-related territory. There was no significant correlation between a number of coils and DWI lesions. No significant differences were also observed in the number of DWI lesions in each group.
The GDC and Target coils, which have an electrolytic detachable system, showed no differences in the incidence of DWI lesion.
Air bubble; Coil embolization; Diffusion-weighted imaging; Detachable coil; Thromboembolism
To clarify the landmark for deciding the entry point for C1 lateral mass screws via the posterior arch by using 3-dimensional (3D) computed images.
Resnick insisted that the C1 posterior arch could be divided into pure posterior and lateral lamina (C1 pedicle). Authors studied where this transition point (TP) is located between the posterior lamina and the C1 pedicle and how it can be recognized. The 3D computed images of 86 cadaver C1s (M : F=45 : 41) were used in this study.
The superior ridge of the C1 posterior arch had 2 types of orientation. One was in the vertical direction in the C1 posterior lamina and the other was in the horizontal direction in the C1 pedicle. The TP was located at the border between the 2 areas, the same site as the posterior end of the groove of the vertebral artery. On posterior-anterior projection, the posterior arch was sharpened abruptly at TP. We were unable to identify the TP in 6.4% of specimens due to complete or partial osseous bridges. A total of 93.8% of the TP were located between the most enlarged point of the spinal canal and the medial wall of the vertebral artery.
The anatomic entry zone of C1 lateral laminar screws was clarified and identified based on the TP by using preoperative 3D computed images.
Lateral mass screw; Atlas; Lamina; Entry point; Landmark; Preoperative computed tomography
To suggest a new useful diagnostic technique, principles of the selective excitation technique-magnetic resonance images (Proset-MRI), and to know the precise radiologic findings that can prove symptomatic foraminal and extraforaminal stenosis at L5-S1.
Nineteen patients with symptomatic L5-S1 stenosis were checked by Proset-MRI. Four patients were performed decompressive surgery and 15 patients were performed selective nerve root block (SNRB) at L5. The pain scale of patients was checked by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores at the pre- and post-treatment state.
Proset-MRI findings of patients with symptomatic stenosis are root swelling (RS) and indentation. The comparisons with VAS scores had a meaningful statistical result at each RS (p<0.01) and indentation (p<0.01). However, the findings of RS combined with indentation lacked statistical significance (p=0.0249). In addition, according to a comparison with the treatment modalities, reducing of VAS scores had statistical meaningful significance in decompressive surgery cases (p<0.01), and also in SNRB cases (p<0.01) after a 3-month follow-up period.
The three dimensional Proset-MRI is very useful and sensitive technique to diagnose the symptomatic foraminal and extraforaminal stenosis at L5-S1.
Proset-MRI; Foraminal and extraforaminal stenosis; Nerve root swelling; Indentation
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the prevalence, types, and locations of Modic changes (MCs) in the thoracic spine in a large number of subjects, and to investigate the relation between the distributions of MCs and disc herniations (DHs) in the thoracic spine.
Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists assessed the presence of MCs and DHs by consensus in the thoracic MRIs of 144 patients with non-specific back pain. Patient ages ranged from 22 to 88 years (mean=53.3±14.66 years), and 72 were female (50%). The prevalence, distribution, relation of MCs and DHs was recorded.
MC was observed in 8 of the 144 patients (5.6%) and 10 of 1728 segments (0.58%). The most common MC was type II. Of the 8 patients exhibiting MC, 6 had type II (75.0%), and 2 had mixed MCs (type I/II or type II/III). MCs were distributed mainly at the mid-thoracic level (from T5/6 to T9/10). DH was detected in 18 patients (12.5%), 36 of 1728 segments (2.1%). Of the 10 segments exhibiting MC, 5 had DHs at the same level (50.0%). Accordingly, DH was strongly associated with MC (p=0.000).
A low prevalence of MC was observed in the thoracic spine, and type II MC predominated. The low prevalence of MC in the thoracic spine suggests that it was caused by a relative lack of mobility as compared with the cervical and lumbar spines. And DHs were found to be strongly associated with MCs even in the thoracic spine.
Prevalence; Modic change; Thoracic spine; Disc herniation
Density of the chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is variable. It often appears to be mixed density. Multiple densities of cSDH may result from multiple episodes of trauma. We investigated the frequency of mixed density and the causes of head injuries representing each density.
We could collect 242 cases of chronic SDH. The cSDHs were classified into four groups; hypodensity, homogeneous isodensity, layered type, and mixed type on the basis of CT scans.
