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1.  Supratentorial Intraparenchymal Haemorrhages during Spine Surgery 
Intracranial haemorrhages are rare but potentially life-threatening complications of spine surgery. Most reported cases involved subdural or cerebellar haemorrhages; supratentorial parenchymal bleeding is very uncommon. We report a 28-year-old woman who underwent resection of a thoracic Ewing's sarcoma, and developed fatal haemorrhages around her cerebral metastases during surgery. The clinical presentations, possible pathogenesis and potential preventive measures are discussed. Patients with disseminated metastases within the neural axis are at risks of intracranial complications during spine surgery. The presence of intracranial mass lesions should be considered as a relative contraindication to intradural spine surgery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.103
PMCID: PMC3958572  PMID: 24653806
Cerebrospinal fluid; Complications; Haemorrhage; Neoplasm; Spine
2.  Spinal Arteriovenous Fistula with Progressive Paraplegia after Spinal Anaesthesia 
A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential mechanism is discussed.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.106
PMCID: PMC3958573  PMID: 24653807
Arteriovenous fistula; Iatrogenic lesion; Paraplegia; Spinal anaesthesia
3.  Microsurgical Excision of Symptomatic Sacral Perineurial Cyst with Sacral Recapping Laminectomy : A Case Report in Technical Aspects 
Perineurial cysts (Tarlov cysts) are lesions of the nerve root that are often observed in the sacral area. There is debate about whether symptomatic perineurial cysts should be treated surgically. We presented three patients with symptomatic perineurial cyst who were treated surgically, and introduced sacral recapping laminectomy. Patients complained of low back pain and hypesthesia on lower extremities. We performed operations with sacral recapping technique for all three. The outcome measure was baseline visual analogue score and post operative follow up magnetic resonance images. All patients were completely relieved of symptoms after operation. Although not sufficient to address controversies, this small case series introduces successful use of a particular surgical technique to treat sacral perineural cyst, with resolution of most symptoms and no sequelae.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.110
PMCID: PMC3958574  PMID: 24653808
Tarlov cysts; Laminectomy
4.  Effect of Discontinuation of Anticoagulation in Patients with Intracranial Hemorrhage at High Thromboembolic Risk 
Objective
There was no abundance of data on the use of anticoagulant in patients with previous high risk of thromboembolic conditions under a newly developed intracranial hemorrhage in Korean society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of discontinuance and suggest the proper time period for discontinuance of anticoagulant among these patients.
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of 19 patients who took anticoagulant because of thromboembolic problems and were admitted to our department with newly developed anticoagulation associated intracranial hemorrhage (AAICH), and stopped taking medicine due to concern of rebleeding from January 2008 to December 2012. Analysis of the incidence of thromboembolic complications and proper withdrawal time of anticoagulant was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results
Our patients showed high risk for thromboembolic complication. The CHA2DS2-VASc score ranged from two to five. Thromboembolic complication occurred in eight (42.1%) out of 19 patients without restarting anticoagulant since the initial hemorrhage. Among them, three patients (37.5%) died from direct thromboembolic complications. Mean time to outbreak of thromboembolic complication was 21.38±14.89 days (range, 8-56 days). The probability of thromboembolic complications at 7, 14, and 30 days since cessation of anticoagulation was 0.00, 10.53, and 38.49%, respectively.
Conclusion
Short term discontinuance of anticoagulant within seven days in patients with AAICH who are at high embolic risk (CHA2DS2-VASc score >2) appears to be relatively safe in Korean people. However, prolonged cessation (more than seven days) may result in increased incidence of catastrophic thromboembolic complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.69
PMCID: PMC3958575  PMID: 24653798
Anticoagulation; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Thromboembolic complication
5.  Implant Removal after Percutaneous Short Segment Fixation for Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture : Does It Preserve Motion? 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of implant removal of percutaneous short segment fixation after vertebral fracture consolidation in terms of motion preservation.
