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1.  Is satisfaction a direct predictor of nursing turnover? Modelling the relationship between satisfaction, expressed intention and behaviour in a longitudinal cohort study 
Background
The theory of planned behaviour states that attitudinal variables (e.g. job satisfaction) only have an indirect effect on retention whereas intentions have a direct effect. This study uses secondary data from a longitudinal cohort of newly qualified nurses to test for the direct and indirect effects of job satisfaction (client care, staffing, development, relationships, education, work-life interface, resources, pay) and intentions to nurse on working as a nurse during the 3 years after qualification.
Methods
A national sample (England) of newly qualified (1997/98) nurses (n = 3669) were surveyed at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years. ANOVA and MANOVA were used for comparison of mean job satisfaction scores between groups; intentions to nurse (very likely, likely vs. unlikely, very unlikely and unable to say at this stage); working (or not working as a nurse) at each time-point. Indirect and direct effects were tested using structural equation and logistic regression models.
Results
Intentions expressed at 6 months to nurse at 18 months were associated with higher scores on pay and relationships, and intentions at 3 years were associated with higher scores on care, development, relationships, work-life interface, resources, pay respectively. Intentions expressed at 18 months to nurse at 3 years were associated with higher scores on development, relationships, education and work-life interface. Associations with actual nursing were fewer. Those working as a nurse had higher satisfaction scores for development (18 months) and relationships (3 years). Regression models found significant associations between the pay and staffing factors and intentions expressed at 6 months to nurse at 18 months, and between pay and intentions to nurse at 3 years. Many of the associations between intentions and working as a nurse were significant. Development was the only job satisfaction factor significantly associated with working as a nurse and just at 18 months.
Conclusion
Results partially support the theory of planned behaviour. Intentions expressed by nurses are stronger predictors of working as a nurse than job satisfaction. Retention strategies should focus on identifying nurses showing early signs of departure with emphasis on developmental aspects, mentoring and support.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-6-22
PMCID: PMC2600630  PMID: 18976478
2.  Determinants of staff job satisfaction of caregivers in two nursing homes in Pennsylvania 
Background
Job satisfaction is important for nursing home staff and nursing home management, as it is associated with absenteeism, turnover, and quality of care. However, we know little about factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for nursing home workers.
Methods
In this investigation, we use data from 251 caregivers (i.e., Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses, and Nurse Aides) to examine: job satisfaction scores of these caregivers and what characteristics of these caregivers are associated with job satisfaction. The data were collected from two nursing homes over a two and a half year period with five waves of data collection at six-month intervals. The Job Description Index was used to collect job satisfaction data.
Results
We find that, overall nursing home caregivers are satisfied with the work and coworkers, but are less satisfied with promotional opportunities, superiors, and compensation. From exploratory factor analysis three domains represented the data, pay, management, and work. Nurse aides appear particularly sensitive to the work domain. Of significance, we also find that caregivers who perceived the quality of care to be high have higher job satisfaction on all three domains than those who do not.
Conclusion
These results may be important in guiding caregiver retention initiatives in nursing homes. The finding for quality may be especially important, and indicates that nursing homes that improve their quality may have a positive impact on job satisfaction of staff, and thereby reduce their turnover rates.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-60
PMCID: PMC1524956  PMID: 16723022
3.  Exploring the impact of mentoring functions on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new staff nurses 
Background
Although previous studies proved that the implementation of mentoring program is beneficial for enhancing the nursing skills and attitudes, few researchers devoted to exploring the impact of mentoring functions on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new nurses. In this research we aimed at examining the effects of mentoring functions on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new nurses in Taiwan's hospitals.
Methods
We employed self-administered questionnaires to collect research data and select new nurses from three regional hospitals as samples in Taiwan. In all, 306 nurse samples were obtained. We adopted a multiple regression analysis to test the impact of the mentoring functions.
Results
Results revealed that career development and role modeling functions have positive effects on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new nurses; however, the psychosocial support function was incapable of providing adequate explanation for these work outcomes.
Conclusion
It is suggested in this study that nurse managers should improve the career development and role modeling functions of mentoring in order to enhance the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new nurses.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-240
PMCID: PMC2929231  PMID: 20712873
4.  Consequences of nursing procedures measurement on job satisfaction 
Background:
Job satisfaction among nurses has consequences on the quality of nursing care and accompanying organizational commitments. Nursing procedure measurement (NPM) is one of the essential parts of the performance-oriented system. This research was performed in order to determining the job satisfaction rate in selected wards of Baqiyatallah (a. s.) Hospital prior and following the NPM.
