Novel and robust cardiovascular (CV) markers are needed to improve CV morbidity and mortality risk prediction in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the long term predictive value of 4 novel CV risk markers for major CV events and mortality.
We included patients with T2D who had cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and activin A [actA]), a maximum stress ECG test (evaluated by the normalization pattern in early recovery phase) and echocardiography (evaluated by a measure of the left ventricular filling pressure - E/Em) assessed at baseline. The primary endpoint was time to first of any of the following events: myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina pectoris and death. All outcomes were adjudicated by independent experts. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling, Harrell C-statistic and the net reclassification improvement (NRI) to assess the additional value beyond conventional markers (age, gender, prior CV disease, HDL, creatinine, diastolic BP, microalbuminuria).
At baseline the study cohort (n = 135, mean age/diabetes duration/HbA1c: 59 yrs/7 yrs/7.6% [59 mmol/mol], 26% females) had moderate elevated CV risk (42% microalbuminuria, mean Framingham 10 year CV-risk 9.6%). During 8.6 yrs/1153.7 person years, 26 patients experienced 36 events. All 4 novel risk markers were significantly associated with increased risk of the primary endpoint, however, only IL-6 and actA improved C-statistic and NRI (+0.119/43.2%, +0.065/20.3% respectively) compared with the conventional CV risk factors.
IL-6 and actA may provide prognostic information on CV events and mortality in T2D beyond conventional CV risk factors.
Type 2 diabetes; Cardiovascular event; MACE; Inflammatory marker; Cardiovascular risk; Risk prediction
Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population.
This was a cross-sectional study of 149 patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function who were undergoing PD. LVDD was diagnosed (according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines) and EpF thickness measured by echocardiography. The patients without LVDD were used as controls. The serum inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured. The location and amount of adipose tissue were assessed by computed tomography (CT) at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra.
Subjects with LVDD had higher levels of hsCRP, more visceral and peritoneal fat, and thicker EpF (all p < 0.001) than controls. Visceral adipose tissue, hsCRP, and EpF all correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with LVDD. Multivariate regression analysis rendered the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and LVDD insignificant, whereas EpF was the most powerful determinant of LVDD (odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.43–4.08, p < 0.01). EpF thickness also correlated significantly with the ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e’; r = 0.27, p < 0.01).
EpF thickness is significantly independently associated with LVDD in patients undergoing PD and may be involved in its pathogenesis.
Diastolic dysfunction; Epicardial fat; Inflammation; Echocardiography
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor RAGE interaction play a role in diabetic vascular complications. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. However, the role of DPP-4 in AGE-induced endothelial cell (EC) damage remains unclear.
In this study, we investigated the effects of DPP-4 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and RAGE gene expression in ECs. We further examined whether an inhibitor of DPP-4, linagliptin inhibited AGE-induced soluble DPP-4 production, ROS generation, RAGE, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression in ECs.
DPP-4 dose-dependently increased ROS generation and RAGE gene expression in ECs, which were prevented by linagliptin. Mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) and antibodies (Ab) raised against M6P/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF-IIR) completely blocked the ROS generation in DPP-4-exposed ECs, whereas surface plasmon resonance revealed that DPP-4 bound to M6P/IGF-IIR at the dissociation constant of 3.59 x 10-5 M. AGEs or hydrogen peroxide increased soluble DPP-4 production by ECs, which was prevented by N-acetylcysteine, RAGE-Ab or linagliptin. Linagliptin significantly inhibited the AGE-induced ROS generation, RAGE, ICAM-1 and PAI-1 gene expression in ECs.
The present study suggests that AGE-RAGE-induced ROS generation stimulates the release of DPP-4 from ECs, which could in turn act on ECs directly via the interaction with M6P/IGF-IIR, further potentiating the deleterious effects of AGEs. The blockade by linagliptin of positive feedback loop between AGE-RAGE axis and DPP-4 might be a novel therapeutic target for vascular injury in diabetes.
AGEs; RAGE; DPP-4; Mannose 6-phosphate/IGF-II receptor
Expression and activity of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 hormone-like protein are associated with development of several metabolic disorders. This study was designed to investigate whether serum FGF21 level was also associated with the metabolic syndrome-related cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and its clinical features in a Chinese cohort.
Two-hundred-and-fifty-three subjects visiting the Cardiology Department (Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University) were examined by coronary arteriography (to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD)) and hepatic ultrasonography (to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)). Serum FGF21 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed for correlation to subject and clinical characteristics. The independent factors of CAD were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Subjects with NAFLD showed significantly higher serum FGF21 than those without NAFLD (388.0 pg/mL (253.0-655.4) vs. 273.3 pg/mL (164.9-383.7), P < 0.01). Subjects with CAD showed significantly higher serum FGF21, regardless of NAFLD diagnosis (P < 0.05). Serum FGF21 level significantly elevated with the increasing number of metabolic disorders (P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment of age, sex, and BMI, FGF21 was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P < 0.05) and triglyceride (P < 0.01). FGF21 was identified as an independent factor of CAD (odds ratio = 2.984, 95% confidence interval: 1.014-8.786, P < 0.05).