Methods
Between May 2007 and January 2011, 44 patients underwent percutaneous short segment screw fixation due to a thoracolumbar burst fracture. Sixteen of these patients, who underwent implant removal 12 months after screw fixation, were enrolled in this study. Motor power was intact in all patients, despite significant vertebral height loss and canal compromise. The patients were divided into two groups by degree of osteoporosis : Group A (n=8), the non-osteoporotic group, and Group B (n=8), the osteoporotic group. Imaging and clinical findings including vertebral height loss, kyphotic angle, range of motion (ROM), and complications were analyzed.
Results
Significant pain relief was achieved in both groups at final follow-up versus preoperative values. In terms of vertebral height loss, both groups showed significant improvement at 12 months after screw fixation and restored vertebral height was maintained to final follow-up in spite of some correction loss. ROM (measured using Cobb's method) in flexion and extension in Group A was 10.5° (19.5/9.0°) at last follow-up, and in Group B was 10.2° (18.8/8.6°) at last follow-up. Both groups showed marked improvement in ROM as compared with the screw fixation state, which was considered motionless.
Conclusion
Removal of percutaneous implants after vertebral fracture consolidation can be an effective treatment to preserve motion regardless of osteoporosis for thoracolumbar burst fractures.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.73
PMCID: PMC3958576  PMID: 24653799
Fusion; Percutaneous; Removal
6.  Value of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Correlation with Electrophysiological Abnormalities and Clinical Severity 
Objective
To investigate a diagnostic value of ultrasonography in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients and to evaluate a correlation of sonographic measurements with the degree of electrodiagnostic abnormalities and clinical severity.
Methods
Two-hundred-forty-six symptomatic hands in 135 patients and 30 asymptomatic hands in 19 healthy individuals as control group were included. In ultrasonographic study, we measured the cross-sectional area (CSA) and flattening ratio (FR) of the median nerve at the pisiform as well as palmar bowing (PB) of the flexor retinaculum. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonographic measurements were evaluated and ultrasonographic data from the symptomatic and control hands were compared to the grade of electrodiagnostic and clinical severity.
Results
The mean CSA was 13.7±4.2 mm2 in symptomatic hands and 7.9±1.3 mm2 in asymptomatic hands. The mean FR was 4.2±1.0 in symptomatic hands and 3.4±0.4 in asymptomatic hands. The mean PB was 3.5±0.5 mm in symptomatic hands and 2.6±0.3 mm in asymptomatic hands. Statistical analysis showed differences of the mean CSA, FR and PB between groups were significant. A cut-off value of 10 mm2 for the mean CSA was found to be the upper limit for normal value. Both the mean CSA and PB are correlated with the grade of electrophysiological abnormalities and clinical severity, respectively.
Conclusion
Ultrasographic measurement of the CSA and PB is helpful to diagnose CTS as a non-invasive and an alternative modality for the evaluation of CTS. In addition, ultrasonography also provides a reliable correlation with the grade of electrodiagnostic abnormalities and clinical severity.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.78
PMCID: PMC3958577  PMID: 24653800
Carpal tunnel syndrome; Ultrasonography; Diagnosis; Severity
7.  Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome in Spine Clinic 
Objective
The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder affecting up to 5% to 15% of the general population, in which the incidence increases with age, and includes paresthesia in the legs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of RLS in spine center and to review clinical manifestations of this syndrome and its current treatments.
Methods
Over a period of a year, retrospective medical record review and lumbar magnetic resonance images were performed on 32 patients with RLS in spine clinic who were diagnosed by National Institutes of Health criteria. Affected limbs were classified as five. Two grading systems were used in the evaluation of neural compromises.
Results
The incidence of RLS was 5.00% (32/639). There were 16 males (50%) and 16 females (50%). The median age at diagnosis was 55.4 years (range, 25-93 years). There are no correlation between the affected limbs of RLS and neural compromises on the lumbar spine.
