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1.  Provision of services for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Fourth report of a Joint Cardiology Committee of the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 
British Heart Journal  1992;67(1):106-116.
The principal conclusions of the fourth report of the Joint Cardiology Committee are: 1 Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of death and morbidity in the population and of utilisation of medical services. 2 Reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease is feasible, and better co-ordination is required of strategies most likely to be effective. 3 Pre-hospital care of cardiac emergencies, in particular the provision of facilities for defibrillation, should continue to be developed. 4 There remains a large shortfall in provision of cardiological services with almost one in five district hospitals in England and Wales having no physician with the appropriate training. Few of the larger districts have two cardiologists to meet the recommendation for populations of over 250,000. One hundred and fifty extra consultant posts (in both district and regional centres) together with adequate supporting staff and facilities are urgently needed to provide modest cover for existing requirements. 5 The provision of coronary bypass grafting has expanded since 1985, but few regions have fulfilled the unambitious objectives stated in the Third Joint Cardiology Report. 6 The development of coronary angioplasty has been slow and haphazard. All regional centres should have at least two cardiologists trained in coronary angioplasty and there should be a designated budget. Surgical cover is still required for most procedures and is best provided on site. 7 Advances in the management of arrhythmias, including the use of specialised pacemakers, implantable defibrillators, and percutaneous or surgical ablation of parts of the cardiac conducting system have resulted in great benefit to patients. Planned development of the emerging sub-specialty of arrhythmology is required. 8 Strategies must be developed to limit the increased exposure of cardiologists to ionising radiation which will result from the expansion and increasing complexity of interventional procedures. 9 Supra-regional funding for infant cardiac surgery and transplantation has been successful and should be continued. 10 Despite advances in non-invasive diagnosis of congenital heart disease the amount of cardiac catheterisation of children has risen due to the increase in number of interventional procedures. Vacant consultant posts in paediatric cardiology and the need for an increase in the number of such posts cannot be filled from existing senior registrar posts. All paediatric cardiac units should have a senior registrar and in the meantime it may be necessary to make proleptic appointments to consultant posts with arrangements for the appointees to complete their training. 11 Provision of care for the increasing number of adolescent and adult survivors of complex congenital heart disease is urgently required. The management of these patients is specialised, and the committee recommends that it should ultimately be undertaken by either adult or pediatric cardiologists with appropriate additional training working in supra-regionally funded centers alongside specially trained surgeons. 12 Cardiac rehabilitation should be available to all patients in the United Kingdom. 13 New recommendations for training in cardiology are for a total of at least five years in the specialty after general professional training, plus a year as senior registrar in general medicine. An additional year may be required for those wishing to work in interventional cardiology and adequate provision must be made for those with an academic interest. 14 It is essential that both basic and clinical research is carried out in cardiac centres but these activities are becoming increasingly limited by the lack of properly funded posts in the basic sciences and restriction in the number of honorary posts for clinical research workers. 15 A joint audit committee of the Royal College of Physicians and the British Cardiac Society has been established to coordinate audit in the specialty. All district and regional cardiac centres should cooperate with the work of the committee, in addition to their participation in local audit activities.
PMCID: PMC1024713  PMID: 1739519
2.  Appropriateness and Diagnostic Yield of Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in an Open-Access Endoscopy System 
Open access endoscopy (OAE) decreases the waiting time for patients and clinical burden to gastroenterologist; however, the appropriateness of referrals for endoscopy and thus the diagnostic yield of these endoscopies has become an important issue. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriateness of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy requests in an OAE system.
Patients and Methods:
A retrospective chart review of all consecutive patients who underwent an upper gastroscopy in the year 2008 was performed and was defined as appropriate or inappropriate according to the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines. Endoscopic findings were recorded and classified as positive or negative. Referrals were categorized as being from a gastroenterologist, internist, surgeon, primary care physicians or others, and on an inpatient or out-patient basis.
A total of 505 consecutive patients were included. The mean age was 45.3 (standard deviation 18.1), 259 (51%) of them were males. 31% of the referrals were thought to be inappropriate. Referrals from primary care physicians were inappropriate in 47% of patients while only 19.5% of gastroenterologists referrals were considered inappropriate. Nearly, 37.8% of the out-patient referrals were inappropriate compared to only 7.8% for inpatients. Abnormal findings were found in 78.5% and 78% of patients referred by gastroenterologists and surgeons respectively while in those referred by primary care physicians it was (49.7%). Inpatients referred for endoscopy had abnormal findings in (81.7%) while in out-patients it was (66.6%). The most common appropriate indications in order of frequency were “upper abdominal distress that persisted despite an appropriate trial of therapy” (78.9%), “persistent vomiting of unknown cause” (19.2%), upper GI bleeding or unexplained iron deficiency anemia (7.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of the ASGE guidelines in our study population was 70.3% and 35% respectively.
A large proportion of patients referred for endoscopy through our open-access endoscopy unit are considered inappropriate, with significant differences among specialties. These results suggest that if proper education of practitioners was implemented, a better utilization would be expected.
PMCID: PMC3793473  PMID: 24045595
Appropriateness of gastroscopy; gastroscopy; open access endoscopy; Saudi Arabia
3.  Appropriate use of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy--a prospective audit. Steering Group of the Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Audit Committee. 
Gut  1994;35(9):1209-1214.
Work by this group has shown that there is a wide range of opinion as to patients' suitability for endoscopy. In a recent study, 1297 questionnaires were sent to a random selection of doctors, including 350 general physicians, 400 surgeons, 477 gastroenterologists, and 70 general practitioners. The respondent was asked to indicate whether or not he would refer the patient described by each case vignette for endoscopy. Depending on the indication, the positive referral rate varied from 4.5% to 99% overall, and from 4.5% to 63.8% for all those clinical situations that the working party felt to be inappropriate. A second study examined the appropriateness of 400 consecutive cases referred from four units within one health region; these cases were judged independently, and without conferring, by a panel of seven gastroenterologists. The same cases were rated by software that incorporated American opinion (the Rand criteria). Although only 45 (11%) of the cases were classed as inappropriate by the British panel, 120 cases (31%) assessed by the American software were rated inappropriate. These differences occurred largely because in the USA it is recommended that one month's antiulcer treatment be tried before considering endoscopy for dyspepsia and thus many referrals were seen as inappropriate by the American database. Of the 45 cases found to be inappropriate by the British doctors no important abnormality was found at endoscopy; whereas of 120 cases judged inappropriate by the Rand criteria, three duodenal and two gastric ulcers, and one gastric cancer were diagnosed at gastroscopy. This study attempts a quantitative assessment of inappropriate use and serves to encourage further work to define appropriateness.