Increased level of serum FGF21 is associated with NAFLD, metabolic disorders and CAD.
Fibroblast growth factor 21; Coronary artery disease; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Metabolic syndrome
Cardiovascular risk stratification of asymptomatic diabetic patients is important and remains a difficult clinical problem. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography predicts prognosis in those patients.
From February 2002 to January 2005, we evaluated 135 consecutive asymptomatic patients (74 male; mean age, 63 ± 9 years) with type 2 diabetes without a history of coronary artery disease. Adenosine triphosphate (0.14 mg/kg/min) stress Doppler echocardiography was performed to evaluate CFR of the left anterior descending artery. Patients with a CFR < 2.0 were also excluded based on the suspicion of significant coronary artery stenosis in the left anterior descending artery.
There were 111 patients (60 male; mean age, 64 ± 9 years) enrolled. During a median follow-up of 79 months, 20 events (5 deaths, 7 acute coronary syndromes, 8 coronary revascularizations) occurred. The optimal cut-off value of CFR to predict events was 2.5 (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.65). Multivariate analysis showed that the independent prognostic indicators were male gender (p < 0.05) and a CFR < 2.5 (p < 0.01). Kaplan-Mayer analysis revealed that the event rate was significantly higher (log-lank, p < 0.01) in patients with CFR < 2.5 than in those with CFR ≥ 2.5.
CFR obtained by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography provides independent prognostic information in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes without overt coronary artery disease. Patients with CFR < 2.5 had a worse long-term outcome.
Coronary flow reserve; Diabetes mellitus; Transthoracic doppler echocardiography
Non-invasive measurements of 24 hour ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure (24 h-CASP) and central pulse pressure (24 h-CPP) are now feasible. We evaluate the relationship between 24 h central blood pressure and diabetes-related complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.
The study was cross-sectional, including 715 subjects: 86 controls (C), 69 patients with short diabetes duration (< 10 years), normoalbuminuria (< 30 mg/24 h) without receiving antihypertensive treatment (SN), 211 with longstanding diabetes (≥ 10 years) and normoalbuminuria (LN), 163 with microalbuminuria (30-299 mg/24 h) (Mi) and 186 with macroalbuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h) (Ma).
24 h-CASP and 24 h-CPP was measured using a tonometric wrist-watch-like device (BPro, HealthStats, Singapore) and derived using N-point moving average.
In C, SN, LN, Mi and Ma mean ± SD 24 h-CASP was: 114 ± 17, 115 ± 13, 121 ± 13, 119 ± 16 and 121 ± 13 mmHg (p < 0.001); and 24 h-CPP: 38 ± 8, 38 ± 7, 44 ± 10, 46 ± 11 and 46 ± 11 mmHg, (p < 0.001).
Following rigorous adjustment (24 h mean arterial pressure and conventional risk factors), 24 h-CASP and 24 h-CPP increased with diabetes, albuminuria degree, previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), retinopathy and autonomic dysfunction (p ≤ 0.031).
Odds ratios per 1 standard deviation increase in 24 h-CASP, 24 h-CPP and 24 h systolic blood pressure (24 h-SBP) were for CVD: 3.19 (1.68-6.05), 1.43 (1.01-2.02) and 2.39 (1.32-4.33), retinopathy: 4.41 (2.03-9.57), 1.77 (1.17-2.68) and 3.72 (1.85-7.47) and autonomic dysfunction: 3.25 (1.65-6.41), 1.64 (1.12-2.39) and 2.89 (1.54-5.42).
24 h-CASP and 24 h-CPP was higher in patients vs. controls and increased with diabetic complications independently of covariates. Furthermore, 24 h-CASP was stronger associated to complications than 24 h-SBP.
The prognostic significance of 24 h-CASP and 24 h-CPP needs to be determined in follow-up studies.
ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01171248.
Ambulatory blood pressure; Brachial systolic blood pressure; Central aortic systolic pressure; Central pulse pressure; Diabetic complications; Type 1 diabetes
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the limiting enzyme in one of pathways of synthesis of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, a redox coenzyme. NAMPT is considered as an insulin-mimetic factor and a potential regulatory factor in inflammatory and immune processes. Associations of circulating NAMPT levels with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance have been reported. We investigated association of circulating NAMPT levels and the rs9770242 NAMPT gene polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD).