Conclusion
The RLS is a clearly common neurologic disorder of the limbs, usually the legs. The awareness of this syndrome can help reduce diagnostic error; thereby, avoiding the morbidity and expense associated with unnecessary studies or inappropriate treatments in RLS patients.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.83
PMCID: PMC3958578  PMID: 24653801
Restless legs syndrome; Spinal stenosis; Lumbar disc herniation; Insomnia; Pramipexole; Pregabalin
8.  Chronic Encapsulated Intracerebral Hematoma Associated with Cavernous Malformation 
Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma (CEIH) is a rare cerebrovascular disease that behaves as a slowly expanding lesion with a gradual onset. It is well established that CEIH is associated with arteriovenous malformations; however, CEIH associated with cavernous malformation (CM) is extremely rare. We herein report a case of CEIH associated with CM, and discuss its pathogenesis. A 12-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a one week history of progressive headache and nausea. Brain computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed an intracerebral hematoma surrounded by edema in the right frontal lobe. One week later, her headache and nausea worsened, and a brain computed tomography scan revealed the enlargement of hematoma. A right frontal craniotomy was performed. The capsule, mass, and hematoma were totally removed. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of CEIH associated with CM. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the VEGF receptor-1 in the endothelium and fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that the activated VEGF pathway might have positively contributed to development of CEIH in the present patient.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.89
PMCID: PMC3958579  PMID: 24653802
Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma; Cavernous malformation; Vascular endothelial growth factor
9.  Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome 
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.92
PMCID: PMC3958580  PMID: 24653803
Carotid-cavernous fistula; Ehler-Danlos syndrome; Transvenous embolization
10.  Renal Subcapsular Hematoma after Percutaneous Transfemoral Angiography 
Vascular complications after percutaneous angiography include hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, thromboembolism, arterial laceration and infection. Hematomas may occur in the groin, thigh, retroperitoneal, intraperitoneal, or abdominal wall. A 54-year-old female underwent percutaneous transfemoral angiography for the evaluation of cerebral aneurysm. Renal subcapsular hematoma developed 3 hours after the procedure. Renal subcapsular hematoma after percutaneous angiography is very rare. We investigated the possible causes of renal subcapsular hematoma. To avoid this rare complication, we need to perform guide-wire passage carefully from the beginning of the procedure under full visual monitoring.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.96
PMCID: PMC3958581  PMID: 24653804
Renal artery; Anatomy; Catheterization; Vascular injuries
11.  Sphenoid Ridge Meningioma Presenting as Acute Cerebral Infarction 
A previously healthy 52-year-old man presented to the emergency room with acute onset left hemiparesis and dysarthria. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance examinations revealed acute cerebral infarction in the right middle cerebral artery territory and a sphenoid ridge meningioma encasing the right carotid artery terminus. Cerebral angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the right proximal M1 portion. A computed tomography perfusion study showed a wide area of perfusion-diffusion mismatch. Over the ensuing 48 hours, left sided weakness deteriorated despite medical treatment. Emergency extracranial-intracranial bypass was performed using a double-barrel technique, leaving the tumor as it was, and subsequently his neurological function was improved dramatically. We present a rare case of sphenoid ridge meningioma causing acute cerebral infarction as a result of middle cerebral artery compression.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.99
PMCID: PMC3958582  PMID: 24653805
Acute cerebral infarction; Meningioma; Middle cerebral artery; Occlusion
12.  A Case of Endovascular Treatment for Followed by Side to Side Bypass for Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Involved Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery 
Treatment of complex aneurysms usually entails not only direct clipping but also alternative treatment modality. We recently experienced a case of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm and obtained good treatment outcomes. Our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion with posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to PICA side anastomosis might be a good treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. A 45-year-old woman has a left vertebral dissecting aneurysm with dizziness. Based on the aneurysmal morphology and the involvement of PICA, the patient underwent side to side anastomosis of the PICA. This was followed by the endovascular segmental coil occlusion. The aneurysmal sac was completely obliterated. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient achieved a good patency of both PICA. In conclusion our case suggests that the endovascular segmental occlusion of the parent artery followed by PICA to PICA bypass surgery through a midline suboccipital approach is a reasonable multimodal treatment option in patients with complex vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.36
PMCID: PMC3928346  PMID: 24570816
PICA dissecting aneurysm; Segmental occlusion; Multimodal treatment; Complex aneurysm
13.  Mortality and Real Cause of Death from the Nonlesional Intracerebral Hemorrhage 
Objective
The case fatality rate of nonlesional intracerebral hemorrhage (n-ICH) was high and not changed. Knowing the causes is important to their prevention; however, the reasons have not been studied. The aims of this study were to determine the cause of death, to improve the clinical outcomes.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed consecutive cases of nonlesional intracerebral hemorrhage in a prospective stroke registry from January 2010 to December 2010.