Materials and Methods:
An interventional research technique designed with an evaluation study approach in which job satisfaction was measured before and after NPM within 2 months in selected wards with census sampling procedure. The questionnaire contained two major parts; demographic data and questions regarding job satisfaction, salary, and fringe benefits. Data analyzed with SPSS version 13.
Results:
Statistical evaluation did not reveal significant difference between demographic data and satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction of nurses (before and after nursing procedures measurement). Following NPM, the rate of salary and benefits dissatisfaction decreased up to 5% and the rate of satisfaction increased about 1.5%, however the statistical tests did not reveal a significant difference. Subsequent to NPM, the rate of job value increased (P = 0.019), whereas the rate of job comfort decreased (P = 0.033) significantly.
Conclusions:
Measuring procedures do not affect the job satisfaction of ward staff or their salary and benefits. Therefore, it is suggested that the satisfaction measurement compute following nurses’ salary and therefore benefits adjusted based on NPM. This is our suggested approach.
PMCID: PMC3748567  PMID: 23983741
Evaluation studies; Iran; job satisfaction rate; nursing procedure measurement
5.  Effects of job rotation and role stress among nurses on job satisfaction and organizational commitment 
Background
The motivation for this study was to investigate how role stress among nurses could affect their job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and whether the job rotation system might encourage nurses to understand, relate to and share the vision of the organization, consequently increasing their job satisfaction and stimulating them to willingly remain in their jobs and commit themselves to the organization. Despite the fact that there have been plenty of studies on job satisfaction, none was specifically addressed to integrate the relational model of job rotation, role stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among nurses.
Methods
With top managerial hospital administration's consent, questionnaires were only distributed to those nurses who had had job rotation experience. 650 copies of the questionnaire in two large and influential hospitals in southern Taiwan were distributed, among which 532 valid copies were retrieved with a response rate of 81.8%. Finally, the SPSS 11.0 and LISREL 8.54 (Linear Structural Relationship Model) statistical software packages were used for data analysis and processing.
Results
According to the nurses' views, the findings are as follows: (1) job rotation among nurses could have an effect on their job satisfaction; (2) job rotation could have an effect on organizational commitment; (3) job satisfaction could have a positive effect on organizational commitment; (4) role stress among nurses could have a negative effect on their job satisfaction; and (5) role stress could have a negative effect on their organizational commitment.
Conclusion
As a practical and excellent strategy for manpower utilization, a hospital could promote the benefits of job rotation to both individuals and the hospital while implementing job rotation periodically and fairly. And when a medical organization attempts to enhance nurses' commitment to the organization, the findings suggest that reduction of role ambiguity in role stress has the best effect on enhancing nurses' organizational commitment. The ultimate goal is to increase nurses' job satisfaction and encourage them to stay in their career. This would avoid the vicious circle of high turnover, which is wasteful of the organization's valuable human resources.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-9-8
PMCID: PMC2630925  PMID: 19138390
6.  Career destinations, job satisfaction and views of the UK medical qualifiers of 1977 
Summary
Objective
To study the career destinations, job satisfaction and views of UK-trained senior doctors.
Design
Postal questionnaire.
Setting
All doctors who qualified from all UK medical schools in 1977; and Department of Health employment data.
Main outcome measures
Career destinations of medical qualifiers from 1977.
Results
72% responded to the questionnaire. Using all available evidence, including that on non-responders, 76% of the cohort, comprising 77% of the men and 74% of the women, were working in the NHS 27 years after qualification. Approximately 18% were in medical jobs either overseas or outside the NHS. Of respondents in the NHS, 89% of men and 51% of women had full-time contracts. NHS doctors rated their job satisfaction highly, with a median score of 19.5 on a scale from 5 (very low satisfaction) to 25 (very high satisfaction). Satisfaction with time off for leisure was much lower, with a median score of 4.6 on a scale from 1 (low) to 10 (high). Of those in the NHS, 67% agreed that they worked longer hours than they thought they should; and 40% agreed that their working conditions were satisfactory.