We studied 594 Brazilian subjects undergoing a coronary angiography (49% of whom had type 2 diabetes). CAD, defined as stenosis greater than 50% in one major coronary vessel or branch, was observed in 68% of subjects. Genetic studies were also performed in 858 North-American Non-Hispanic White subjects with type 2 diabetes (49% with CAD).
We observed an interaction between glycemic and CAD status on the comparison of NAMPT levels by CAD status. NAMPT levels were higher in type 2 diabetic patients with CAD as compared to those without CAD: 5.27 ± 2.93 ng/ml vs. 4.43 ± 2.94 ng/ml, p = 0.006 (mean ± SD). NAMPT levels were not significantly different in non-diabetic subjects with or without CAD. The T-allele of rs9770242 was associated with CAD in the Brazilian cohort (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.06 - 2.01, p = 0.02) while no association was observed in the North-American cohort.
Our data suggest that circulating NAMPT levels are associated with CAD in type 2 diabetic patients. NAMPT rs9770242 polymorphism may be associated with CAD in some populations.
NAMPT; Visfatin; Coronary artery disease; Type 2 diabetes; rs9770242
Background and aim
Limitations of the currently recommended stepwise treatment pathway for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially the failure of monotherapies to maintain good glycemic control, have prompted use of early, more aggressive combination therapies.
The VISION study is designed to explore the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin as an add-on to metformin therapy compared with up-titration of metformin monotherapy in Chinese patients with T2DM.
VISION, a 24-week, phase 4, prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group study, will include 3312 Chinese T2DM patients aged ≥18 years who are inadequately controlled (6.5% >HbA1c ≤9%) by metformin (750–1000 mg/day). Eligible patients will be randomized to receive either vildagliptin plus metformin or up-titration of metformin monotherapy (5:1). Patients will also be subgrouped (1:1:1:1) based on their age and body mass index (BMI): <60 years and <24 kg/m2; <60 years and ≥24 kg/m2; ≥60 years and <24 kg/m2; and ≥60 years and ≥24 kg/m2.
The VISION study will test the hypothesis that early use of combination therapy with vildagliptin and metformin will provide good glycemic control and will be better tolerated than up-titration of metformin monotherapy. The study will also correlate these benefits with age and BMI.
VISION study; Vildagliptin; Type 2 diabetes; Study design; DPP-IV inhibitors
GLP-1 is an incretine hormone which gets secreted from intestinal L-cells in response to nutritional stimuli leading to pancreatic insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon release. GLP-1 further inhibits gastric motility and reduces appetite which in conjunction improves postprandial glucose metabolism. Additional vasoprotective effects have been described for GLP-1 in experimental models. Despite these vasoprotective actions, associations between endogenous levels of GLP-1 and cardiovascular disease have yet not been investigated in humans which was the aim of the present study.
GLP-1 serum levels were assessed in a cohort of 303 patients receiving coronary CT-angiography due to typical or atypical chest pain.
GLP-1 was found to be positively associated with total coronary plaque burden in a fully adjusted model containing age, sex, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, triglycerides, LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), hsCRP (high-sensitive C-reactive protein), and eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) (OR: 2.53 (95% CI: 1.12 – 6.08; p = 0.03).
Circulating GLP-1 was found to be positivity associated with coronary atherosclerosis in humans. The clinical relevance of this observation needs further investigations.
GLP-1; Atherosclerosis; Coronary CT angiography
Diabetes is associated with a high incidence of macrovascular disease (MVD), including peripheral and coronary artery disease. Circulating soluble-Klotho (sKlotho) is produced in the kidney and is a putative anti-aging and vasculoprotective hormone. Reduced Klotho levels may therefore increase cardiovascular risk in diabetes. We investigated if sKlotho levels are decreased in type 2 diabetes and associate with MVD in the absence of diabetic nephropathy, and whether hyperglycemia affects renal Klotho production in vitro and in vivo.
sKlotho levels were determined with ELISA in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with and without MVD, and healthy control subjects. Human renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) were isolated and exposed to high glucose levels (15 and 30 mM) in vitro and Klotho levels were measured with qPCR and quantitative immunofluorescence. Klotho mRNA expression was quantified in kidneys obtained from long term (3 and 8 months) diabetic Ins2Akita mice and normoglycemic control mice.
No significant differences in sKlotho levels were observed between diabetic patients with and without MVD (527 (433–704) pg/mL, n = 35), non-diabetic MVD patients (517 (349–571) pg/mL, n = 27), and healthy control subjects (435 (346–663) pg/mL, n = 15). High glucose (15 and 30 mM) did not alter Klotho expression in TECs. Long-term hyperglycemia in diabetic Ins2Akita mice (characterized by increased HbA1c levels [12.9 ± 0.3% (3 months) and 11.3 ± 2.0% (8 months)], p < 0.05 vs. non-diabetic mice) did not affect renal Klotho mRNA expression.