Results
Among 174 patients (61.83±13.36, 28-90 years), 29 patients (16.7%) died during hospitalization. Most common cause of death was initial neurological damage (41.4%, 12/29). Seventeen patients who survived the initial damage may then develop various potentially fatal complications. Except for death due to the initial neurological sequelae, death associated with immobilization (such as pneumonia or thromboembolic complication) was the most common in eight cases (8/17, 47.1%). However, death due to early rebleeding was not common and occurred in only 2 cases (2/17, 11.8%). Age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, and diabetes mellitus were statistically significant factors influencing mortality (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Mortality of n-ICH is still high. Initial neurological damage is the most important factor; however, non-neurological medical complications are a large part of case fatality. Most cases of death of patients who survived from the first bleeding were due to complications of immobilization. These findings have implications for clinical practice and planning of clinical trials. In addition, future conduct of a randomized study will be necessary in order to evaluate the benefits of early mobilization for prevention of immobilization related complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.1
PMCID: PMC3928341  PMID: 24570810
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Cause of death
14.  Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using a Double Cylindrical Cage versus an Anterior Cervical Plating System with Iliac Crest Autografts for the Treatment of Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease 
Objective
Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is often complicated by subsidence, pseudoarthrosis, kyphosis, and graft donor site morbidities. To decrease the occurrence of these complications, various types of cages have been developed. We designed this retrospective study to analyze and compare the efficacy and outcomes of ACDF using double cylindrical cages (DCC) (BK Medical, Seoul, Korea) versus an anterior cervical plating system with autogenous iliac crest grafts.
Methods
Forty-eight patients were treated with autograft and plating (plate group), and 48 with DCC group from October 2007 to October 2011. We analyzed construct length, cervical lordotic curvarture, the thickness of the prevertebral soft tissue, segmental instability, and clinical outcomes.
Results
There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to the decrease in construct length or cervical lodortic curvature at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The prevertebral soft tissue was thinner in the DCC group than the plate group immediately after surgery and at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The difference in interspinous distance on flexion-extension was shorter in the plate group than the DCC group at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. However, there was no significant difference in this distance between the two groups at the 12-month follow-up.
Conclusion
A double cylindrical cage is a good alternative for fusion in patients with cervical degenerative diseases; the surgical method is relatively simple, allows good synostosis, has less associated prevertebral soft tissue swelling, and complications associated with autografting can be avoided.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.12
PMCID: PMC3928342  PMID: 24570812
Cylindrical cage; ACDF; Subsidence; Fusion
15.  Prognostic Factors of Neurocognitive and Functional Outcomes in Junior and Senior Elderly Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Undergoing Disability Evaluation or Appointed Disability Evaluation 
Objective
This study explored the relationships among demographic (DVs) and clinical variables (CVs), neurocognitive (NOs) and functional outcome (FO) that could be used as prognostic factors for old aged patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) undergoing or appointed disability evaluation (DE) after treatment.
Methods
A total of 162 subjects with TBI above the age of 55 years undergoing DE or appointed to do so after treatments were selected. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to age : a junior elderly group 55 to 64 years old and a senior elderly group over the age of 65. NOs and FO were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery and Clinical Dementia Rating scale.
Results
Gender, age, and education level were shown to significantly impact the recovery of NOs after TBI. Other DVs and CVs such as area of residency, occupation, type of injury, or loss of consciousness were not found to significantly affect the recovery of NOs after TBI. Analysis of the relationships among DVs, CVs and NOs demonstrated that gender, age, and education level contributed to the variance of NOs. In FO, loss of consciousness (LOC) was included to prognostic factor.
