Synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) by the deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent RNA polymerase of Coxiella burnetii required adenosine, uridine, guanosine, and cytidine 5'-triphosphates. Cell-free preparations of this obligate intracellular procaryotic parasite had competence to phosphorylate ribonucleoside mono- and diphosphates in the presence of exogenous adenosine and guanosine 5'-triphosphates to the corresponding di- and triphosphates. C. burnetii contained about 2 nmol of adenosine 5'-triphosphate per mg of protein, which could serve as a approximately P donor for in vivo synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates. The latter were then used as substrates in the synthesis of RNA in a coordinated metabolic system with C. burnetii RNA polymerase. It is suggested that during infection the rickettsiae might obtain the nucleotides necessary for RNA synthesis from the vacuoles in which C. burnetii proliferates.
A cell cycle mutant strain which is defective in the G1 period, B2-39, was selected from 1,200 temperature-sensitive mutants of the heterobasidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides M-1057. In the mutant cells, ribosomal ribonucleic acid synthesis was initially inhibited upon temperature shift-up from a permissive (25 degrees C) to a restrictive (36 degrees C) temperature. Moreover, the mutant was found to be temperature sensitive in deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase I activity in vitro. In a revertant-mutant strain, B2-39-R-2, both ribosomal ribonucleic acid synthesis in vivo and enzyme activity in vitro were simultaneously recovered. These results indicate that the mutant has a temperature-sensitive, deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase I and suggest that ribosomal ribonucleic acid synthesis acts as one of the control factors for initiation of both deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and bud emergence.
Sodium/proton-antiporters (Nha) are known to play an important role in pH- and Na+-homeostasis. In microorganisms several types with different capacity, affinity and selectivity for Na+ and Li+ exist. The homeostasis system of E. coli, NhaA and NhaB, is well researched, but the function of other types of Na+/H+-antiporters like NhaD is yet to be fully understood. Since several antiporters play an important role at various points in the physiology of higher organisms, one can speculate that the main functions of some of those procaryotic antiporters differ from pH- and Na+-homeostasis.
This study investigates the function and regulation of a gene encoding for a NhaD type antiporter which was discovered in the halophilic eubacterium Halomonas elongata.
The deduced primary amino acid sequence of the abovementioned gene showed more than 60% identity to known antiporters of the NhaD type from Alkalimonas amylolytica, Shewanella oneidensis and several other marine organisms of the γ-Proteobacteria. Evidence was found for a dual regulation of H. elongata NhaD expression. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Antiporter deficient NaCl and LiCl sensitive E. coli mutants EP432 and KNabc were partially complemented by a plasmid carrying the H. elongata nhaD gene. Surprisingly the LiCl sensitivity of E. coli strain DH5α having a complete homeostasis system was increased when NhaD was co-expressed.
Since NhaD is an antiporter known so far only from halophilic or haloalcaliphilic Proteobacteria one can speculate that this type of antiporter provides a special mechanism for adaptation to marine habitats. As was already speculated – though without supporting data – and substantiated in this study this might be active Na+-import for osmoregulatory purposes.
The methylation patterns of transfer and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) from two mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma capricolum and Acholeplasma laidlawii, have been examined. The transfer RNA from the two mycoplasmas resembled that of other procaryotes in degree of methylation and general diversity of methylated nucleotides, and bore particular resemblance to Bacillus subtilis transfer RNA. The only unusual feature was the absence of m5U from M. capricolum transfer RNA. The methylation patterns of the mycoplasma 16S RNAs were also typically procaryotic, retaining the methylated residues previously shown to be highly conserved among eubacterial 16S RNAs. The mycoplasma 23S RNA methylation patterns were, on the other hand, quite unusual. M. capricolum 23S RNA contained only four methylated residues in stoichiometric amounts, all of which were ribose methylated. A. laidlawii 23S RNA contained the same ribose-methylated residues, plus in addition approximately six m5U residues. These findings are discussed in relation to the phylogenetic status of mycoplasma, as well as the possible role of RNA methylation.