These data indicate that sKlotho levels are not affected in type 2 diabetes patients with and without MVD. Furthermore, hyperglycemia per se does not affect renal Klotho production. As type 2 diabetes does not alter sKlotho levels, sKlotho does not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of MVD in type 2 diabetes.
Atherosclerosis; Coronary artery disease; Klotho; Macrovascular disease; Peripheral artery disease; Type 2 diabetes
We used Laser Doppler Fluximetry (LDF) to define "normal" endothelial function in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents and to evaluate skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
LDF was performed in 102 healthy children (12.8 ± 3.3 years of age; 48 male) and 68 patients (12.9 ± 3.3 years of age; 33 male). Duration of disease was 5.0 ± 3.97 years. Each participant sequentially underwent three stimulation protocols (localized thermal hyperaemia with localized warming to maximum 40°C, iontophoretic delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride (PCH) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)). The maximum relative increase in skin blood flow and the total relative response, i.e. the area under the curve (AUC) to each stimulus (AUCheat, AUCPCH, AUCSNP) was determined. In addition, the area of a right-angled triangle summarizing the time to and the amplitude of the first peak, which represents the axon reflex mediated neurogenic vasodilation (ARR) was calculated.
In healthy controls, AUCheat, AUCPCH, AUCSNP, and ARR turned out to be independent of sex, age, and anthropometric values. Per parameter the 10th percentile generated from data of healthy controls was used as the lower threshold to define normal endothelial function. Diabetic patients showed significantly reduced vasodilatative response to either physical or pharmacological stimulation with SNP, whereas the response to PCH was comparable in both cohorts. In patients compared to controls i) a significantly higher frequency of impaired vasodilatation in response to heat and SNP was noted and ii) vascular response was classified as pathological in more than one of the parameters with significantly higher frequency.
Skin microvascular endothelial dysfunction is already present in about 25% of paediatric type 1 diabetic patients suffering from type 1 diabetes for at least one year. Future studies are needed to assess the predictive value of endothelial dysfunction in the development of long-term (cardio)vascular comorbidity in these patients.
Children; Laser Doppler Fluximetry; Skin microcirculation; Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Cardiac nestin(+) cells exhibit properties of a neural progenitor/stem cell population characterized by the de novo synthesis of neurofilament-M in response to ischemic injury and 6-hydroxydopamine administration. The induction of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) was identified as an early event of neurogenesis. The present study tested the hypothesis that the de novo synthesis of neurofilament-M by nestin(+) cells was preceded by the transient upregulation of GAP43 during the acute phase of reparative fibrosis in the infarcted male rat heart. Secondly, a seminal feature of diabetes is impaired wound healing secondary to an inadequate neurogenic response. In this regard, an additional series of experiments tested the hypothesis that the neurogenic response of cardiac nestin(+) cells was attenuated in a setting of type I diabetes.
The neurogenic response of cardiac nestin(+) cells was examined during the early phase of reparative fibrosis following permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in the adult male rat heart. The experimental model of type I diabetes was created following a single injection of streptozotocin in adult male rats. The impact of a type I diabetic environment on the neurogenic response of cardiac nestin(+) cells was examined during myocardial infarction and following the administration of 6-hydroxydopamine.
During the early phase of scar formation/healing, the density of GAP43/nestin(+) fibres innervating the peri-infarct/infarct region was significantly increased, whereas neurofilament-M/nestin(+) fibres were absent. With ongoing scar formation/healing, a temporal decrease of GAP43/nestin(+) fibre density and a concomitant increase in the density of innervating neurofilament-M/nestin(+) fibres were observed. The neurogenic response of cardiac nestin(+) cells during scar formation/healing was inhibited following the superimposition of type I diabetes. The de novo synthesis of neurofilament-M by nestin(+) cells after 6-hydroxydopamine administration was likewise attenuated in the heart of type I diabetic rats whereas the density of GAP43/nestin(+) fibres remained elevated.
The transient upregulation of GAP43 apparently represents a transition event during the acquisition of a neuronal-like phenotype and a type I diabetic environment attenuated the neurogenic response of cardiac nestin(+) cells to ischemia and 6-hydroxydopamine.
Myocardial infarction; Diabetes; Nestin(+) cells; GAP43; Neurogenesis
Little or no research has determined the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in conjunction with pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches in the diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) patients. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of Saudi DMT2 population on diet, insulin and/or different oral hypoglycemic agents and compare them with a non-DMT2 control cohort.