Conclusion
Gender, age and education level significantly influence the NOs of elderly patients with TBI. LOC may also serve as a meaningful prognostic factor in FO. Unlike younger adult patients with TBI, old aged patients with TBI did not show global faking-bad or malingering attitudes to DE for compensation, but assume that they could faking their performance in a test set available visual feedback.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.18
PMCID: PMC3928343  PMID: 24570813
Advanced age; Traumatic brain injury; Prognosis; Gender; Education
16.  Significance of Intracranial Pressure Monitoring after Early Decompressive Craniectomy in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury 
Objective
Early decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been used as the first stage treatment to prevent secondary injuries in cases of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Postoperative management is the major factor that influences outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of postoperative management, using intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and including consecutive DC on the other side, on the two-week mortality in severe TBI patients treated with early DC.
Methods
Seventy-eight patients with severe TBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <9] underwent early DC were retrospectively investigated. Among 78 patients with early DC, 53 patients were managed by conventional medical treatments and the other, 25 patients were treated under the guidance of ICP monitoring, placed during early DC. In the ICP monitoring group, consecutive DC on the other side were performed on 11 patients due to a high ICP of greater than 30 mm Hg and failure to respond to any other medical treatments.
Results
The two-week mortality rate was significantly different between two groups [50.9% (27 patients) and 24% (6 patients), respectively, p=0.025]. After adjusting for confounding factors, including sex, low GCS score, and pupillary abnormalities, ICP monitoring was associated with a 78% lower likelihood of 2-week mortality (p=0.021).
Conclusion
ICP monitoring in conjunction with postoperative treatment, after early DC, is associated with a significantly reduced risk of death.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.26
PMCID: PMC3928344  PMID: 24570814
Brain injuries; Intracranial pressure monitoring; Decompressive craniectomy; Mortality
17.  Treatment for Giant Fusiform Aneurysm Located in the Cavernous Segment of the Internal Carotid Artery Using the Pipeline Embolization Device 
The pipeline embolization device (PED) is a new endovascular device for treatment of complex, fusiform and wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. The main mechanism of this stent is to divert the flow in the parent artery with reduction of inflow in the aneurysm leading to thrombosis. We treated a 40-year-old woman who had left facial pain and orbit discomfort. Angiography showed a giant fusiform aneurysm located in the cavernous segment of the left internal carotid artery. A PED was successfully deployed across the aneurysm. The procedure and post-procedural course were uneventful. After 3 months, angiography showed complete obliteration of the aneurysm with good patency of the branching vessels originating from the deployed segment. The patient's symptoms improved completely without complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.32
PMCID: PMC3928345  PMID: 24570815
Pipeline embolization device; Fusiform aneurysm
18.  Two Cystic Cavernous Angiomas after Radiotherapy for Atypical Meningioma in Adult Woman : Case Report and Literature Review 
A correlation between radiation therapy and cavernoma has been suspected since 1994. Since then, only a few cases of radio-induced cavernomas have been reported in the literature (85 patients). Most of them were children, and the most frequent original tumour had been medulloblastoma. The authors report a case of two cystic cavernous angiomas after radiation therapy for atypical meningioma in adult woman. This is the first case of cavernous angioma after radiotherapy for low grade meningioma. A 39-year-old, Latin american woman was operated on for a frontal atypical meningioma with intradiploic component and adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered (6000 cGy local brain irradiation, fractionated over 6 weeks). Follow-up MR imaging showed no recurrences of the tumour and no other lesions. Ten years later, at the age of 49, she consulted for progressive drug-resistant headache. MR imaging revealed two new well defined areas of different signal intensity at the surface of each frontal pole. Both lesions were surgically removed; the histopathological diagnosis was cavernous angioma. This is the first case of cavernous angioma after radiation therapy for atypical meningioma : it confirms the development of these lesions after standard radiation therapy also in patients previously affected by non-malignant tumours.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.40