Conclusions
27 years after qualification, the percentage of women who were working in the NHS was similar to that of men. Although these senior doctors had high levels of satisfaction with the content of their jobs, they were not so satisfied with their working hours and working conditions. Our results can be used as benchmarks, against which the career pathways and satisfaction levels of more recently qualified doctors can be compared.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2007.070277
PMCID: PMC2312383  PMID: 18387910
7.  A national cross-sectional study on nurses' intent to leave and job satisfaction in Lebanon: implications for policy and practice 
BMC Nursing  2009;8:3.
Background
Lebanon is perceived to be suffering from excessive nurse migration, low job satisfaction, poor retention and high turnover. Little is known about the magnitude of nurse migration and predictors of intent to leave. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of nurses' intent to leave and examine the impact of job satisfaction on intent to leave. Intent to leave was explored to differentiate between nurses who intend to leave their current hospital and those intending to leave the country.
Methods
A cross-sectional design was used to survey nurses currently practicing in Lebanese hospitals. A total of 1,793 nurses employed in 69 hospitals were surveyed. Questions included those relating to demographic characteristics, intent to leave, and the McCloskey Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Univariate descriptive statistics were conducted on sample's demographic characteristics including gender, age, marital status and educational level. Bivariate associations between intent to leave and demographic characteristics were tested using Pearson Chi-square. Differences in satisfaction scores between nurses with and without intent to leave were tested using t-test and ANOVA f-test. A multinomial logistic regression model was created to predict intent to leave the hospital and intent to leave the country.
Results
An alarming 67.5% reported intent to leave within the next 1 to 3 years, many of whom disclosed intent to leave the country (36.7%). Within nurses who reported an intent to leave the hospital but stay in Lebanon, 22.1% plan to move to a different health organization in Lebanon, 29.4% plan to leave the profession and 48.5% had other plans. Nurses reported being least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. A common predictor of intent to leave the hospital and the country was dissatisfaction with extrinsic rewards. Other predictors of intent to leave (country or hospital) included age, gender, marital status, degree type, and dissatisfaction with scheduling, interaction opportunities, and control and responsibility.
Conclusion
Study findings demonstrate linkages between job satisfaction, intent to leave, and migration in a country suffering from a nursing shortage. Findings can be used by health care managers and policy makers in managing job satisfaction, intent to leave and nurse migration.
doi:10.1186/1472-6955-8-3
PMCID: PMC2667438  PMID: 19284613
8.  The Effect of Mentoring on Career Satisfaction of Registered Nurses and Intent to Stay in the Nursing Profession 
Nursing Research and Practice  2012;2012:168278.
Mentoring is important in the career development of novice and experienced nurses. With the anticipated shortage in nursing, it is important to explore factors such as mentoring that may contribute to career satisfaction and intent to stay in the profession. This study explored the effects of mentoring on career satisfaction and intent to stay in nursing, and the relationship between career satisfaction and intent to stay in nursing. It was conducted through a mailed survey of RNs 55 years or younger currently in practice, education, administration, or research. Career satisfaction was measured through the use of the newly developed Mariani Nursing Career Satisfaction Scale. Findings revealed no statistically significant effect of mentoring on career satisfaction and intent to stay in nursing. There was a statistically significant relationship between career satisfaction and intent to stay in nursing. The majority of nurses reported participating in a mentoring relationship. Although the findings related to mentoring, career satisfaction, and intent to stay were not statistically significant, there was a prevalence of mentoring in nursing, thus suggesting the need for future research to identify outcomes of mentoring. In addition, the study contributed a newly developed instrument to measure the concept of career satisfaction in nursing.
doi:10.1155/2012/168278
PMCID: PMC3356736  PMID: 22645673
9.  Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes 
The Gerontologist  2012;53(2):222-234.
Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that serve to cushion higher wage workers. In this study, we examine the relationship between job satisfaction, intention, and retention of nursing assistants in nursing homes and the role that “contingency factors” play in employment intentions and retention. We conceptualize “contingency factors” as resource-related constraints (e.g., being a single mother) that likely influence employment trajectories of individuals but can be independent of job satisfaction or intent. Design and Methods: We use survey data from 315 nursing assistants in 18 nursing homes in a U.S. southern state to model employment intentions and retention. Results: We find that job satisfaction and other perceived job characteristics (e.g., workload and perceived quality of care) are significant predictors of an individual’s intent to stay in their job, the occupation of nursing assistant, and the field of long-term care. However, we find that job satisfaction and employment intentions are not significant predictors of retention. Instead, “contingency factors” such as being a primary breadwinner and individual characteristics (e.g., tenure and past health care experience) appear to be stronger factors in the retention of nursing assistants. Implications: Our findings have implications for understanding turnover among low-wage health care workers and the use of proxies such as employment intentions in measuring turnover.
doi:10.1093/geront/gns085
PMCID: PMC3695647  PMID: 22875015
Caregiving—formal; Workforce issues; Long-term care
10.  Explaining global job satisfaction by facets of job satisfaction: the Japanese civil servants study 
Objectives
Management of job satisfaction is of growing importance in terms of the maintenance of employees’ health. This study aimed to evaluate which and to what extent facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction.
Methods
The participants were 4286 employees aged 18–69 years working in local government in Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 1998–1999. Seven facets of job satisfaction were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate which facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction.
Results
For all employees, all of the facets of job satisfaction significantly contributed to global job satisfaction. Among the facets of job satisfaction, ‘being satisfied with interests and skills involved in work’ and ‘how abilities were used’ contributed more strongly to global satisfaction than ‘being satisfied with how the section is running’, ‘co-workers’, ‘work prospects’, ‘physical working conditions’ and ‘payment’. The differing associations of facets of job satisfaction with global job satisfaction did not change substantially in stratified analysis by occupation, with one exception that only three facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction in administrative workers.
Conclusion
Job satisfaction related to the intrinsic aspects of the job (i.e., ‘interests and skills involved in work’ and ‘how abilities were used’) contributed more to global job satisfaction than the other aspects of job satisfaction. Longitudinal research in employees with various occupations may be needed to confirm the results of this study.
doi:10.1007/s12199-010-0173-y
PMCID: PMC3047668  PMID: 21432229
Job satisfaction; Occupation; Working environments; The JACS study; Japan
11.  The nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units 
Journal of nursing management  2009;17(8):994-1001.
Aim
The aim of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in hospital characteristics, nursing unit characteristics, the nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units.
Background
Research in urban hospitals has found an association between the nurse work environment and job satisfaction and turnover rates, but this association has not been examined in rural hospitals.
Method
Rural and urban nursing units were compared in a national random sample of 97 United States hospitals (194 nursing units) with between 99 and 450 beds.
Results
Significant differences were found between hospital and nursing unit characteristics and the nurse work environment in rural and urban nursing units. Both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment were found to have a significant influence on nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates.
Conclusion
Job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units are associated with both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment.
Implications for nursing management
Both rural and urban hospitals can improve nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates by changing unit characteristics, such as creating better support services and a work environment that supports autonomous nursing practice. Rural hospitals can also improve the work environment by providing nurses with more educational opportunities.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.01027.x
PMCID: PMC3607628  PMID: 19941573
job satisfaction; nurse work environment; rural/urban; turnover rates
12.  Retention of health workers in Malawi: perspectives of health workers and district management 
Background
Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Malawi, where more than 50% of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by clinical health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. As this cadre and the cadre of enrolled nurses are the mainstay of the Malawian health service at the district level, it is important that they are supported and motivated to deliver a good standard of service to the population. This study explores how these cadres are managed and motivated and the impact this has on their performance.
Methods
A quantitative survey measured health workers' job satisfaction, perceptions of the work environment and sense of justice in the workplace, and was reported elsewhere. It emerged that health workers were particularly dissatisfied with what they perceived as unfair access to continuous education and career advancement opportunities, as well as inadequate supervision. These issues and their contribution to demotivation, from the perspective of both management and health workers, were further explored by means of qualitative techniques.
Focus group discussions were held with health workers, and key-informant interviews were conducted with members of district health management teams and human resource officers in the Ministry of Health. The focus groups used convenience sampling that included all the different cadres of health workers available and willing to participate on the day the research team visited the health facility. The interviews targeted district health management teams in three districts and the human resources personnel in the Ministry of Health, also sampling those who were available and agreed to participate.
Results
The results showed that health workers consider continuous education and career progression strategies to be inadequate. Standard human resource management practices such as performance appraisal and the provision of job descriptions were not present in many cases. Health workers felt that they were inadequately supervised, with no feedback on performance. In contrast to health workers, managers did not perceive these human resources management deficiencies in the system as having an impact on motivation.