PMCID: PMC1375695  PMID: 7959225
4.  Provision of services for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease in England and Wales. Third report of a Joint Cardiology Committee. Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 
British Heart Journal  1985;53(5):477-482.
The principal conclusions of the report are as follows. Cardiology continues to change rapidly. In the five years since the issue of the Second Report of the Joint Cardiology Committee in 1980 the specialty has been affected principally by the increase in coronary artery surgery and the increasing importance of non-invasive techniques of diagnosis, particularly echocardiography. The burden of heart disease in Britain shows some decline recently, but this falls short of that which has occurred in other countries. The vital role of the initial assessment of patients to ensure the efficient use of limited resources falls upon physicians and paediatricians in district general hospitals. Each district general hospital should have at least one physician, practising general medicine but having a special expertise and training in cardiology. He should undertake echocardiography, stress testing, ambulatory monitoring, emergency pacing, rehabilitation, and cardiac intensive care, with the necessary facilities and staff. He will also play an important part in the follow up of patients assessed and treated at cardiac centres. Paediatricians should continue to evaluate children with heart disease and their training should include periods at cardiac centres. Cardiac centres currently undertaking invasive investigations and cardiac surgery need to expand to cope with demand. A target figure of 750-1000 coronary artery bypass operations annually is suggested. This implies three or four surgeons and six cardiologists per centre. Other staffing should be based on these figures. Smaller centres are not necessarily non-viable but should be encouraged to expand or merge. Funding should be clarified so that regional contributions to regional services are identified and not lost in district budgets. Expensive capital equipment should be regionally funded whether sited in cardiac centres of district general hospitals. (7) Supraregional centres for the cardiac problems of infants under the age of one year have been identified ans should receive supraregional funding. Their staffing and equipment should be appropriate to the exceptional demands of this work. If such a centre is sited within an existing cardiac centre the staff will be additional to those needed for the adult work. Facilities for older children should continue to be provided, as at present, at all cardiac centres. (8) Cardiac transplantation should be funded supraregionally. (9) The medical audit of cardiac work should be supported by the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS). (10) Research remains a high priority, and cardiac centres should be provided with the facilities, and staff with the contracts and time, to undertake it. (11) A revision of this report is recommended within five years.
PMCID: PMC481796  PMID: 3994860
5.  The one-stop dyspepsia clinic--an alternative to open-access endoscopy for patients with dyspepsia. 
The most sensitive investigative tool for the upper gastrointestinal tract is endoscopy, and many gastroenterologists offer an open-access endoscopy service to general practitioners. However, for patients with dyspepsia, endoscopy is not always the most appropriate initial investigation, and the one-stop dyspepsia clinic allows for different approaches. We have audited, over one year, the management and outcomes of patients attending a one-stop dyspepsia clinic. All patients seen in the clinic were included, and for those not endoscoped the notes were reviewed one year after the end of the study to check for reattendances and diagnoses originally missed. Patients' and general practitioners' views of the service were assessed by questionnaire. 485 patients were seen, of whom 301 (62%) were endoscoped at first attendance. In 66 patients (14%), endoscopy was deemed inappropriate and only one of these returned subsequently for endoscopy. 118 patients (24%) were symptom-free when seen in the clinic and were asked to telephone for an appointment if and when symptoms recurred; half of these returned and were endoscoped. Oesophagitis and duodenal ulcer were significantly more common in this 'telephone endoscopy' group than in those endoscoped straight from the clinic. Overall, 25% of patients referred were not endoscoped. Important additional diagnoses were made from the clinic consultation. General practitioners and patients valued the system, in particular the telephone endoscopy service. 84% of general practitioners said they would prefer the one-stop dyspepsia clinic to open-access endoscopy.
PMCID: PMC1296910  PMID: 10070371
6.  Evaluation of a Minimally Invasive Cell Sampling Device Coupled with Assessment of Trefoil Factor 3 Expression for Diagnosing Barrett's Esophagus: A Multi-Center Case–Control Study 
PLoS Medicine  2015;12(1):e1001780.
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a commonly undiagnosed condition that predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Routine endoscopic screening for BE is not recommended because of the burden this would impose on the health care system. The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel approach using a minimally invasive cell sampling device, the Cytosponge, coupled with immunohistochemical staining for the biomarker Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3), could be used to identify patients who warrant endoscopy to diagnose BE.
Methods and Findings
A case–control study was performed across 11 UK hospitals between July 2011 and December 2013. In total, 1,110 individuals comprising 463 controls with dyspepsia and reflux symptoms and 647 BE cases swallowed a Cytosponge prior to endoscopy. The primary outcome measures were to evaluate the safety, acceptability, and accuracy of the Cytosponge-TFF3 test compared with endoscopy and biopsy.
In all, 1,042 (93.9%) patients successfully swallowed the Cytosponge, and no serious adverse events were attributed to the device. The Cytosponge was rated favorably, using a visual analogue scale, compared with endoscopy (p < 0.001), and patients who were not sedated for endoscopy were more likely to rate the Cytosponge higher than endoscopy (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.001). The overall sensitivity of the test was 79.9% (95% CI 76.4%–83.0%), increasing to 87.2% (95% CI 83.0%–90.6%) for patients with ≥3 cm of circumferential BE, known to confer a higher cancer risk. The sensitivity increased to 89.7% (95% CI 82.3%–94.8%) in 107 patients who swallowed the device twice during the study course. There was no loss of sensitivity in patients with dysplasia. The specificity for diagnosing BE was 92.4% (95% CI 89.5%–94.7%). The case–control design of the study means that the results are not generalizable to a primary care population. Another limitation is that the acceptability data were limited to a single measure.
The Cytosponge-TFF3 test is safe and acceptable, and has accuracy comparable to other screening tests. This test may be a simple and inexpensive approach to identify patients with reflux symptoms who warrant endoscopy to diagnose BE.