It appears that a de novo synthesis of the deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid-polymerase in Bacillus cereus T takes place fairly late in outgrowth, at the onset of the vegetative cycle. Therefore, the ribonucleic acid-polymerase used by germinating spores is the one carried on from sporulating cells. However, the sporal enzyme is less soluble that the vegetative one, and its "core" is bound to two extra peptides. This complexing to other molecules could play a role in the regulation of gene expression during germination.
A new method for isolating specialized transducing phages is described. It was used to isolate a group of φ80 transducing phages which carry various bacterial markers from the metB region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Some of the phages selected for transduction of the supA36 marker were also shown to carry rif, a locus known to specify the β subunit of ribonucleic acid polymerase. Expression of the prophage rifr gene in lysogens was demonstrated by its ability to confer rifampin resistance on part of the cellular ribonucleic acid polymerase pool.
We have identified the gene encoding the Caulobacter crescentus principal sigma subunit, RpoD. The rpoD gene codes for a polypeptide of 653 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 72,623 Da (sigma 73). The C. crescentus sigma subunit has extensive amino acid sequence homology with the principal sigma factors of a number of divergent procaryotes. In particular, the segments designated region 2 that are involved in core polymerase binding and promoter recognition were identical among these bacteria despite the fact that the -10 region recognized by the C. crescentus sigma 73 differs significantly from that of the other bacteria. Thus, it appears that additional sigma factor regions must be involved in -10 region recognition. This conclusion was strengthened by a heterologous complementation assay in which C. crescentus sigma 73 was capable of complementing the Escherichia coli rpoD285 temperature-sensitive mutant. Furthermore, C. crescentus sigma 73 conferred new specificity on the E. coli RNA polymerase, allowing the expression of C. crescentus promoters in E. coli. Thus, the C. crescentus sigma 73 appears to have a broader specificity than does the sigma 70 of the enteric bacteria.
The DNA sequences of the spo0H genes from Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis are described, and the predicted open reading frames code for proteins of 26,097 and 25,447 daltons, respectively. The two spo0H gene products are 91% identical to one another and about 25% identical to most of the procaryotic sigma factors. The predicted proteins have a conserved 14-amino-acid sequence at their amino terminal end, typical of sigma factors. Antibodies raised against the spo0H gene product of B. licheniformis specifically react with RNA polymerase sigma factor protein, sigma 30, purified from B. subtilis. We conclude that the spo0H genes of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis code for sigma 30, now known as sigma H.
The gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS), glnA, was cloned from Azotobacter vinelandii on a 6-kb EcoRI fragment that also carries the ntrBC genes. The DNA sequence of 1,952 bp including the GS-coding region was determined. An open reading frame of 467 amino acids indicated a gene product of Mr 51,747. Transcription of glnA occurred from a C residue located 32 bases upstream of an ATG considered to be the initiator codon because (i) it had a nearby potential ribosome-binding site and (ii) an open reading frame translated from this site indicated good N-terminal homology to 10 other procaryotic GSs. Sequences similar to the consensus RNA polymerase recognition sites at -10 and -35 were present at the appropriate distance upstream of the transcription initiation site. As expected from earlier genetic studies indicating that expression of A. vinelandii glnA did not depend on the rpoN (ntrA; sigma 54) gene product, no sigma 54 recognition sequences were present, nor was there significant regulation of glnA expression by fixed nitrogen. Repeated attempts to construct glutamine auxotrophs by recombination of glnA insertion mutations were unsuccessful, Although the mutated DNA could be found by hybridization experiments in drug-resistant A. vinelandii transformants, the wild-type glnA region was always present. These results suggest that glnA mutations are lethal in A. vinelandii. In [14C]glutamine uptake experiments, very little glutamine was incorporated into cells, suggesting that glutamine auxotrophs are nonviable because they cannot be supplied with sufficient glutamine to support growth.
Aphidicolin, a known inhibitor of eucaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase alpha, efficiently inhibited amplification of ribosomal DNA during oogenesis in Xenopus laevis. DNA polymerase alpha, but not DNA polymerase gamma, as isolated from ovaries, was sensitive to aphidicolin. DNA polymerase beta was not detectable in Xenopus ovary extracts. Therefore, DNA polymerase alpha plays a major role in ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplification.