A total of 499 randomly selected Saudi subjects divided into 8 groups [Non-DMT2 Control = 151; Rosiglitazone alone = 49; Diet = 15; Insulin alone = 55; Insulin + Orals = 12; Metformin alone = 121; Oral agents combination = 37; Sulphonylurea alone = 59] were included in this 12-month interventional study. All DMT2 patients were given 2000 IU vitamin D3 daily, while the control group received none but were advised to increase sun exposure. Anthropometrics, glucose, lipid profile and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHVitD) were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months.
Circulating 25-OHVitD concentrations improved in all patient groups. The metformin group showed the highest change in circulating vitamin D levels both at 6 months (62.6%) and 12 months (50.6%) as compared to baseline (p < 0.001). No significant changes were observed in the BMI and glucose in any of the DMT2 groups. In contrast, the insulin + oral agents group showed more significant improvements in the metabolic profile, which included triglycerides and total cholesterol, as well as systolic blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol in males. Also, significant decreases in triglycerides were observed in the rosiglitazone and insulin + oral hypoglycemic agent groups both at 6 and 12 months of supplementation (both p-values <0.001).
While in all DMT2 groups circulating levels of 25-OHVitD increased after supplementation, in DMT2 patients on insulin in combination with other drugs benefitted the most in improving cardiovascular risk. Metformin improves 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels but did not seem to confer other added cardiometabolic benefits.
Vitamin D; Vitamin D supplementation; Diabetes mellitus; Anti-diabetes therapies
Qualitative alterations of lipoproteins underlie the high incidence of atherosclerosis in diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction phenotype on the qualitative characteristics of LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
One hundred twenty two patients with type 2 diabetes in poor glycemic control and 54 healthy subjects were included in the study. Patients were classified according to their LDL subfraction phenotype. Seventy-seven patients presented phenotype A whereas 45 had phenotype B. All control subjects showed phenotype A. Several forms of modified LDL, HDL composition and the activity and distribution of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) were analyzed.
Oxidized LDL, glycated LDL and electronegative LDL were increased in both groups of patients compared with the control group. Patients with phenotype B had increased oxidized LDL and glycated LDL concentration than patients with phenotype A. HDL composition was abnormal in patients with diabetes, being these abnormalities more marked in patients with phenotype B. Total Lp-PLA2 activity was higher in phenotype B than in phenotype A or in control subjects. The distribution of Lp-PLA2 between HDL and apoB-containing lipoproteins differed in patients with phenotype A and phenotype B, with higher activity associated to apoB-containing lipoproteins in the latter.
The presence of LDL subfraction phenotype B is associated with increased oxidized LDL, glycated LDL and Lp-PLA2 activity associated to apoB-containing lipoproteins, as well as with abnormal HDL composition.
Low-density lipoprotein; High-density lipoprotein; Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2; Modified LDL; Type 2 diabetes; LDL subfraction phenotype
Activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) is increasingly implicated in acute vasospasm and chronic vasoconstriction in major organ systems. Therefore we aimed to ascertain whether an increase in ROCK activity plays a role in the deterioration of coronary vascular function in early stage diabetes.
Synchrotron radiation microangiography was used to determine in vivo coronary responses in diabetic (3 weeks post streptozotocin 65 mg/kg ip) and vehicle treated male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 8 and 6). Changes in vessel number and calibre during vasodilator stimulation before and after blockade of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase were compared between rats. Acute responses to ROCK inhibitor, fasudil (10 mg/kg iv) was evaluated. Further, perivascular and myocardial fibrosis, arterial intimal thickening were assessed by histology, and capillary density, nitrotyrosine and ROCK1/2 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining.
Diabetic rats had significantly elevated plasma glucose (P < 0.001 vs control), but did not differ in fibrotic scores, media to lumen ratio, capillary density or baseline visible vessel number or calibre. Responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside stimulation were similar between groups. However, in comparison to control rats the diabetic rats showed more segmental constrictions during blockade, which were not completely alleviated by acetylcholine, but were alleviated by fasudil. Further, second order vessel branches in diabetic rats were significantly more dilated relative to baseline (37% vs 12% increase, P < 0.05) after fasudil treatment compared to control rats, while visible vessel number increased in both groups. ROCK2 expression was borderline greater in diabetic rat hearts (P < 0.053).
We found that ahead of the reported decline in coronary endothelial vasodilator function in diabetic rats there was moderate elevation in ROCK expression, more widespread segmental constriction when nitric oxide and prostacyclin production were inhibited and notably, increased calibre in second and third order small arteries-arterioles following ROCK inhibition. Based on nitrotyrosine staining oxidative stress was not significantly elevated in early diabetic rats. We conclude that tonic ROCK mediated vasoconstriction contributes to coronary vasomotor tone in early diabetes.
Low-grade albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. Our aim was to investigate the association between low-grade albuminuria and carotid atherosclerotic lesions in community-based patients with type 2 diabetes.