Editors' Summary
Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which the cells lining the esophagus (the tube that transports food from the mouth to the stomach) change and begin to resemble the cells lining the intestines. Although some people with Barrett's esophagus complain of burning indigestion or acid reflux from the stomach into the esophagus, many people have no symptoms or do not seek medical advice, so the condition often remains undiagnosed. Long-term acid reflux (gastroesophageal reflux disease), obesity, and being male are all risk factors for Barrett's esophagus, but the condition's exact cause is unclear. Importantly, people with Barrett's esophagus are more likely to develop esophageal cancer than people with a normal esophagus, especially if a long length (segment) of the esophagus is affected or if the esophagus contains abnormally growing “dysplastic” cells. Although esophageal cancer is rare in the general population, 1%–5% of people with Barrett's esophagus develop this type of cancer; about half of people diagnosed with esophageal cancer die within a year of diagnosis.
Why Was This Study Done?
Early detection and treatment of esophageal cancer increases an affected individual's chances of survival. Thus, experts recommend that people with multiple risk factors for Barrett's esophagus undergo endoscopic screening—a procedure that uses a small camera attached to a long flexible tube to look for esophageal abnormalities. Once diagnosed, patients with Barrett's esophagus generally enter an endoscopic surveillance program so that dysplastic cells can be identified as soon as they appear and removed using endoscopic surgery or “radiofrequency ablation” to prevent cancer development. However, although endoscopic screening of everyone with reflux symptoms for Barrett's esophagus could potentially reduce deaths from esophageal cancer, such screening is not affordable for most health care systems. In this case–control study, the researchers investigate whether a cell sampling device called the Cytosponge coupled with immunohistochemical staining for Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3, a biomarker of Barrett's esophagus) can be used to identify individuals who warrant endoscopic investigation. A case–control study compares the characteristics of patients with and without a specific disease. The Cytosponge is a small capsule-encased sponge that is attached to a string. The capsule rapidly dissolves in the stomach after being swallowed, and the sponge collects esophageal cells for TFF3 staining when it is retrieved by pulling on the string.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers enrolled 463 individuals attending 11 UK hospitals for investigational endoscopy for dyspepsia and reflux symptoms as controls, and 647 patients with Barrett's esophagus who were attending hospital for monitoring endoscopy. Before undergoing endoscopy, the study participants swallowed a Cytosponge so that the researchers could evaluate the safety, acceptability, and accuracy of the Cytosponge-TFF3 test for the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus compared with endoscopy. Nearly 94% of the participants swallowed the Cytosponge successfully, there were no adverse effects attributed to the device, and those participants that swallowed the device generally rated the experience as acceptable. The overall sensitivity of the Cytosponge-TFF3 test (its ability to detect true positives) was 79.9%. That is, 79.9% of the individuals with endoscopically diagnosed Barrett's esophagus were identified as having the condition using the new test. The sensitivity of the test was greater among patients who had a longer length of affected esophagus and importantly was not reduced in patients with dysplasia. Compared to endoscopy, the specificity of the Cytosponge-TFF3 test (its ability to detect true negatives) was 92.4%. That is, 92.4% of people unaffected by Barrett's esophagus were correctly identified as being unaffected.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The case–control design of this study means that its results are not generalizable to a primary care population. Also, the study used only a single measure of the acceptability of the Cytosponge-TFF3 test, Nevertheless, these findings indicate that this minimally invasive test for Barrett's esophagus is safe and acceptable, and that its accuracy is similar to that of colorectal cancer and cervical cancer screening tests. The Cytosponge-TFF3 test might, therefore, provide a simple, inexpensive way to identify those patients with reflux symptoms who warrant endoscopy to diagnose Barrett's esophagus, although randomized controlled trials of the test are needed before its routine clinical implementation. Moreover, because most people with Barrett's esophagus never develop esophageal cancer, additional biomarkers ideally need to be added to the test before its routine implementation to identify those individuals who have the greatest risk of esophageal cancer, and thereby avoid overtreatment of Barrett's esophagus.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at
The US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases provides detailed information about Barrett's esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease
The US National Cancer Institute provides information for patients and health professionals about esophageal cancer (in English and Spanish)
Cancer Research UK (a non-profit organization) provides detailed information about Barrett's esophagus (including a video about having the Cytosponge test and further information about this study, the BEST2 Study) and about esophageal cancer
The UK National Health Service Choices website has pages on the complications of gastroesophageal reflux and on esophageal cancer (including a real story)
Heartburn Cancer Awareness Support is a non-profit organization that aims to improve public awareness and provides support for people affected by Barrett's esophagus; the organization's website explains the range of initiatives to promote education and awareness as well as highlighting personal stories of those affected by Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer
The British Society of Gastroenterology has published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of Barrett's esophagus
The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has published guidelines for gastroesophageal reflux
The Barrett's Esophagus Campaign is a UK-based non-profit organization that supports research into the condition and provides support for people affected by Barrett's esophagus; its website includes personal stories about the condition
In a multi-center case-control study, Rebecca Fitzgerald and colleagues examine whether a minimally invasive cell sampling device could be used to identify patients who warrant endoscopy to diagnose Barrett's esophagus.
PMCID: PMC4310596  PMID: 25634542
7.  A nine-year audit of open-access upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures: Results and experience of a single centre 
The appropriateness and safety of open-access endoscopy are very important issues as its use continues to increase.
To present a review of a nine-year experience with open-access upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with respect to indications, diagnostic efficacy, safety and diseases diagnosed.
A retrospective, observational case series of all patients who underwent open-access endoscopy between January 2000 and December 2008 was conducted. Indications were classified as appropriate or not appropriate according to American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines. Endoscopic diagnoses were based on widely accepted criteria. Major complication rates were assessed.
A total of 20,620 patients with a mean age of 58 years were assessed, of whom 11,589 (56.2%) were women and 9031 (43.8%) were men. Adherence to ASGE indications led to statistically significant, clinically relevant findings. The most common indications in patients older than age 45 years of age were dyspepsia (28.5%) and anemia (19.7%) in the ASGE-appropriate group, and dyspepsia in patients younger than 45 years of age without therapy trial (6.6%) in the nonappropriate group. Of the examinations, 38.57% were normal. Hiatal hernia and nonerosive gastritis were the most common findings. Important diagnoses such as malignancies and duodenal ulcers would have been missed if endoscopies were performed only according to appropriateness. There were only two major complications and no mortalities.