A “nuclear fraction” prepared from Bacillus subtilis was a more efficient template than purified deoxyribonucleic acid for the synthesis of ribonucleic acid by exogenously added ribonucleic acid polymerase isolated from B. subtilis. The initial rate of synthesis with the nuclear fraction was higher and synthesis continued for several hours, yielding an amount of ribonucleic acid greater than the amount of deoxyribonucleic acid used as the template. The product was heterogenous in size, with a large portion exceeding 23S. When purified deoxyribonucleic acid was the template, a more limited synthesis was observed with a predominantly 7S product. However, the ribonucleic acids produced in vitro from these templates were very similar to each other and to in vivo synthesized ribonucleic acid as determined by the competition of ribonucleic acid from whole cells in the annealing of in vitro synthesized ribonucleic acids to deoxyribonucleic acid. Treatment of the nuclear fraction with heat (60 C for 15 min) or trypsin reduced the capacity of the nuclear fraction to synthesize ribonucleic acid to the level observed with purified deoxyribonucleic acid.
The vaccinia virus gene that encodes the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase was localized to the HindIII F fragment by using degenerate oligonucleotide probes. DNA sequencing revealed a leftward-reading open reading frame that predicted a protein of 37 kilodaltons whose amino acid sequence was much more homologous to the mouse and clam M2 sequences (approximately 80%) than to the corresponding herpesvirus (approximately 27%) or procaryotic (approximately 19%) gene products. Vaccinia virus mutants selected for the ability to grow in high concentrations of a specific inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, hydroxyurea, amplified the M2 gene and harbored tandem arrays (2 to 15 copies) of the gene within the HindIII F region. RNA isolated at early times after infection with wild-type virus and probed with an internal fragment of the M2 gene indicated one major (1.2 kilobases) and two minor (4.0 and 2.1 kilobases) transcripts. S1 nuclease analysis and primer extension experiments identified an RNA start site 12 nucleotides upstream of the putative initiation ATG codon.
A comparison was made of the distribution of amino terminal end groups in the cellular proteins of a number of microbes. Among the procaryotes, methionine is a highly variable but virtually ubiquitous major protein end group. This is consistent with its possible role as a general amino acid initiator of protein biosynthesis in the procaryotes. Generally, however, alanine is the most abundant of the major end groups, followed in decreasing order by serine, threonine, the acidic amino acids, and occasionally lysine. No other new major end-groups were found. Among 15 representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae, retention of the initiating methionine terminus of the cellular protein varies considerably at a tribal level and is randomized at a familial level. The profiles of the five remaining end groups, however, are strikingly uniform, and are, for example, close to but significantly different from those of the Erwineae. Among the taxonomically more heterogeneous Bacillaceae, end-group profiles vary more and are sometimes unrelated. End-group analysis is thus particularly useful as a molecular criterion of taxonomy in assessing familial homogeneity. Free NH2 termini in eucaryote cell proteins are fewer, and they have increased acidic amino acid components and no methionine; they are otherwise similar to those of the procaryotes.
This report describes the direct isolation and characterization of rickettsial ribosomes. Ribosomes from the rickettsia Coxiella burneti were isolated and partially characterized. The ribosomes had a sedimentation constant of about 70S and could be dissociated into 50 and 30S subunits. Electron microscopy revealed ribosomal particles with dimensions similar to those reported for other procaryotic organisms. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) species (23 and 16S) were isolated from the ribosomal particles. The nucleotide compositions of the ribosomal RNAs were found to be similar to those reported for bacterial ribosomal RNA. In addition to the high-molecular-weight ribosomal RNA, 5S RNA was also extracted from the organism.