The density of cSDH was isodense in 115 patients, hypodense in 31 patients, mixed in 79 cases, and layered in 17 cases. The cSDH was on the left side in 115 patients, on the right side in 70 patients, and bilateral in 40 patients. The history of trauma was identifiable in 122 patients. The etiology could be identified in 67.7% of the hypodense hematomas, while it was obscure in 59.5% of the mixed hematomas.
Mixed density of cSDH results from multiple episodes of trauma, usually in the aged. It is hard to remember all the trivial traumas for the patients with the mixed density cSDHs. Although there were membranes within the mixed density hematomas, burr-holes were usually enough to drain the hematomas.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
Despite several limitations, the Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) is normally used to evaluate trauma systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventable trauma death rate using the TRISS method in severe trauma patients with traumatic brain injury using our emergency department data.
The use of the TRISS formula has been suggested to consider definitively preventable death (DP); the deaths occurred with a probability of survival (Ps) higher than 0.50 and possible preventable death (PP); the deaths occurred with a Ps between 0.50 and 0.25. Deaths in patients with a calculated Ps of less than 0.25 is considered as no-preventable death (NP). A retrospective case review of deaths attributed to mechanical trauma occurring between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011 was conducted.
A total of 565 consecutive severe trauma patients with ISS>15 or Revised Trauma Score<7 were admitted in our institute. We excluded a total of 24 patients from our analysis : 22 patients younger than 15 years, and 2 patients with burned injury. Of these, 221 patients with head injury were analyzed in the final study. One hundred eighty-two patients were in DP, 13 in PP and 24 in NP. The calculated predicted mortality rates were 11.13%, 59.04%, and 90.09%. The actual mortality rates were 12.64%, 61.547%, and 91.67%, respectively.
Although it needs to make some improvements, the present study showed that TRISS performed well in predicting survival of traumatic brain injured patients. Also, TRISS is relatively exact and acceptable compared with actual data, as a simple and time-saving method.
Traumatic brain injury; TRISS; Survival
As a rare cerebrovascular disease, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is caused by various conditions including trauma, infection, oral contraceptive, cancer and hematologic disorders. However, iron deficiency anemia is not a common cause for CVT in adult. Posterior fossa infarction following CVT is not well demonstrated because posterior fossa has abundant collateral vessels. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old man who was admitted with complaints of headache, nausea, and mild dizziness. The patient was diagnosed with isolated lateral sinus thrombosis presenting as cerebellar infarction. Laboratory findings revealed normocytic normochromic anemia due to iron deficiency, and the patient's symptoms were improved after iron supplementation.
Cerebellar infarction; Lateral sinus; Thrombosis; Iron deficiency anemia
Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to solitary spinal aneurysm is extremely rare. A 45-year-old female patient visited the emergency department with severe headache and back pain. Imaging studies showed cerebral SAH in parietal lobe and spinal SAH in thoracolumbar level. Spinal angiography revealed a small pearl and string-like aneurysm of the Adamkiewicz artery at the T12 level. One month after onset, her back pain aggravated, and follow-up imaging study showed arachnoiditis. Two months after onset, her symptoms improved, and follow-up imaging study showed resolution of SAH. The present case of spinal SAH due to rupture of dissecting aneurysm of the Adamkiewicz artery underwent subsequent spontaneous resolution, indicating that the wait-and-see strategy may provide adequate treatment option.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm; Spine
We report a case of 29-year-old man diagnosed as a primary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) lesion of the seventh cervical vertebra. He had paresthesia on both arms, and grasping weakness for 10 days. Cervical magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed an enhancing mass with ventral epidural bulging and cord compression on the seventh cervical vertebra. Additionally, we performed spine series MRI, bone scan and positive emission tomography for confirmation of other bone lesions. These studies showed no other pathological lesions. He underwent anterior cervical corpectomy of the seventh cervical vertebra and plate fixation with iliac bone graft. After surgical management, neurological symptoms were much improved. Histopathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of EG. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence at 12 months postoperative cervical MRI follow-up. We reported symptomatic primary EG of cervical spine successfully treated with surgical resection.
Eosinophilic granuloma; Adult cervical tumor; Surgical approach
Intramuscular stimulation (IMS) is widely used to treat myofascial pain syndrome. IMS is a safe procedure but several complications have been described. To our knowledge, spinal subarachnoid hematoma has never been reported as a complication of an IMS. The authors have experienced a case of spinal subarachnoid hematoma occurring after an IMS, which was tentatively diagnosed as intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage because of severe headache. Patient was successfully treated with surgery. Here, we report our case with a review of literature.