A cross-sectional study was performed in 475 community-based patients with type 2 diabetes (190 males and 285 females) with normal urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR) (< 3.5 mg/mmol) from Shanghai, China. The subjects were stratified into tertiles based on UACR levels (the lowest tertile was UACR ≤ 1.19 mg/mmol, and the highest tertile was UACR ≥ 2 mg/mmol). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on ultrasonography. The urinary albumin excretion rate was determined as the mean of the values obtained from three separate early morning urine samples.
Compared with the subjects with UACR in the lowest tertile, the subjects with UACR in the middle and highest tertiles had greater CIMT values (0.88 ± 0.35 mm, 0.99 ± 0.43 mm and 1.04 ± 0.35 mm, respectively; all p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques (25.3%, 39.0% and 46.2%, respectively; all p < 0.05) after adjusting for sex and age. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses revealed that UACR tertiles were significantly associated with elevated CIMT (p = 0.007) and that, compared with the subjects in the first tertile of UACR, those in the second and third tertiles had 1.878- and 2.028-fold risk of carotid plaques, respectively. However, there was no statistical association between UACR tertile and the prevalence of carotid stenosis.
Higher UACR within the normal range was independently associated with early but not late carotid atherosclerotic lesions in community-based patients with type 2 diabetes. Low-grade albuminuria contributes to the risk of carotid atherosclerosis and may be used as an early marker for the detection of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Urine albumin creatinine ratio; Carotid intima-media thickness; Carotid plaque; Carotid stenosis; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Left ventricular hypertrophy has multiple aetiologies including diabetes and genetic factors. We aimed to identify genetic variants predicting left ventricular hypertrophy in diabetic individuals.
Demographic, echocardiographic, prescribing, morbidity, mortality and genotyping databases connected with the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside, Scotland project were accurately linked using a patient-specific identifier. Left ventricular hypertrophy cases were identified using echocardiographic data.
Genotyping data from 973 cases and 1443 non-left ventricular hypertrophy controls were analysed, investigating whether single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in previous Genome Wide Association Studies predicted left ventricular hypertrophy in our population of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Meta-analysis assessed overall significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were also used to create gene scores. Logistic regression assessed whether these scores predicted left ventricular hypertrophy.
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with left ventricular hypertrophy were significant: rs17132261: OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.10-3.73, p-value 0.02 and rs2292462: OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93 and p-value 2.26x10-3. Meta-analysis confirmed rs17132261 and rs2292462 were associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (p=1.03x10-8 and p=5.86x10-10 respectively) and one single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF1R (rs4966014) became genome wide significant upon meta-analysis although was not significant in our study. Gene scoring based on published single nucleotide polymorphisms also predicted left ventricular hypertrophy in our study.
Rs17132261, within SLC25A46, encodes a mitochondrial phosphate transporter, implying abnormal myocardial energetics contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy development. Rs2292462 lies within the obesity-implicated neuromedin B gene. Rs4966014 lies within the IGF1R1 gene. IGF1 signalling is an established factor in cardiac hypertrophy.
We created a resource to study genetics of left ventricular hypertrophy in diabetes and validated our left ventricular hypertrophy phenotype in replicating single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by previous genome wide association studies investigating left ventricular hypertrophy.
Left ventricular hypertrophy; Genetics; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Circulatory and tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) play a central role in cardiovascular (CV) and renal pathophysiology, making RAS inhibition a logical therapeutic approach in the prevention of CV and renal disease in patients with hypertension. The cardio- and renoprotective effects observed with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) monotherapy, together with the availability of a direct renin inhibitor (DRI), led to the investigation of the potential benefits of dual RAS inhibition. In small studies, ARB and ACE inhibitor combinations were shown to be beneficial in patients with CV or renal disease, with improvement in surrogate markers. However, in larger outcome trials, involving combinations of ACE inhibitors, ARBs or DRIs, dual RAS inhibition did not show reduction in mortality in patients with diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease or after myocardial infarction, and was in fact, associated with increased harm. A recent meta-analysis of all major trials conducted over the past 22 years involving dual RAS inhibition has clearly shown that the risk-benefit ratio argues against the use of dual RAS inhibition. Hence, the recent evidence clearly advocates against the use of dual RAS inhibition, and single RAS inhibition appears to be the most suitable approach to controlling blood pressure and improving patient outcomes.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors; Angiotensin II receptor blockers; Blood pressure; Cardiovascular disease; Dual renin-angiotensin system inhibition; Direct renin inhibitors; Outcomes; Renal disease
The arterial system in diabetic patients is characterized by generalized non-atherosclerotic alterations in the vascular extracellular matrix causing increased arterial stiffness compared with subjects without diabetes. The underlying pathophysiology remains elusive. The elastin-associated extracellular matrix protein, fibulin-1, was recently found in higher concentrations in the arterial wall and in plasma in patients with long duration type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, plasma fibulin-1 independently predicted total mortality and was associated with pulse pressure, an indirect measure of arterial stiffness. Whether plasma fibulin-1 is associated with arterial stiffness at earlier phases of type 2 diabetes has not been determined.