PMCID: PMC3928347  PMID: 24570817
Cavernoma; Cavernous angioma; Cavernoma post-radiotherapy; Radiation therapy; Cystic cavernoma
19.  Spinal Cord Ependymoma Associated with Neurofibromatosis 1 : Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) are predisposed to develop central nervous system tumors, due to the loss of neurofibromin, an inactivator of proto-oncogene Ras. However, to our knowledge, only three cases of ependymomas with NF1 have been reported in the literature. The authors present a case of NF1 patient with a spinal cord ependymoma. She was referred for about half a year history of increasing numbness that progressed from her fingers to her entire body above the bellybutton. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a relative-demarcated, heterogeneously enhanced mass lesion accompanied by perifocal edema in C5-7 level, a left-sided T11 spinous process heterogeneously enhanced mass in soft tissue, intervertebral disk hernia in L2-5 level, and widespread punctum enhancing lesion in her scalp and in T11-L5 level. The patient underwent C5-7 laminectomies and total excision of the tumor under operative microscope, and intraoperative ultrasonography and physiological monitoring were used during the surgery. Histopathologically, her tumor was found to be a ependymoma without malignant features (grade II in the World Health Organization classification). Therefore, no adjuvant therapy was applied. Following the operation, the patient showed an uneventful clinical recovery with no evidence of tumor recurrence after one year of follow-up.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.43
PMCID: PMC3928348  PMID: 24570818
Autosomal dominant disorder; Ependymoma; Intraoperative ultrasonography; Neurofibromatosis 1; Neurofibromin; Physiological monitoring
20.  Collapsed L4 Vertebral Body Caused by Brucellosis 
Brucellosis is caused by gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, facultative, intracellular coccobacilli belonging to the genus Brucella. A 50-year-old man working as an employee was admitted to neurosurgery clinic with severe low back, radicular right leg pain and hypoesthesia in right L4-5 dermatomes for 2 months. Brucella tube agglutination (Wright) test was positive in serum sample of the patient with a titer of 1/640. Brucella melitensis was isolated from blood culture. X-ray and MRI of the lomber spine showed massive collapse of L4 vertebral body. Neural tissue was decompressed and then posterior L3-5 short segment transpedicular screw fixation and stabilization was performed. Brucella melitensis was isolated from microbiologic culture of pathologic specimen. Antibiotic therapy was given as doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampicin 600 mg/day for 6 months. Brucellosis is a systemic zoonotic infection and still an important public health problem in many geographical parts of the world. Vertebral body collapse caused by brucellosis occurs very rarely but represents a neurosurgical emergency because of its potential for causing rapidly progressive spinal cord compression and permanent paralysis. Neurosurgeons, emergency department personnel as well as infectious disease specialists should always keep a high index of suspicion and include brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of vertebral body collapse.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.48
PMCID: PMC3928349  PMID: 24570819
Brucellosis; Spinal infections; Treatment; Vertebral collapse
21.  Pseudoprogression and Pseudoresponse in the Management of High-Grade Glioma : Optimal Decision Timing According to the Response Assessment of the Neuro-Oncology Working Group 
Objective
We evaluated pseudoprogression (PsPD) following radiation therapy combined with concurrent temozolomide (TMZ), and we assessed pseudoresponse following anti-angiogenic therapy for patients with recurrent disease using the Response Assessment of the Neuro-Oncology Working Group.
Methods
Patients who were pathologically confirmed as having high-grade glioma received radiotherapy with concurrent TMZ followed by adjuvant TMZ. Bevacizumab (Avastin) with CPT-11 were used as a salvage option for cases of radiologic progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was routinely performed 1 month after concurrent radiochemotherapy (CRT) and every 3 months thereafter. For cases treated with the bevacizumab-containing regimen for progressive disease, MRI was performed every 2 months.
Results
Of 55 patients, 21 (38%) showed radiologic progression within 4 weeks after CRT. Of these patients, 16 (29%) showed progression at second post-CRT MRI (etPD) and five (9%) showed improvement (PsPD). Seven of thirty-four initially non-progressed patients showed progression at the second post-CRT MRI (ltPD). No difference in survival was observed between the etPD and ltPD groups (p=0.595). Five (50%) of ten patients showed a radiological response after salvage bevacizumab therapy. Four of those patients exhibited rapid progression immediately after discontinuation of the drug (drug holiday).