Intramuscular stimulation; Intraspinal subarachnoid hematoma
As a cause of spinal cord compression, intramedullary spinal tuberculoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. Aurthors report a 66-year-old female presented with multiple CNS tuberculomas including spinal intramedullary tuberculoma manifesting paraparesis and urinary dysfunction. We review the clinical menifestation and experiences of previous reported literature.
Tuberculoma; Intramedullary lesion; Antituberculous treatment
Pneumorrhachis, which involves the entrapment of air or gas within the spinal canal, is a rare clinical entity, and the pathogenesis and etiologies of this uncommon entity are various and can present a diagnostic challenge. Usually, pneumorrhachis represents an asymptomatic epiphenomenon but it can produce symptoms associated with its underlying pathology. Here, we report a rare case of symptomatic epidural pneumorrhachis accompanying pneumothorax. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed and a review of the literature is included.
A 39-year old female presented with chronic spinal subdural hematoma manifesting as low back pain and radiating pain from both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) extending from L4 to S2 leading to severe central spinal canal stenosis. One day after admission, she complained of nausea and severe headache. Computed tomography of the brain revealed chronic SDH associated with midline shift. Intracranial chronic SDH was evacuated through two burr holes. Back pain and radiating leg pain derived from the spinal SDH diminished about 2 weeks after admission and spinal SDH was completely resolved on MRI obtained 3 months after onset. Physicians should be aware of such a condition and check the possibility of concurrent cranial SDH in patients with spinal SDH, especially with non-traumatic origin.
Spinal subdural hematoma; Spontaneous; Brain herniation
This study investigates the effect of valproic acid (VPA) on expression of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model.
Adult male rats (n=24) were randomly and blindly allocated into three groups. Laminectomy at T9 was performed in all three groups. In group 1 (sham), only laminectomy was performed. In group 2 (SCI-VPA), the animals received a dose of 200 mg/kg of VPA. In group 3 (SCI-saline), animals received 1.0 mL of the saline vehicle solution. A modified aneurysm clip with a closing force of 30 grams was applied extradurally around the spinal cord at T9, and then rapidly released with cord compression persisting for 2 minutes. The rats were sacrificed and the spinal cord were collected one week after SCI. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting sample were obtained from 5 mm rostral region to the lesion and prepared. We analyzed the nestin immunoreactivity from the white matter of ventral cord and the ependyma of central canal. Nestin and SOX2 were used for markers for NSPCs and analyzed by IHC and western blotting, respectively.
Nestin and SOX2 were expressed significantly in the SCI groups but not in the sham group. Comparing SCI groups, nestin and SOX2 expression were much stronger in SCI-VPA group than in SCI-saline group.
Nestin and SOX2 as markers for NSPCs showed increased expression in SCI-VPA group in comparison with SCI-saline group. This result suggests VPA increases expression of spinal NSPCs in SCI.
Neural stem/progenitor cell; Spinal cord injury; Valproic acid; Nestin; SOX2
To develop a simple, reproducible model of disc degeneration in rabbits through percutaneous annular puncture and to confirm the degree of degeneration over time.
Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits (4 to 5 months old and weighing approximately 3 to 3.5 kg each) underwent annular puncture of the L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5 discs. Rabbits were sacrificed at 4, 8, or 20 weeks after puncture. For a longitudinal study to assess changes in disc height over time, serial X-rays were performed at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 20 weeks for rabbits in the 20-week group. Upon sacrifice, the whole spinal column and discs were extracted and analyzed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and histological staining.
The X-rays showed a slow, progressive decrease in disc height over time. Significant disc space narrowing compared to preoperative disc height was observed during the time period (p<0.001). The MRI grade, aggrecan, and matrix metalloprotease-13 mRNA expression and hematoxylin and eosin/safranin O/anti-collagen II staining were consistently indicative of degeneration, supporting the results of the X-ray data.
Percutaneous annular puncture resulted in slow, reproducible disc degeneration that was confirmed by radiology, biochemistry, and histology. This in vivo model can be used to study and evaluate the safety and efficacy of biologic treatments for degenerative disc disease.