Open-access upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a safe and effective system. More relevant findings were found when adhering to the ASGE guidelines. However, using these guidelines as the sole determining factor in whether to perform an endoscopy is not advisable because many clinically relevant diagnoses may be overlooked.
PMCID: PMC3043009  PMID: 21321679
ASGE indications; Gastroscopy findings; Gastroscopy indications; Open-access endoscopy
8.  Provision of gastrointestinal endoscopy and related services for a district general hospital. Working Party of the Clinical Services Committee of the British Society of Gastroenterology. 
Gut  1991;32(1):95-105.
(1) The number of endoscopic examinations performed is rising. Epidemiological data and the workload of well developed units show that annual requirements per head of population are approaching: Upper gastrointestinal 1 in 100 Flexible sigmoidoscopy 1 in 500 Colonoscopy 1 in 500 ERCP 1 in 2000 (2) Open access endoscopy to general practitioners is desirable and increasingly sought. For a district general hospital serving a population of 250,000, this workload entails about 3500 procedures annually, performed during 10 half day routine sessions plus emergency work. (3) High standards of training and experience are needed by all staff, who must work in purpose built accommodation designed to promote efficient and safe practice. (4) The endoscopy unit should be adjacent to day care facilities and near the x ray department. There should be easy access to wards. (5) An endoscopy unit needs at least two endoscopy rooms; a fully ventilated cleaning/disinfection area; rooms for patient reception, preparation, and recovery; and accommodation for administration, storage, and staff amenities. (6) The service should be consultant based. At least 10 clinical sessions are required, made up of six or more consultant sessions and two to four clinical assistant, hospital practitioner, or staff specialist sessions. Each consultant should be expected to commit at least two sessions weekly to endoscopy. Extra consultant sessions may be needed to provide an efficient service. (7) A specially trained nursing sister (grade G or H) and five other endoscopy nurses are needed to care for the patients; their work may be supplemented by care assistants. (8) A new post of endoscopy department assistant (analogous to an operating department assistant) is proposed to maintain and prepare instruments, and to give technical assistance during procedures. (9) A full time secretary should be employed. Records, appointments, and audit should be computer based. (10) ERCP needs the collaboration of an interventional radiologist working with high quality x ray equipment in a specially prepared radiology screening room. This facility may need to serve more than one hospital. (11) A gastrointestinal measurement laboratory can conveniently be combined with the endoscopy unit. In some hospitals one or more gastrointestinal measurement technicians may staff this laboratory. (12) An endoscopy unit is a service department analogous to a radiology department. It needs an annual budget.
PMCID: PMC1379223  PMID: 1991644
9.  Indications, methods, and outcomes of percutaneous liver biopsy in England and Wales: an audit by the British Society of Gastroenterology and the Royal College of Physicians of London. 
Gut  1995;36(3):437-441.
The liver section of the British Society of Gastroenterology and the research unit of the Royal College of Physicians collaborated to set up a nationwide audit to investigate the practice of percutaneous liver biopsy in England and Wales. Each of 189 health districts in England and Wales was approached to provide a list of 10 consecutive percutaneous biopsies performed during 1991, and details of demographic data, indications, suspected diagnosis, investigations, biopsy technique, outcome, and influence on patient management were collected. Data were retrieved on 1500 (79%). The age distribution showed 6% of biopsies were done in those over 80 years of age and as many over 90 as under 10 years of age. Suspected malignancy and chronic liver disease each contributed one third of the indications. In 34% the procedure was carried out by radiologists under ultrasound image control. The remainder were done by general physicians and gastroenterologists, with the operator in the second group being more senior and experienced. The Trucut biopsy needle accounted for two thirds of biopsies, the remainder being the Menghini type. For both needles the samples were recorded as excellent or satisfactory in 83% and inadequate in only 5%. Bleeding complicated 26 procedures (1.7%), requiring transfusion in 11, and was commoner when clotting was impaired or serum bilirubin raised. There were two definite and three possible procedure related, given an overall mortality of 0.13-0.33%. The diagnosis made before biopsy was confirmed in 63% of patients, and the clinician found the biopsy helpful in treatment in 75%. Day case biopsy and techniques to reduce the risk of bleeding were surprisingly rare in this series, which has given a unique opportunity to examine everyday practice across a wide range of hospitals.
PMCID: PMC1382461  PMID: 7698705
10.  Skull X-ray after head injury: the recommendations of the Royal College of Surgeons Working Party report in practice. 
Archives of Emergency Medicine  1993;10(3):138-144.
In 1986 a Royal College of Surgeons Working Party published guidelines, based on over 15 years of clinical research both here and in the U.S.A., on when to perform skull X-rays on a head injury patient. In this retrospective study the recorded details of 405 patients who presented to an accident and emergency (A&E) department over a 3-month period in 1991 are analysed, and the Report criteria applied to each one to assess whether the guidelines are being followed in performing a skull X-ray. According to these guidelines, 191 of these patients (47.2%) should have been X-rayed, however, only 83 were. Only one patient was thought to have been X-rayed inappropriately. The Report criteria most commonly thought by the A&E doctors not to warrant skull X-ray, were loss of consciousness, amnesia, dizziness, blurred vision, headache, and alcohol intoxication. The reasons why these criteria are being ignored are examined, and together with reference to recent studies, slight alterations to the Working Party guidelines are suggested to make them more applicable to everyday situations of head injury encountered in a casualty department.
PMCID: PMC1285978  PMID: 8216584
11.  Iron deficiency anaemia: are the British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines being adhered to? 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2003;79(930):226-228.
Background: The British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) issued guidelines on the investigation of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) ensuring standardised and comprehensive gastrointestinal investigation in all patients. It was apparent that not all patients in the authors' hospital were investigated according to these guidelines.
Objective: To determine whether patients who were referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for investigation of IDA were confirmed to be iron deficient, and whether the BSG guidelines were being fully implemented.
Methods: All patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy over an 18 month period on a computer database (Endoscribe) were reviewed. Haematology, biochemistry, and radiology results were obtained and the frequency of the various diagnoses recorded.
Results: A total of 320 patients (133 male; mean age 71.5 years) were initially referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for investigation of IDA, of whom 95 were iron deficient. Of these, 44 (46%) had duodenal biopsies performed, three (7%) of whom were diagnosed with coeliac disease. Five patients were diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal carcinoma (one oesophageal, four gastric). Of the remaining 87 patients, 65 (75%) underwent lower gastrointestinal investigations with four having colorectal carcinoma, four colonic polyps, and one angiodysplasia.
