Debridement and prosthesis retention, combined with a prolonged antibiotic regimen including rifampicin, is an accepted therapeutic approach when the duration of symptoms is less than 4 weeks and there are no radiological signs of loosening. The outcome of patients managed with this strategy has been previously assessed in several articles with success rates of 60–90%. This study aims to review the clinical experience with linezolid in 3 different hospitals from Spain and France in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) managed with debridement, retention of the implant and treated with linezolid with or without rifampicin.
Patients with an acute PJI who underwent open debridement with implant retention treated with linezolid for more than 7 days in 3 hospitals from Barcelona, Tours and Lille between 2005 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant information about demographics, co-morbidity, type of implant, surgical treatment, microorganism isolated, antimicrobial therapy, adverse events (AEs) and outcomes were recorded from patients.
A total of 39 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age (SD) was 70.5 (8.8) years and 9 patients had diabetes mellitus (23%). There were 25 (64%) knee prostheses, 13 (33%) hips and 1 shoulder (3%). The median interquartile range (IQR) days from arthroplasty to infection diagnosis was 17 (19–48) and 33 (85%) cases were diagnosed within the first 60 days. The median (IQR) duration of antibiotic treatment was 70.5 (34–96) days and the median (IQR) number of days on linezolid treatment was 44.5 (30–81). AEs were observed in 15 patients (38%), with gastrointestinal complaints in 8 cases and anemia in 5 being the most frequent. After a median (IQR) follow-up of 2.5 (1.8–3.6) years, there were 11 failures (28%) (8 relapses and 3 new infections). The failure rate was higher in the rifampicin group (36% vs. 18%) mainly due to a higher relapse rate (27% vs. 12%) although differences were not statistically significant.
Management of acute PJIs with debridement and retention of the implant linezolid, with or without rifampicin, is associated with a high remission rate and it is an alternative treatment for infections due to fluoroquinolone and/or rifampicin-resistant staphylococci.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40121-014-0032-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.