Model, animal; Intervertebral disc degeneration; Minimally invasive procedure
The offset connector can allow medial and lateral variability and facilitate intralaminar screw incorporation into the construct. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without offset connector using a three dimensional finite element model of a C6-7 cervical spine segment.
Finite element models representing C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without the offset connector were developed. Range of motion (ROM) and maximum von Mises stresses in the vertebra for the two techniques were compared under pure moments in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation.
ROM for intralaminar screw construct with offset connector was less than the construct without the offset connector in the three principal directions. The maximum von Misses stress was observed in the C7 vertebra around the pedicle in both constructs. Maximum von Mises stress in the construct without offset connector was found to be 12-30% higher than the corresponding stresses in the construct with offset connector in the three principal directions.
This study demonstrated that the intralaminar screw fixation with offset connector is better than the construct without offset connector in terms of biomechanical stability. Construct with the offset connector reduces the ROM of C6-7 segment more significantly compared to the construct without the offset connector and causes lower stresses around the C7 pedicle-vertebral body complex.
Cervical spine; Intralaminar screw; Finite element method; Biomechanics
After spinal cord injury (SCI), functional and structural reorganization occurs at multiple levels of brain including motor cortex. However, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. The current study was performed to investigate the alterations in the expression of the main regulators of neuronal development, survival and death, in the brain following thoracic contusive SCI in a mouse model.
Eight-week-old female imprinting control region mice (n=60; 30-35 g) were used in this study. We analyzed the expression levels of regulators such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 in the brain following thoracic contusive SCI.
The expression of BDNF levels were elevated significantly compared with control group at 2 weeks after injury (p<0.05). The expression of NGF levels were elevated at 2, 4 weeks compared with control group, but these difference were not significant (p>0.05). The GDNF levels were elevated at 2 week compared with control group, but these differences were not significant (p>0.05). The difference of HDAC1 levels were not significant at 2, 4 and 8 weeks compared with control group (p>0.05).
These results demonstrate that the upregulation of BDNF may play on important role in brain reorganization after SCI.
Spinal cord injury; Regulators; Brain; Brain derived neurotrophic factor; Epigenetic
Several scales are currently used to assess occlusion rates of coiled cerebral aneurysms. This study compared these scales as predictors of recanalization.
Clinical data of 827 patients harboring 901 aneurysms treated by coiling were retrospectively reviewed. Occlusion rates were assessed using angiographic grading scale (AGS), two-dimensional percent occlusion (2DPO), and volumetric packing density (vPD). Every scale had 3 categories. Followed patients were dichotomized into either presence or absence of recanalization. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted, and Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to identify surviving probabilities of recanalization. Lastly, the predictive accuracies of three different scales were measured via Harrell's C index.
The cumulative risk of recanalization was 7% at 12-month, 10% at 24-month, and 13% at 36-month of postembolization, and significantly higher for the second and third categories of every scale (p<0.001). Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of the second and third categories as compared with the first category of AGS (HR : 3.95 and 4.15, p=0.004 and 0.001) and 2DPO (HR : 4.87 and 3.12, p<0.001 and 0.01) were similar. For vPD, there was no association between occlusion rates and recanalization. The validated and optimism-adjusted C-indices were 0.50 [confidence (CI) : -1.09-2.09], 0.47 (CI : -1.10-2.09) and 0.44 (CI : -1.10-2.08) for AGS, 2DPO, and vPD, respectively.
Total occlusion should be reasonably tried in coiling to maximize the benefit of the treatment. AGS may be the best to predict recanalization, whereas vPD should not be used alone.
Intracranial aneurysm; Coil embolization; Outcome scale; Recanalization
Recently, microscope-integrated near infrared indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) has been widely used in cerebrovascular surgery because it provides real-time high resolution images. In our study, we evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative ICG-VA during cerebrovascular surgery.
Between August 2011 and April 2012, 188 patients with cerebrovascular disease were surgically treated in our institution. We used ICG-VA in that operations with half of recommended dose (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg). Postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomography angiography was used to confirm anatomical results.
Intraoperative ICG-VA demonstrated fully occluded aneurysm sack, no neck remnant, and without vessel compromise in 119 cases (93.7%) of 127 aneurysms. Eight clipping (6.3%) of 127 operations were identified as an incomplete aneurysm occlusion or compromising vessel after ICG-VA. In 41 (97.6%) of 42 patients after carotid endarterectomy, the results were the same as that of postoperative angiography with good patency. One case (5.9%) of 17 bypass surgeries was identified as a nonfunctioning anastomosis after ICG-VA, which could be revised successfully. In the two patients of arteriovenous malformation, ICG-VA was useful for find the superficial nature of the feeding arteries and draining veins.