Conclusions: Duodenal biopsies were performed in less than half of the patients. In those not diagnosed with coeliac disease or upper gastrointestinal carcinoma, only three quarters underwent lower gastrointestinal assessment. Approximately 10% were diagnosed with gastrointestinal malignancy as a cause for their anaemia and in 66% of patients no gastrointestinal cause was found. All physicians need to be made fully aware of the BSG guidelines for investigation of IDA.
PMCID: PMC1742681  PMID: 12743344
12.  Appropriateness of outpatient gastrointestinal endoscopy in a non-academic hospital 
AIM: To assess the appropriate use and the diagnostic yield of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in this subgroup of patients.
METHODS: In total, 789 consecutive outpatients referred for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy [381 for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and 408 for colonoscopy] were prospectively enrolled in the study. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) guidelines were used to assess the relationship between appropriateness and the presence of relevant endoscopic findings.
RESULTS: The overall inappropriate rate was 13.3%. The indications for EGD and colonoscopy were, respectively, appropriate in 82.7% and 82.6% of the exams, uncertain in 5.8% and 2.4% and inappropriate in 11.5% and 15%. The diagnostic yield was significant higher for EGDs and colonoscopies judged appropriate and uncertain when compared with those considered inappropriate (EGD: 36.6% vs 36.4% vs 11.4%, P = 0.004; Colonoscopy: 24.3% vs 20.0% vs 3.3%, P = 0.001). Of the 25 malignant lesions detected, all but one was detected in exams judged appropriate or uncertain.
CONCLUSION: This study shows a good adherence to ASGE guidelines by the referring physicians and a significant increase of the diagnostic yield in appropriate examinations, namely in detecting neoplastic lesions. It underscores the importance that the appropriateness of the indication assumes in assuring high-quality GI endoscopic procedures.
PMCID: PMC3196727  PMID: 22013500
Gastrointestinal endoscopy; Indications; Appropriateness
13.  Indicators of safety compromise in gastrointestinal endoscopy 
The growth in the use of endoscopy to diagnose and treat many gastointestinal disorders, and its central role in cancer screening programs, has led to a significant increase in the number of procedures performed. This growth, however, has also led to many variations in, among others, the provision of services, the choice of sedative medications and the training of providers. The recognition of the significance of quality in endoscopy has prompted several countries, including Canada, to initiate efforts to adopt nationwide quality improvement programs. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology formed a committee to review endoscopy and quality with the aim of stimulating improvement. This article focuses specifically on patient safety indicators that were developed at a consensus conference aimed at generating a broad range of recommendations for selected endoscopic procedures, which if adopted, could lead to significant changes in how endoscopy services are provided.
The importance of quality indicators has become increasingly recognized in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patient safety requires the identification and monitoring of occurrences associated with harm or the potential for harm. The identification of relevant indicators of safety compromise is, therefore, a critical element that is key to the effective implementation of endoscopy quality improvement programs.
To identify key indicators of safety compromise in gastrointestinal endoscopy.
The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Safety and Quality Indicators in Endoscopy Consensus Group was formed to address issues of quality in endoscopy. A subcommittee was formed to identify key safety indicators. A systematic literature review was undertaken, and articles pertinent to safety in endoscopy were identified and reviewed. All complications and measures used to document safety were recorded. From this, a preliminary list of 16 indicators was compiled and presented to the 35-person consensus group during a three-day meeting. A revised list of 20 items was subsequently put to the consensus group for vote for inclusion on the final list of safety indicators. Items were retained only if the consensus group highly agreed on their importance.
A total of 19 indicators of safety compromise were retained and grouped into the three following categories: medication-related – the need for CPR, use of reversal agents, hypoxia, hypotension, hypertension, sedation doses in patients older than 70 years of age, allergic reactions and laryngospasm/bronchospasm; procedure-related early – perforation, immediate postpolypectomy bleeding, need for hospital admission or transfer to emergency department from the gastroenterology unit, instrument impaction, severe persistent abdominal pain requiring evaluation proven to not be perforation; and procedure-related delayed – death within 30 days of procedure, 14-day unplanned hospitalization, 14-day unplanned contact with a health provider, gastrointestinal bleeding within 14 days of procedure, infection or symptomatic metabolic complications.
The 19 indicators of safety compromise in endoscopy, identified by a rigorous, evidence-based consensus process, provide clear outcomes to be recorded by all facilities as part of their continuing quality improvement programs.
PMCID: PMC3275408  PMID: 22312605
Digestive system; Endoscopy; Health care; Quality assurance; Surgical complications; Safety
14.  Randomised trial of endoscopy with testing for Helicobacter pylori compared with non-invasive H pylori testing alone in the management of dyspepsia 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2002;324(7344):999.
To compare the efficacy of non-invasive testing for Helicobacter pylori with that of endoscopy (plus H pylori testing) in the management of patients referred for endoscopic investigation of upper gastrointestinal symptoms.
Randomised controlled trial with follow up at 12 months.
Hospital gastroenterology unit.
708 patients aged under 55 referred for endoscopic investigation of dyspepsia, randomised to non-invasive breath test for H pylori or endoscopy plus H pylori testing.
Main outcome measure
Glasgow dyspepsia severity score at one year. Use of medical resources, patient oriented outcomes, and safety were also assessed.
In 586 patients followed up at 12 months the mean change in dyspepsia score was 4.8 in the non-invasive H pylori test group and 4.6 in the endoscopy group (95% confidence interval for difference –0.7 to 0.5, P=0.69). Only 8.2% of patients followed up who were randomised to breath test alone were referred for subsequent endoscopy. The use of non-endoscopic resources was similar in the two groups. Reassurance value, concern about missed pathology, overall patient satisfaction, and quality of life were similar in the two groups. The patients found the non-invasive breath test procedure less uncomfortable and distressing than endoscopy with or without sedation. No potentially serious pathology requiring treatment other than eradication of H pylori was missed.
In this patient group, non-invasive testing for H pylori is as effective and safe as endoscopy and less uncomfortable and distressing for the patient. Non-invasive H pylori testing should be the preferred mode of investigation.