Different dominant thermosensitive mutations affecting the same gene were selected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis decreased rapidly and markedly at 37 C in all the mutants whether they were in a homozygous or a heterozygous state. Protein biosynthesis was at first unaffected and then decreased slowly, stopping after 5 h. Measurements of RNA biosynthesis in isolated nuclei as well as in vitro activities of RNA polymerases A and B at 22 and 37 C failed to reveal any difference between mutants and the wild type. Analysis of the nature of the residual RNAs synthesized at the high temperature in the mutants showed a small relative increase in the messenger RNA fraction, but it was not sufficient to indicate a specific inactivation of RNA polymerase A activity. The results suggest an impairment in a common regulatory element for all RNA polymerases acting at the level of the initiation of transcription. Similar mutants with a semidominant phenotype were obtained in which the lesions were in two other unlinked loci.
Ribavirin 5′-triphosphate (RTP), derived from the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ribavirin (Virazole), can selectively inhibit influenza virus ribonucleic acid polymerase in a cell-free assay. Ribavirin and its 5′-monophosphate have no effect on the polymerase. The inhibition is competitive with respect to adenosine 5′-triphosphate and guanosine 5′-triphosphate. RTP also inhibits ApG- and GpC-stimulated influenza virus ribonucleic acid polymerase. Since ribavirin is phosphorylated in the cell, the inhibition of influenza multiplication in the cell may also be caused by RTP.
The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) harbors two morphologically distinct procaryotic intracellular symbionts. The genes for the 16S rRNA from these symbionts have been cloned and sequenced. Comparisons with sequences of 16S rRNAs from selected procaryotes indicate that the two symbionts are evolutionarily distinct from each other and are members of the gamma-3 subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. One of the symbionts is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, while the other constitutes a lineage distinct from these organisms. Both symbionts appear to have only one copy of their rRNA operon.
We analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the alpha and beta tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. alpha- and beta-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The alpha cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of alpha tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The beta cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100-C terminal amino acids of beta tubulin and 83 pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous alpha- and beta-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of alpha-tubulin genes with beta-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered.
Changes in the phage protein patterns obtained by gel electrophoresis of extracts from phage S13 and phiX174 infection of rifampin-resistant hosts suggest that the beta subunit of ribonucleic acid polymerase of Escherichia coli has a function in the recognition of promoter or terminator sites or both. The altered protein patterns also provide information on the location of some ribonucleic acid polymerase recognition signals in S13 deoxyribonucleic acid. There is a promoter site before gene A, which lies either in gene H or between H and A. There is evidence for a promotor between genes C and D or in gene C. There is either a terminator or a promoter somewhere between the end of gene D and the beginning of gene F.
About 13% of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of various strains of Bacillus subtilis, independent of the stage of growth or competence for transformation, was rendered acid soluble by endonuclease S1. In a pH 11.2 CsCl gradient, 4% of the untreated DNA banded at the density typical for single-stranded molecules, whereas 9% of the remaining DNA (main band) was sensitive to endonuclease S1. Selective inhibition of DNA polymerase III, or of DNA-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase, did not increase or abolish single-strandedness. The DNA purification procedure did affect the level of single-stranded DNA, indicating its binding to cell constituents containing ribonucleic acid, protein, and membranous material. The molecular weight of the single-stranded fraction resembled that of total denatured DNA, and its buoyant density in an alkaline CsCl gradient was centered partially at a density of 1.772 g/cm3 and partially at a density of 7.759 g/cm3. Incubation of DNA under conditions leading to renaturation of its single-stranded fraction led to an increase in transforming activity for the purA16+ marker (close to the origin of replication) relative to leu-8+ and metC3+ markers (located in the middle of the chromosome), indicating this region is the main source of the single-stranded fraction.