Conclusion
A strong human resource management function operating at the district level is likely to improve worker motivation and performance.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-7-65
PMCID: PMC2722569  PMID: 19638222
13.  Job satisfaction among nurses working in the private and public sectors: a qualitative study in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan 
Background
Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse.
Methods
A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients.
Results
All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system.
Conclusion
The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain aspects of its organization are key, including numbers (available quantity), skill mix (health team balance), distribution (urban/rural), and working conditions (compensation, nonfinancial incentives, and workplace safety). This study has identified the need to reform policies for retaining the nursing workforce. Simple measures requiring better management practices could substantially improve the working environment and hence retention of nurses.
doi:10.2147/JMDH.S55077
PMCID: PMC3887073  PMID: 24453494
job satisfaction; nurses; health workforce; Pakistan
14.  The relationship between hospital work environment and nurse outcomes in Guangdong, China: a nurse questionnaire survey 
Journal of clinical nursing  2012;21(9-10):1476-1485.
Aims and objectives
This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China.
Background
The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China.
Design
This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China.
Methods
Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05.
Results
Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses’ work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses.
Conclusion
Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China.
Relevance to clinical practice
The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03991.x
PMCID: PMC3392025  PMID: 22380003
burnout; job satisfaction; nursing; retention; work environment
15.  Job satisfaction among hospital nurses: a longitudinal study. 
Health Services Research  1980;15(4):341-364.
Data from a two-wave panel study of staff nurses in two hospitals are used to assess the relative importance of several types of independent variables as determinants of job satisfaction. Both organizational and nonorganizational determinants are examined, with the formed including both perceptual and structural measures. Job satisfaction is measured in two ways using both Overall and Multi-Facet indicators. The independent variables were measured five months before the dependent variables were measured in order to attenuate contamination problems. Findings indicate that perceptions of job and nursing unit attributes, particularly autonomy and task delegation, predict satisfaction most strongly. In addition, a nurse's own characteristics are found to be more important than either structural attributes of nursing units or job characteristics in predicting job satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC1072187  PMID: 7461970
16.  Using a Socioecological Framework to Understand the Career Choices of Single- and Double-Degree Nursing Students and Double-Degree Graduates 
ISRN Nursing  2012;2012:748238.
Untested changes in nursing education in Australia, such as the introduction of double degrees in nursing, necessitate a new research approach to study nursing career pathways. A review of the literature on past and present career choice theories demonstrates these are inadequate to gain an understanding of contemporary nursing students' career choices. With the present worldwide shortage of nurses, an understanding of career choice becomes a critical component of recruitment and retention strategies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an ecological system approach based on Bronfenbrenner's theory of human development can be used to understand and examine the influences affecting nursing students' and graduates' career development and career choices. Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model was adapted to propose a new Nursing Career Development Framework as a way of conceptualizing the career development of nursing students undertaking traditional bachelor of nursing and nontraditional double-degree nursing programs. This Framework is then applied to a study of undergraduate nurses' career decision making, using a sequential explanatory mixed method study. The paper demonstrates the relevance of this approach for addressing challenges associated with nursing recruitment, education, and career choice.
doi:10.5402/2012/748238
PMCID: PMC3407633  PMID: 22852094
17.  Differences in preferences for rural job postings between nursing students and practicing nurses: evidence from a discrete choice experiment in Lao People’s Democratic Republic 
Background
A discrete choice experiment was conducted to investigate preferences for job characteristics among nursing students and practicing nurses to determine how these groups vary in their respective preferences and to understand whether differing policies may be appropriate for each group.
Methods
Participating students and workers were administered a discrete choice experiment that elicited preferences for attributes of potential job postings. Job attributes included salary, duration of service until promotion to permanent staff, duration of service until qualified for further study and scholarship, housing provision, transportation provision, and performance-based financial rewards. Mixed logit models were fit to the data to estimate stated preferences and willingness to pay for attributes. Finally, an interaction model was fit to formally investigate differences in preferences between nursing students and practicing nurses.
Results
Data were collected from 256 nursing students and 249 practicing nurses. For both groups, choice of job posting was strongly influenced by salary and direct promotion to permanent staff. As compared to nursing students, practicing nurses had significantly lower preference for housing allowance and housing provision as well as lower preference for provision of transportation for work and personal use.