What is already known on this topicEndoscopy is a commonly used investigation for upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but its effectiveness has been questionedNon-invasive testing for Helicobacter pylori has been shown to predict endoscopic diagnosis in patients with dyspepsiaWhat this study addsIn patients less than 55 years of age with uncomplicated dyspepsia, non-invasive testing for H pylori is as effective and as safe as endoscopyNon-invasive H pylori testing is as reassuring to the patient as endoscopy and is less uncomfortable and distressing
PMCID: PMC102780  PMID: 11976239
15.  Colonoscopy appropriateness: Really needed or a waste of time? 
Technical and quality improvements in colonoscopy along with the widespread implementation of population screening programs and the development of open-access units have resulted in an exponential increase in colonoscopy demands, forcing endoscopy units to bear an excessive burden of work. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy appropriateness guideline and the European panel appropriateness of gastrointestinal endoscopy guideline have appeared as potential solutions to tackle this problem and to increase detection rates of relevant lesions. Inappropriate indications based on either guideline are as high as 30%. Strategies based on these clinical criteria or other systems may be used to reduce inappropriate indications, thus decreasing waiting lists for outpatient colonoscopy, saving costs, prioritizing colonoscopy referrals and subsequently decreasing interval times from diagnosis to treatment. Despite the potential role of appropriateness guidelines, they have not been widely adopted partly due to fear of missing significant lesions detected in inappropriate indications. We review the main appropriateness and prioritising systems, their usefulness for detecting relevant lesions, as well as interventions based on those systems and cost-effectiveness.
PMCID: PMC4325314
Colonoscopy appropriateness; European panel appropriateness of gastrointestinal endoscopy II; National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; Colonoscopy prioritisation; Open access endoscopy unit
16.  Barriers and facilitators to change in the organisation and delivery of endoscopy services in England and Wales: a focus group study 
BMJ Open  2012;2(3):e001009.
Explore professional views of changes to gastroenterology service organisation and delivery and barriers and facilitators impacting on change. The work was undertaken as part of an evaluation in endoscopy service provision catalysed by the Modernising Endoscopy Services Programme of the Modernisation Agency.
Focus groups followed by analysis and group-working activities identifying key themes.
English and Welsh secondary care gastroenterology units.
20 professionals working in gastroenterology in England and Wales. Medical, surgical and nursing specialists including endoscopy nurses. Opportunistic sampling to include senior people in leadership and management roles who were directly involved in service modernisation, excluding those involved in the Modernisation Endoscopy Services Programme.
Four 1.5 h focus groups took place in 2007. Summative and thematic analyses captured essential aspects of text and achieved consensus on key themes. 4 themes were revealed: ‘loss of personal autonomy and erosion of professionalism’, ‘lack of senior management understanding’, ‘barriers and facilitators to change’ and ‘differences between English and Welsh units’. Themes indicated that low staff morale, lack of funding and senior management support were barriers to effective change. Limitations to the study include the disproportionately low number of focus group attendees from English units and the time delay in reporting these findings.
Despite ambitions to implement change, ineffective management support continued to hamper modernisation of service organisation and delivery. While the National Health Service Modernisation Agency Modernising Endoscopy Services Programme acted as a catalyst for change, affecting the way staff work, communicate and think, it was not effective in heralding change itself. However, gastroenterologists were keen to consider the potential for change and future service modernisation. The methodological framework of innovative qualitative enquiry offers comprehensive and rigorous enhancement of quantitative studies, including randomised trials, when a mixed methods approach is needed.
Article summary
Article focus
Examine the opinions of gastroenterologists and endoscopy nurses regarding the effects of change on service organisation and delivery.
Establish views regarding the impact of change on professional practice and self-identity.
Describe barriers and facilitators to change in gastroenterological endoscopy services and across units in England and Wales to explore differences.
Key messages
GI consultants, surgeons and endoscopy nurses described barriers to change and service modernisation resulting largely from lack-lustre senior management support, inadequate funding and low staff morale.
The Modernising Endoscopy Services Programme raised the profile of change but was not effective in catalysing change itself. Nevertheless, participants saw real potential in overcoming barriers to change in order to promote future service modernisation.
The methodological framework of innovative qualitative enquiry used in this study offers the opportunity for comprehensive and rigorous enhancement of quantitative studies, including randomised trials, when a mixed methods approach is needed.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The study took place in 2007 but the findings offer a unique historical perspective on professional views at that time.
This was a time when further efforts to promote modernisation of endoscopy services in England, through quality monitoring and accreditation of units was starting.
The number of people participating in focus groups was small; however, the qualitative study was looking for depth rather than breadth of data disclosure.
Participants covered a wide range of medical, surgical and nursing professions working in gastroenterology, and there is no reason to believe their views are not reliable and applicable to the wider gastroenterology professional population.
PMCID: PMC3383987  PMID: 22734116
17.  Cardiac rehabilitation in the United Kingdom: guidelines and audit standards. National Institute for Nursing, the British Cardiac Society and the Royal College of Physicians of London. 
Heart  1996;75(1):89-93.
This paper summarises a multidisciplinary workshop convened to prepare clinical guidelines and audit standards in cardiac rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. The workshop developed a three element model of the rehabilitation process and identified needs relating to medical and psychosocial care and the potential contributions of exercise, education, secondary prevention, and vocational advice. Draft clinical standards are proposed as a basis for locally developed guidelines and further research.
PMCID: PMC484231  PMID: 8624882
18.  The Munich Barrett follow up study: suspicion of Barrett’s oesophagus based on either endoscopy or histology only—what is the clinical significance? 
Gut  2004;53(10):1402-1407.
Background: The incidence of distal oesophageal adenocarcinoma is rising, with chronic reflux and Barrett’s oesophagus being considered risk factors. Reliable detection of Barrett’s oesophagus during upper endoscopy is therefore mandatory but requires both endoscopy and histology for confirmation. Appropriate management of patients with endoscopic suspicion but negative on histology, or vice versa, or of patients with no endoscopic suspicion but with a biopsy diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia at the gastro-oesophageal junction, has not yet been studied prospectively.