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is involved in oncogenic transformation and tumor maintenance. The primary objective of this study was to select surrogate tissue to measure messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of Hh pathway genes for measurement of pharmacodynamic effect. Expression of Hh pathway specific genes was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and global gene expression using Affymetrix U133 microarrays. Correlations were made between the expression of specific genes determined by qRT-PCR and normalized microarray data. Gene ontology analysis using microarray data for a broader set of Hh pathway genes was performed to identify additional Hh pathway-related markers in the surrogate tissue. RNA extracted from blood, hair follicle, and skin obtained from healthy subjects was analyzed by qRT-PCR for 31 genes, whereas 8 samples were analyzed for a 7-gene subset. Twelve sample sets, each with ≤500 ng total RNA derived from hair, skin, and blood, were analyzed using Affymetrix U133 microarrays. Transcripts for several Hh pathway genes were undetectable in blood using qRT-PCR. Skin was the most desirable matrix, followed by hair follicle. Whether processed by robust multiarray average or microarray suite 5 (MAS5), expression patterns of individual samples showed co-clustered signals; both normalization methods were equally effective for unsupervised analysis. The MAS5- normalized probe sets appeared better suited for supervised analysis. This work provides the basis for selection of a surrogate tissue and an expression analysis-based approach to evaluate pathway-related genes as markers of pharmacodynamic effect with novel inhibitors of the Hh pathway.
Hedgehog; smoothened; biomarkers; cancer; skin
In order to identify new genes with differential expression in early intestinal tumours, we performed mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) expression profiling of 16 human and 63 mouse adenomas. All individuals had germline APC mutations to ensure that tumorigenesis was driven by ‘second hits’ at APC. Using stringent filtering to identify changes consistent between humans and mice, we identified 60 genes up-regulated and 151 down-regulated in tumours. For 22 selected genes—including known Wnt targets—expression differences were confirmed by qRT–PCR (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). Most, but not all, differences were also present in colorectal carcinomas. In situ analysis showed a complex picture. Expression of up-regulated genes in adenomas was usually uniform/diffuse (e.g. ITGA6) or prominent in the tumour core (e.g. LGR5); in normal tissue, these genes were expressed at crypt bases or the transit amplifying zone. Down-regulated genes were often undetectable in adenomas, but in normal tissue were expressed in mesenchyme (e.g. GREM1/2) or differentiated cells towards crypt tops (e.g. SGK1). In silico analysis of TCF4-binding motifs showed that some of our genes were probably direct Wnt targets. Previous studies, mostly focused on human tumours, showed partial overlap with our ‘expression signature’, but 37 genes were unique to our study, including TACSTD2, SEMA3F, HOXA9 and IER3 (up-regulated), and TAGLN, GREM1, GREM2, MAB21L2 and RARRES2 (down-regulated). Combined analysis of our and published human data identified additional genes differentially expressed in adenomas, including decreased BMPs (bone morphogenetic proteins) and increased BUB1/BUB1B. Several of the newly identified, differentially expressed genes represent potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets for intestinal tumours.
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA) was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra) via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11) showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.
Electron microscopy was used to analyze sporulating cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis mutants (Rifr) which are resistant to rifampin, an inhibitor of ribonucleic acid polymerase. The spores of Rif-18 are pleomorphic and frequently exhibit terminal knobs. These knobs first occur during late stage IV and early stage V of sporulation and are extensions of the inner and outer spore coats. Since the rifampin resistance and altered spore morphology of Rif-18 are 100% cotransformable, these data suggest that the altered spore morphology is the result of an alteration in ribonucleic acid polymerase genes. The morphology and physical dimensions are also reported for spores from Rif-11, Rif-15, and Rif-21. Significant differences in size from the wild type were observed for these mutants.
Eukaryotic cells express a large variety of ribonucleic acid-(RNA)-binding proteins (RBPs) with diverse affinity and specificity towards target RNAs that play a crucial role in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism. In addition, specific domains in RBPs impart catalytic activity or mediate protein–protein interactions, making RBPs versatile regulators of gene expression. In this review, we elaborate on recent experimental and computational approaches that have increased our understanding of RNA–protein interactions and their role in cellular function. We review aspects of gene expression that are modulated post-transcriptionally by RBPs, namely the stability of polymerase II-derived mRNA transcripts and their rate of translation into proteins. We further highlight the extensive regulatory networks of RBPs that implement a combinatorial control of gene expression. Taking cues from the recent development in the field, we argue that understanding spatio-temporal RNA–protein association on a transcriptome level will provide invaluable and unexpected insights into the regulatory codes that define growth, differentiation and disease.
RNA-binding proteins; RNA-binding domains; RBP–RNA interaction; RBP regulatory networks; RBP target identification