In this cross-sectional study, we examined 90 patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (< 5 years) and 90 gender- and age-matched controls. Plasma fibulin-1 was measured immunochemically. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV). Differences in means were assessed by t-tests. Associations were assessed by multivariate regression analyses.
Plasma fibulin-1 levels were lower in the diabetic group compared with the control group, 93 ± 28 vs 106 ± 30 μg/mL, p = 0.005. In unadjusted analysis of the total study sample, plasma fibulin-1 was not associated with PWV, p = 0.46. However, with adjustment for the confounders age, gender, mean blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, diabetes and glomerular filtration rate, a 10 μg/mL increase in plasma fibulin was associated with 0.09 ± 0.04 m/s increase in PWV, p < 0.05. In subgroup analysis, plasma fibulin-1 was associated with PWV in the diabetes group, (0.16 ± 0.07 m/s increase in PWV per 10 μg/mL increase in plasma fibulin-1, p<0.05), but not controls, β = 0.021 ± 0.057 m/s per 10 μg/mL, p = 0.70. The association remained significant in the diabetes group after adjustment for covariates, p < 0.05.
Plasma fibulin-1 is independently associated with PWV. Yet, as the plasma level of fibulin-1 was lower in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in healthy controls, plasma fibulin-1 levels are not a simple marker of the degree of arterial stiffening. Further studies are needed to determine the exact role of fibulin-1 in arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Arterial stiffness; Pulse wave velocity; Fibulin-1
Insulin resistance (IR) is the key feature of the metabolic syndrome (MetS); its association with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is unclear. We hypothesized that IR is associated with both the MetS and sonographically proven PAD.
IR was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index in 214 patients with sonographically proven PAD as well as in 197 controls, who did not have a history of PAD and in whom coronary artery disease was ruled out angiographically; the MetS was defined according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria.
HOMA IR scores were significantly higher in MetS patients than in subjects without the MetS (5.9 ± 6.2 vs. 2.9 ± 3.9; p <0.001). However, HOMA IR did not differ significantly between patients with PAD and controls (4.2 ± 5.4 vs. 3.3 ± 4.3; p = 0.124). When both, the presence of MetS and of PAD were considered, HOMA IR was significantly higher in patients with the MetS both among those with PAD (6.1 ± 5.7 vs. 3.6 ± 5.2; p<0.001) and among controls (5.8 ± 6.8 vs. 2.3 ± 1.8; p <0.001), whereas it did not differ significantly between patients with PAD and controls among patients with the MetS (5.8 ± 6.8 vs. 6.1 ± 5.7; p = 0.587) nor among those without the MetS (2.3 ± 1.8 vs. 3.6 ± 5.2; p = 0.165). Similar results were obtained with the International Diabetes Federation definition of the MetS.
IR is significantly associated with the MetS but not with sonographically proven PAD.
HOMA index; Atherothrombosis; Atherosclerosis; Insulin; Metabolic disorder
Dyslipidemia is a common complication in patients with diabetes and is involved in being prone to cardiovascular disease. The risk of coronary artery disease is known to be lower in light-to-moderate drinkers than in abstainers. The aim of this study was to clarify whether and how alcohol drinking influences the lipid-related indices, good predictors for cardiovascular disease, such as the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio), the ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio), and the lipid accumulation product (LAP), in patients with diabetes.
The subjects were men with diabetes (n = 1477; mean age, 54.0 years) and they were divided into non-, light (< 22 g ethanol/day), moderate (≥ 22 and < 44 g ethanol/day) and heavy (≥ 44 g ethanol/day) drinkers. The relationships between alcohol intake and the lipid-related indices were investigated by the multivariate analyses with adjustment for age, smoking, regular exercise and drug therapy for diabetes.
The odds ratio (OR) vs. nondrinkers for high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio tended to be lower with an increase in alcohol intake (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80 [0.50-1.29] in light drinkers; 0.24 [0.15-0.38] in moderate drinkers and 0.10 [0.05-0.19] in heavy drinkers). Alcohol intake showed an inverse association with a high TG/HDL-C ratio (OR with 95% CI vs. nondrinkers for high TG/HDL-C ratio: 0.54 [0.36-0.80] in light drinkers; 0.73 [0.56-0.97] in moderate drinkers and 0.72 [0.53-0.98] in heavy drinkers) and a J-shaped relationship with a high LAP (OR with 95% CI vs. nondrinkers for high LAP: 0.66 [0.43-1.02] in light drinkers; 0.82 [0.61-1.10] in moderate drinkers, and 1.29 [0.95-1.77] in heavy drinkers). Similar associations between alcohol intake and the lipid indices were obtained in a covariance analysis.