Patients and methods: In a prospective multicentre study, 929 patients (51% male, mean age 50 years) referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included; 59% had reflux symptoms. The endoscopic aspect of the Z line and any suspicion of Barrett’s oesophagus were noted, and biopsies were taken in all patients from the Z line (n = 4), gastric cardia (n = 2), and body and antrum (n = 2 each). Biopsies positive for specialised intestinal metaplasia (SIM) were reviewed by a reference pathologist for a final Barrett’s oesophagus diagnosis. All patients with endoscopic and/or histological suspicion of Barrett’s oesophagus were invited for a follow up endoscopy; the remaining cases (no endoscopic or histological suspicion of Barrett’s oesophagus) were followed clinically.
Results: Of 235 patients positive for Barrett’s oesophagus on endoscopy and/or histology, 63% agreed to undergo repeat endoscopy (mean follow up period 30.5 months). 46% of patients with an endoscopic Barrett’s oesophagus diagnosis but no histological confirmation (group A) showed the same distribution, a further 42% did not have Barrett’s oesophagus, and 11% had confirmed Barrett’s oesophagus on both endoscopy and biopsy on follow up. In the group with a histological Barrett’s oesophagus diagnosis but negative on initial endoscopy (group B), follow up showed the same in 26% whereas 46% had no Barrett’s oesophagus, and confirmed Barrett’s oesophagus (endoscopy plus histology) was diagnosed in 17%. Of the study population, 16 patients had Barrett’s oesophagus on initial endoscopy confirmed by histology which remained constant in 70% at follow up (group C). Of the remaining patients without an initial Barrett’s oesophagus diagnosis on either endoscopy or histology (group D) and only clinical follow up (mean follow up period 38 months), one confirmed Barrett’s oesophagus case was found among 100 patients re-endoscoped outside of the study protocol. However, no single case of dysplasia or cancer of the distal oesophagus was detected in any patient during the study period.
Conclusions: Even in a specialised gastroenterology setting, reproducibility of presumptive endoscopic or histological diagnoses of Barrett’s oesophagus at follow up were poor. Only 10–20% of cases with either endoscopic or histological suspicion of Barrett’s oesophagus had established Barrett’s oesophagus after 2.5 years of follow up. The risk of dysplasia in this population was very low and hence meticulous follow up may not be required.
PMCID: PMC1774245  PMID: 15361485
Barrett’s oesophagus; cardia; oesophagogastric junction; intestinal metaplasia; adenocarcinoma; screening; surveillance
19.  Unexplained abdominal pain as a driver for inappropriate therapeutics: an audit on the use of intravenous proton pump inhibitors 
PeerJ  2014;2:e451.
Background. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective agents for acid-related disorders. However, studies show that 25–75% of patients receiving intravenous PPIs had no appropriate justification, indicating high rates of inappropriate prescribing.
Objective. To examine the appropriate use of intravenous PPIs in accordance with guidelines and the efficacy of a prescribing awareness intervention at an Asian teaching institution.
Setting. Prospective audit in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia.
Method. Every 4th intravenous PPI prescription received in the pharmacy was screened against hospital guidelines. Interventions for incorrect indication/dose/duration were performed. Patients’ demographic data, medical history and the use of intravenous PPI were collected. Included were all adult inpatients prescribed intravenous PPI.
Main Outcome Measure. Proportion of appropriate IV PPI prescriptions.
Results. Data for 106 patients were collected. Most patients were male [65(61.3%)], Chinese [50(47.2%)], with mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 18.0 years. Most intravenous PPI prescriptions were initiated by junior doctors from the surgical [47(44.3%)] and medical [42(39.6%)] departments. Only 50/106(47.2%) patients had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy/surgery performed to verify the source of bleeding. Unexplained abdominal pain [81(76.4%)] was the main driver for prescribing intravenous PPIs empirically, out of which 73(68.9%) were for suspected upper gastrointestinal bleed. Overall, intravenous PPI was found to be inappropriately prescribed in 56(52.8%) patients for indication, dose or duration. Interventions on the use of intravenous PPI were most effective when performed by senior doctors (100%), followed by clinical pharmacists (50%), and inpatient pharmacists (37.5%, p = 0.027).
Conclusion. Inappropriate intravenous PPI usage is still prevalent despite the enforcement of hospital guidelines. The promotion of prescribing awareness and evidence-based prescribing through education of medical staff could result in more judicious use of intravenous PPI and dose-optimization.
PMCID: PMC4081131  PMID: 25024919
Intravenous proton pump inhibitor; Appropriate clinical use; Audit; Gastrointestinal bleeding
20.  Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana 
Ghana Medical Journal  2007;41(1):12-16.
To study the indications for endoscopy, the endoscopic diagnosis and other lessons learnt.
A retrospective and prospective audit of all upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed in the Endoscopy Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital from January 1995 to December 2002 was performed.
A total of 6977 patients, 3777 males and 3200 females with age range 1 year 8 months to 93 years were endoscoped. The mean age of males was 43.5 ± 0.5 and females 43.7 ± 0.6 years. Epigastric pain (42.5%), dyspepsia (32.8%) and haematemesis and melaena (14.2%) were the commonest reasons for endoscopy. Chronic duodenal ulcer (19.6%), acute gastritis (12.7%), duodenitis (10.2%), oesophagitis (7.5%) were the commonest diagnoses. Normal endoscopy was reported in 41.1% patients, and was higher in the younger age group compared to the older (R = 0.973, P<0.001). Nine hundred and ninety (14.2%) patients were endoscoped for haematemesis and melaena of which chronic duodenal ulcer (32.1%), gastritis/gastric erosions (12.8%), oesophageal varices (9.8%), carcinoma of the stomach (6.4%), and duodenitis (4.2%), were the commonest causes. No lesion was found in 20.6% of these patients. Urease test was positive in 75% of all biopsy specimen and 85% in chronic duodenal ulcer, gastritis and duodenitis.
The normal endoscopy rate is high and needs to be reduced in order to help prolong the lives of the endoscopes. Chronic duodenal ulcer is usually associated with H. pylori infection and is the commonest cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
PMCID: PMC1890535  PMID: 17622333
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding; haematemesis; melaena
21.  Summary of guidelines for infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy 
High-quality processes to ensure infection prevention and control in the delivery of safe endoscopy services are essential. In 2010, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) developed a Canadian guideline for the reprocessing of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy equipment.
The CAG Endoscopy Committee carefully reviewed the 2010 guidelines and prepared an executive summary.
Key elements relevant to infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy were highlighted for each of the recommendations included in the 2010 document. The 2010 guidelines consist of seven sections, including administrative recommendations, as well as recommendations for endoscopy and endoscopy decontamination equipment, reprocessing endoscopes and accessories, endoscopy unit design, quality management, outbreak investigation and management, and classic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.