Conclusions
In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, nursing students and practicing nurses demonstrated important differences in their respective preferences for rural job posting attributes. This finding suggests that it may be important to differentiate between recruitment and retention policies when addressing human resources for health challenges in developing countries, such as Laos.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-11-22
PMCID: PMC3671159  PMID: 23705805
Nursing; Human resources for health; Attraction; Retention; Discrete choice experiment; Laos People’s Democratic Republic
18.  Compatibility of personality and major among freshman undergraduate nursing students of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences 
BACKGROUND:
Personality traits are major effective factors on student’s learning, educational achievements and employer’s job satisfaction. Metacognitive characteristics such as personality are only changeable up to 30% in the best educational condition. Therefore, students should be evaluated for such characteristics including their personality compatibility with their major. The present study investigated the personality compatibility of freshman undergraduate nursing students of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2008 with nursing profession.
METHODS:
This was a descriptive study using a standard questionnaire based on Holland’s career and personality theory on 82 freshman nursing students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.
RESULTS:
More than 50% of the participants evaluated their information of nursing profession average. The personality of 41.3% was not compatible with nursing profession and the personality of 26.2% was relatively compatible. Only 32.5% of the participants had completely compatible personalities with this profession.
CONCLUSIONS:
Considering the limitations of the present study and previous studies, further studies are recommended. It seems that students’ knowledge of majors and careers are increasing, but it is necessary to plan and make more effort to recognize personal characteristics and personality compatibility with professions. Knowledge of professions and personalities along with each other are valuable and neglecting one would be an obstacle to achieve goals including decreasing job resignation, increasing job efficiency and satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC3093179  PMID: 21589786
Personality; nursing students; professional role
19.  Career destinations, views and future plans of the UK medical qualifiers of 1988 
Summary
Objectives
To report the career destinations, views and future plans of a cohort of senior doctors who qualified in the 1980s.
Methods
Postal questionnaire survey of all doctors who qualified from all UK medical schools in 1988.
Results
The response rate was 69%. We estimated that 81% of the total cohort was working in the NHS, 16 years after qualification; and that at least 94% of graduates who, when students, were from UK homes, were working in medicine. Of NHS doctors, 30% worked part-time. NHS doctors rated their job satisfaction highly (median score 19.9, scale 5–25) but were less satisfied with the amount of leisure time available to them (median score 5.4, scale 1–10). NHS doctors were very positive about their careers, but were less positive about working hours and some other aspects of the NHS. Women were more positive than men about working conditions; general practitioners were more positive than hospital doctors. Twenty-five percent reported unmet needs for further training or career-related advice, particularly about career development. Twenty-nine percent intended to reduce their hours in future, while 6%, mainly part-time women, planned to increase their hours. Overall, 10% of NHS doctors planned to do more service work in future and 24% planned to do less; among part-time women, 18% planned to do more and only 14% less.
Conclusions
These NHS doctors, now in their 40s, had a high level of satisfaction with their jobs and their careers but were less satisfied with some other aspects of their working environment. A substantial percentage had expectations about future career development and change.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2009.090282
PMCID: PMC2802712  PMID: 20056666
20.  HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Counties 
This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The subscale, Personal Satisfaction, was the highest in this sample as in the other 2. Job Satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression demonstrated that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influences on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These findings provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.
doi:10.1016/j.jana.2008.10.001
PMCID: PMC2743864  PMID: 19118767
Africa; AIDS; HIV; job satisfaction; nurses; stigma
21.  Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia 
Nursing Research and Practice  2014;2014:909768.
Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations.
doi:10.1155/2014/909768
PMCID: PMC3953615
22.  Nurses’ Widespread Job Dissatisfaction, Burnout, And Frustration With Health Benefits Signal Problems For Patient Care 
Health affairs (Project Hope)  2011;30(2):202-210.