In patients with diabetes, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with lipid-related indices, and this correlates with previous findings of cardiovascular risk reduction by modest drinking in patients with diabetes.
Adipokines, including adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the association of circulating A-FABP level with severity of myocardial perfusion abnormalities analyzed by Tl-201 dipyridamole single-photon emission computed tomography.
A total of 170 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) from cardiovascular clinics were enrolled in the study. Serum A-FABP levels, echocardiography, and stress myocardial perfusion imaging results were analyzed.
Compared with the patients with mild CAD (summed stress score [SSS] ≤ 8), those with moderate to severe CAD (SSS > 8) had significantly higher A-FABP concentrations. However, the difference was attenuated in the subgroup of patients with heart failure. In the correlation analyses, A-FABP level was correlated with age, body mass index, waist circumference, levels of creatinine, fasting glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, adiponectin, and several echocardiographic parameters, including left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the A-FABP level was not only associated with higher SSS (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.69; P = 0.048), but also an independent risk factor for heart failure (odds ratio 2.71, 95% CI, 1.23–5.94; P = 0.013).
Serum A-FABP levels not only were associated with myocardial perfusion abnormalities and left ventricular function, but also predicted the presence of heart failure in our patients with CAD.
Adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein; Coronary artery disease; Single-photon emission computed tomography
Genetic variants of the FTO gene rs9939609 A/T and the MC4R gene rs17782313 C/T have been associated with obesity. Individuals with mutations in MC4R gene have lower blood pressure (BP), independently of obesity. This study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with anthropometric indexes, BP, and type 2 diabetes mellitus among hypertensive patients.
We genotyped 217 individuals (86 men and 131 women) with hypertension (systolic or diastolic BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg or using antihypertensive drugs). Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Waist and neck circumferences (cm), Body Adiposity Index (BAI,%), Lipid Accumulation Product Index (LAP, cm.mmol.l) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were analyzed using analysis of covariance or modified Poisson’s regression.
Rare allele frequencies were 0.40 for A for FTO rs9939609 and 0.18 for C for MC4R rs17782313. A positive association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with BMI was observed in the overall sample. Among men and women, neck circumference was associated with the FTO genotype and, for women, MC4R genotype. In contrast, in men we found a negative association of MC4R rs17782313 with diastolic BP (TT 90.1 ±12.2, TC/CC 83.2 ±12.1; P = 0.03) and borderline association for systolic BP after controlling for age and BMI.
Common genetic variants of FTO rs9939609 have positive associations with BMI and neck circumference and MC4R rs17782313 in women, but a negative association with diastolic and mean blood pressure in men with hypertension.
Diabetes mellitus; Hypertension; FTO rs9939609; MC4R rs17782313; Waist circumference; Neck circumference; Lipid Accumulation Product index; Body mass index
Patients with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for both, left ventricular (LV)-dilatation and myocardial infarction (MI) following the rupture of a vulnerable plaque. This study investigated the to date incompletely understood relationship between plaque vulnerability and LV-dilatation using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease.
CMR was performed in 58 patients with type 2 diabetes, in which 81 coronary lesions were investigated using OCT.
A decreased minimal fibrous cap thickness (FCT) of coronary lesions was associated with an increase of several CMR-derived parameters including LV-end diastolic volume (LVEDV, r = 0.521, p < 0.001), LV-end diastolic diameter (r = 0.502, p < 0.001) and LV-end systolic volume (r = 0.467, p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained for mean FCT.
Furthermore, patients with dilated versus non-dilated LV differed significantly in several cardiovascular risk factors including previous MI (47.1% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.009), HDL-cholesterol (40.35 ± 5.57 mg/dl vs. 45.20 ± 10.79 mg/dl, p = 0.029) and smoking (82.4% vs. 51.2%, p = 0.027). However, minimal FCT is associated to LV-dilatation independent of previous MIs (odds ratio 0.679, p = 0.022).
Receiver-operating curve analysis demonstrated that CMR-derived LVEDV predicts plaque vulnerability with low-moderate diagnostic efficiency (area under the curve 0.699) and considerate specificity (83.3%) at the optimal cut-off value (159.0 ml).
These data suggest that vulnerability of coronary lesions is associated with LV-dilatation in high risk patients with type 2 diabetes. CMR may be a useful adjunct to the risk-stratification in this population. Future studies are warranted to investigate potential mechanisms linking plaque vulnerability and LV-dilatation.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; Optical coherence tomography; Minimal fibrous cap thickness; Coronary plaque morphology