The recommendations for infection prevention and control for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy are intended for all individuals with responsibility for endoscopes in all settings where endoscopy is performed.
PMCID: PMC3684370  PMID: 23781518
Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal; Guideline; Infection; Prevention
22.  Practice Audit in Gastroenterology (PAGE) program: A novel approach to continuing professional development 
Practice audit is an important component of continuing professional development that may more readily be undertaken if it were less complex. This qualitative study assessed the use of personal digital assistants to facilitate data collection and review.
Personal digital assistants programmed with standard questionnaires related to upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (Practice Audit in Gastroenterology-Endoscopy [‘PAGE-Endo’]) and colonoscopies (PAGE-Colonoscopy [‘PAGE-Colo’]) were provided to Canadian gastroenterologists, surgeons and internists. Over a three-week audit period, participants recorded indications, and the expected (E) and reported (R) findings for each procedure. Thereafter, participants recorded compliance with reporting, the ease of use and value of the PAGE program, and their willingness to perform another audit.
Over 15 to 18 months, 173 participants completed PAGE-Endo (6168 procedures) and 111 completed PAGE-Colo (4776 procedures). Most respondents noted that PAGE was easy to use (99%), beneficial (88% to 95%), and that they were willing undertake another audit (92% to 95%). In PAGE-Endo, alarm features were prevalent (55%), but major reported findings were less common than expected: esophagitis (E 29.9%, R 14.8%), esophageal stricture (E 8.3%, R 3.6%), gastric ulcer (E 17.0%, R 4.7%), gastric cancer (E 4.3%, R 1.0%) and duodenal ulcer (E 11.5%, R 5.7%). In PAGE-Colo, more colonoscopies were performed for symptom investigation (55%) than for screening (25%) or surveillance (20%). There were marked interprovincial variations with respect to sedation, biopsies and technical aspects of colonoscopy.
Secure, real-time data entry with review of aggregate and individual data in the PAGE program provided an acceptable, straightforward methodology for accredited practice audit activities. PAGE has considerable potential for continuing professional development in gastroenterology and other specialties.
PMCID: PMC2659923  PMID: 16779458
Colonoscopy; Continuing medical education; Continuing professional development; Endoscopy; Gastroenterology; Maintenance of certification; Personal digital assistant; Practice audit
23.  Adult hernia surgery in Wales revisited: impact of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 
This study investigated the impact of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England on the practice of hernia surgery in Wales. This was assessed by means of a postal survey to all consultant general surgeons in Wales in 1996-1997. The areas covered were: awareness of the guidelines of The Royal College of Surgeons of England and the impact of such guidelines on their practice, attendance at hernia courses, operative technique, materials used for repair and skin suture, proportion of day case hernias, length of inpatient stay, thromboembolic (TE) prophylaxis and postoperative advice to patients with regard to light work, heavy work and sport. In all, 79 replies were received (85%). Almost all the surgeons had read the guidelines; this changed the practice of 20% of respondents but did not in 32%. A further 48% did not answer the question. In contrast with our 1993 survey results, in Wales there is now a uniform surgical management of adult inguinal hernias: the most common operation is the Liechtenstein, with monofilament non-absorbable suture to secure the mesh, followed by the Shouldice repair. The Bassini and inguinal darn operations are becoming much less common and none now uses braided or absorbable sutures for the repair. Skin closure is still rather variable, with only 58% of respondents adhering to the recommended absorbable subcuticular suture. Postoperative advice is now uniform and in accordance with the guidelines. A trend towards more TE prophylaxis and more day case hernia surgery is also seen.
PMCID: PMC2503110  PMID: 9849333
24.  Gastrointestinal endoscopy in Nigeria - a prospective two year audit 
Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is currently performed by different specialties. Information on GI endoscopy resources in Nigeria is limited. Training, cost, availability and maintenance of equipment are some unique challenges. Despite these challenges, the quality and completion rates are important.
Prospective audit of endoscopic procedures by an endoscopist in a Nigerian hospital over a 24 month period.
One hundred and ninety endoscopic procedures were performed in 187 patients (109 male, 78 female) by a surgeon during this period. Mean age was 47.6 years (range 17 - 90 years). All patients were symptomatic. One hundred and twenty-two procedures (64.2%) were upper GI endoscopy, 52 (27.4%) colonoscopy and 16 (8.4%) sigmoidoscopy. Majority of endoscopies 182 (95.8%) were performed electively and only 7 (3.7%) were therapeutic. Upper GI endoscopy findings included 14 (11.5%) cases of peptic ulcer disease, 5 complicated by gastric outlet obstruction, and 21 (17.3%) cases of upper gastrointestinal cancer. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy findings included 7 cases of polyps, 3 cases of colorectal cancer and 2 cases of diverticulosis. Commonest lesion on lower GI endoscopy was haemorrhoids (41.7%). Adjusted caecal intubation was 81.4% for colonoscopies performed. Overall adenoma detection rate for male and female patients were 18.2% and 5.3% respectively; in patients over 50 years these were 6.3% and 14.3%. Two complications, rupture of oesophageal varices, and respiratory arrest in bulbar palsy patient occurred.
An endoscopist can perform GI endoscopy effectively in developing countries like Nigeria but attention to equipment need and training is important.
PMCID: PMC3597902  PMID: 23503686
Gastrointestinal; endoscopic procedures; audit
25.  Propofol use for sedation during endoscopy in adults: A Canadian Association of Gastroenterology position statement 
Over the past decade, multiple clinical reports have demonstrated that the use of propofol sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy by gastroenterologists and trained endoscopy nurses is safe and effective in appropriately selected patients. Proposed benefits of propofol sedation include rapid onset of action, improved patient comfort and rapid clearance, as well as prompt recovery and discharge from the endoscopy unit. As a result of medical evidence, a number of international professional societies have endorsed the use of propofol in gastrointestinal endoscopy. In Canada, no formal guidelines currently exist. In the present article, the Clinical Affairs Committee of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology presents a position statement, incorporating updated information on the use of propofol sedation for endoscopy in adult patients.
PMCID: PMC2660799  PMID: 18478130
Conscious sedation; Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal endoscopy; General anesthesia; Propofol; Sedation

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