Job dissatisfaction among nurses contributes to costly labor disputes, turnover, and risk to patients. Examining survey data from 95,499 nurses, we found much higher job dissatisfaction and burnout among nurses who were directly caring for patients in hospitals and nursing homes than among nurses working in other jobs or settings, such as the pharmaceutical industry. Strikingly, nurses are particularly dissatisfied with their health benefits, which highlights the need for a benefits review to make nurses’ benefits more comparable to those of other white-collar employees. Patient satisfaction levels are lower in hospitals with more nurses who are dissatisfied or burned out—a finding that signals problems with quality of care. Improving nurses’ working conditions may improve both nurses’ and patients’ satisfaction as well as the quality of care.
doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0100
PMCID: PMC3201822  PMID: 21289340
23.  Relationship between communication manners of head nurses with job satisfaction of nurses under their supervision in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2006 
BACKGROUND:
Interpersonal communication is considered as an important and effective factor of job satisfaction and efficiency and has special significance in nursing career because of the face to face relationship with patients. This study aimed to determine the association between head nurses’ interpersonal communication and job satisfaction of nurses under their supervision. The study was conducted in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2006.
METHODS:
This was a descriptive and analytical study on 203 nursing personnel working in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2006. Data were collected using Job Descriptive Index (JDI) developed by Smith and Kendall and interpersonal communication was measured using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and Pearson’s test and presented in tables and diagrams.
RESULTS:
The majority of the participants (148 subjects, 73%) believed that head nurses’ interpersonal communication was excellent and in general Pearson’s test showed a significant association between head nurses’ interpersonal communication and their personnel’s job satisfaction (p < 0.011).
CONCLUSIONS:
Based on the results of this study on the relationship between interpersonal communication of the head nurses and job satisfaction of their personnel, we can improve the job satisfaction of nursing personnel as well as patients’ satisfactory and level of services by developing educational courses and workshops on importance and effectiveness of interpersonal communication for head nurses.
PMCID: PMC3093172  PMID: 21589779
Nurses; communication; job satisfaction
24.  Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Intensive Care Unit Nurses and Physicians 
Introduction. Nurses and physicians working in the intensive care unit (ICU) may be exposed to considerable job stress. The study aim was to assess the level of and the relationship between (1) job satisfaction, (2) job stress, and (3) burnout symptoms. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed at ICUs at Oslo University Hospital. 145 of 196 (74%) staff members (16 physicians and 129 nurses) answered the questionnaire. The following tools were used: job satisfaction scale (scores 10–70), modified Cooper's job stress questionnaire (scores 1–5), and Maslach burnout inventory (scores 1–5); high score in the dimension emotional exhaustion (EE) indicates burnout. Personality was measured with the basic character inventory. Dimensions were neuroticism (vulnerability), extroversion (intensity), and control/compulsiveness with the range 0–9. Results. Mean job satisfaction among nurses was 43.9 (42.4–45.4) versus 51.1 (45.3–56.9) among physicians, P < 0.05. The mean burnout value (EE) was 2.3 (95% CI 2.2–2.4), and mean job stress was 2.6 (2.5–2.7), not significantly different between nurses and physicians. Females scored higher than males on vulnerability, 3.3 (2.9–3.7) versus 2.0 (1.1–2.9) (P < 0.05), and experienced staff were less vulnerable, 2.7 (2.2–3.2), than inexperienced staff, 3.6 (3.0–4.2) (P < 0.05). Burnout (EE) correlated with job satisfaction (r = −0.4, P < 0.001), job stress (r = 0.6, P < 0.001), and vulnerability (r = 0.3, P = 0.003). Conclusions. The nurses were significantly less satisfied with their jobs compared to the physicians. Burnout mean scores are relatively low, but high burnout scores are correlated with vulnerable personality, low job satisfaction, and high degree of job stress.
doi:10.1155/2013/786176
PMCID: PMC3835606  PMID: 24303211
25.  A national study on nurses’ retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon 
Background
Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon.
Methods
This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student’s t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses’ characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses’ intent to stay in underserved areas.
Results
A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that nurses less likely to report intent to stay were younger, unmarried, with less years of work experience and were not working towards a higher degree. Analysis reveals a directly proportional relationship between nurses’ reported job satisfaction and their intent to stay.
Conclusion
This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved areas in Lebanon, especially in the hospital sector. The status quo is disquieting as it reflects an unstable and dissatisfied nursing workforce. Developing targeted retention strategies for younger nurses and those working in hospitals as well as the offering of professional development opportunities and devising an incentive scheme targeting rural nurses is pivotal to enhance nurses’ job satisfaction and retention in rural settings.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-11-49
PMCID: PMC3851251  PMID: 24079458
Nurses; Retention; Underserved areas; Hospital; Primary health care; Lebanon; Rural; Human resources for health

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