ICG-VA is simple and provides real-time information of the patency of vessels including very small perforators within the field of the microscope and has a lower rate of adverse reactions. However, ICG-VA is not a perfect method, and so a combination of monitoring tools assures the quality of cerebrovascular surgery.
Cerebrovascular surgery; Indocyanine green videoangiography; Intraoperative angiography; Patency of graft; Complete obliteration of aneurysm
We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records and radiographic images of patients who never underwent spinal treatment including diagnosis. The objective of this study is to explain the biomechanical and physiologic characteristics of cervical alignment related to thoracic inlet angle including T1 slope changes in each individual.
We reviewed the cervical CT radiographs of 80 patients who visited ENT outpatient clinic without any symptom, diagnosis and treatment of cervical spine from January 2011 to September 2012. All targeted people were randomized without any prejudice. We assessed the data-T1 slope, Cobb's angle C2-7, neck tilt, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) C2-7 and thoracic inlet angle by the CT radiographs.
The relationships between each value were analyzed and we concluded that Cobb's angle C2-7 gets higher as the T1 slope gets higher, while the SVA C2-7 value decreases.
We propose that the T1 slope is background information in deciding how much angle can be made in the cervical spinal angle of surgical lordotic curvature, especially severe cervical deformity.
T1 slope; Cervical sagittal alignment; Cobb's angle C2-7
We recently experienced self-detachment of the Solitaire stent during mechanical thrombectomy of acute ischemic stroke. Then, we tried to remove the detached stent and to recanalize the occlusion, but failed with endovascular means. The following diffusion weighted image MRI revealed no significant increase in infarction size, therefore, we performed surgical removal of the stent to rescue the patient and to elucidate the reason why the self-detachment occurred. Based upon the operative findings, the stent grabbed the main thrombi but inadvertently detached at a severely tortuous, acutely angled, and circumferentially calcified segment of the internal carotid artery. Postoperative angiography demonstrated complete recanalization of the internal carotid artery. The patient's neurological deficits gradually improved, and the modified Rankin scale score was 2 at three months after surgery. In the retrospective case review, bone window images of the baseline computed tomography (CT) scan corresponded to the operative findings. According to this finding, we hypothesized that bone window images of a baseline CT scan can play a role in terms of anticipating difficult stent retrieval before the procedure.
CT scan; Thrombectomy; Self-detachment; Stent; Stroke
Microvascular decompression is a very effective and relatively safe surgical modality in the treatment of hemifacial spasm. But rare debilitating complications have been reported such as cranial nerve dysfunctions. We have experienced a very rare case of unilateral soft palate palsy without the involvement of vocal cord following microvascular decompression. A 33-year-old female presented to our out-patient clinic with a history of left hemifacial spasm for 5 years. On postoperative 5th day, patient started to exhibit hoarsness with swallowing difficulty. Symptoms persisted despite rehabilitation. Various laboratory work up with magnetic resonance image showed no abnormal lesions. Two years after surgery patient showed complete recovery of unitaleral soft palate palsy. Various etiologies of unilateral soft palate palsy are reviewed as the treatment and prognosis differs greatly on the cause. Although rare, it is important to keep in mind that such complication could occur after microvascular decompression.
Microvascular decompression; Hemifacial spasm; Lower cranial nerve; Soft palate palsy; Vocal cord
Post-stroke atrial fibrillation has been frequently reported especially in the patients with right insular infarct as an evidence of cerebrogenic mechanism affecting on cardiac rhythm. However, conversion to normal sinus rhythm after stroke in patients who had atrial fibrillation has not been reported. A 88-year-old men who had untreated atrial fibrillation was admitted to hospital due to left middle cerebral artery territory infarction. During admission, second ischemic attack occurred in right middle cerebral artery territory. At that time, his atrial fibrillation converted spontaneously to normal sinus rhythm. Restored sinus rhythm sustained until he died due to sepsis. This case is evidence supporting a theory that brain is associated with control of cardiac rhythm. If no risk factor is revealed by intensive investigation in patients with acute cerebral infarctions that cardioembolism is strongly suspected as a cause, physicians should concern transformation of atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm after stroke.
Atrial fibrillation; Cerebral infarction; Autonomic nervous system