Conclusion
Twelve weeks following treatment could be the optimal timing to determine PsPD or true progression. MRI with gadolinium enhancement alone is not sufficient to characterize tumor response or growth. Clinical correlation with adequate follow-up duration and histopathologic validation may be helpful in discriminating PsPD from true progression.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.5
PMCID: PMC3928350  PMID: 24570811
High-grade glioma; Concurrent radiochemotherapy; Pseudoprogression; Pseudoresponse
22.  Patients on Anticoagulants after a Head Trauma : Is a Negative Initial CT Scan Enough? Report of a Case of Delayed Subdural Haematoma and Review of the Literature 
Mild traumatic brain injury is common in elderly patients, many of whom are on anticoagulant. The common practice is to discharge these patients from the emergency room if the computed tomography (CT) of the brain is normal. However, a very small proportion of these patients may develop a life threatening intracranial haematoma in the following days. We present here a case of a 66-year-old male on anticoagulant therapy that developed a subdural haematoma 48 hours after a mild head injury, with a normal initial CT scan of the brain. The patient underwent a craniotomy with evacuation of a large subdural clot. Postoperatively he had progressively improved and six months later has a Glasgow Outcome Score of three. This case is characterized by the delayed onset of a subdural haematoma in a patient on anticoagulation and we discuss here the possible pathogenesis related to this phenomenon. We also briefly review the pertinent literature and the current guidelines for the management of this type of head injuries.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.51
PMCID: PMC3928351  PMID: 24570820
Delayed; Acute; Subdural; Haematoma; Head injury; Anticoagulation
23.  Should Adjuvant Radiotherapy Be Recommended for Pediatric Craniopharyngiomas? 
Intracranial tumors secondary to radiotherapy are rare. In this group gliomas are the rarest. Only 6 cases of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have been reported in patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for craniopharyngiomas of which only 4 have been in children less than 18 years of age. In recent years RT has become a mainstay of adjuvant therapy for recurrent or partially excised craniopharyngiomas. We report a child of 12 years who had previously undergone RT for a suprasellar craniopharyngioma and presented 10 years later with a GBM. This is the 5th pediatric case in literature demonstrating a GBM after RT for a craniopharyngioma. The implications of subjecting the pediatric population to RT for a benign lesion versus the outcome of gross total removal and management of RT induced tumors is discussed and the need to avail of safer alternatives such as stereotactic radiosurgery is stressed.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.54
PMCID: PMC3928352  PMID: 24570821
Craniopharyngioma; Radiotherapy; Glioblastoma; Pediatric
24.  Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney and Spine in an Infant 
Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (RTK) is a rare malignancy in infancy. Central nervous system involvement in RTK is already known. However, solitary spinal metastasis in RTK has been hardly reported. The authors report a case of metastatic RTK to spine causing paraplegia in an 8-month-old girl. Since the patient was young, the diagnosis of spine metastasis was delayed until paraplegia was seen after radical nephrectomy. Thorough neurological examination should be performed for early diagnosis of spinal metastasis in young patients with RTK. If there are any abnormal signs in neurologic examination, magnetic resonance images of brain and spine are recommended.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.57
PMCID: PMC3928353  PMID: 24570822
Rhabdoid tumor; Infant; Kidney; Spine
25.  Solitary Cavernous Sinus Neurosarcoidosis Mimicking Neurosyphilis 
A differential diagnosis between neurosarcoidosis and neurosyphilis is particularly problematic in patients with a positive serologic result for syphilis. We report here a patient with a solitary cavernous sinus sarcoidosis who had a history of syphilis and showed rapidly progressing cavernous sinus syndrome. A transsphenoidal biopsy was performed and a histopathologic examination revealed a non-caseating granuloma with an asteroid body. His facial pain disappeared after steroid therapy. He received oral prednisolone for one year. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed resolution of the mass over the cavernous sinus. Particularly in patients with a history of syphilis, neurosyphilis should be included in a differential diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.61
PMCID: PMC3928354  PMID: 24570823
Neurosarcoidosis; Neurosyphilis; Sarcoidosis; Cavernous sinus

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