The theory of planned behaviour states that attitudinal variables (e.g. job satisfaction) only have an indirect effect on retention whereas intentions have a direct effect. This study uses secondary data from a longitudinal cohort of newly qualified nurses to test for the direct and indirect effects of job satisfaction (client care, staffing, development, relationships, education, work-life interface, resources, pay) and intentions to nurse on working as a nurse during the 3 years after qualification.
A national sample (England) of newly qualified (1997/98) nurses (n = 3669) were surveyed at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years. ANOVA and MANOVA were used for comparison of mean job satisfaction scores between groups; intentions to nurse (very likely, likely vs. unlikely, very unlikely and unable to say at this stage); working (or not working as a nurse) at each time-point. Indirect and direct effects were tested using structural equation and logistic regression models.
Intentions expressed at 6 months to nurse at 18 months were associated with higher scores on pay and relationships, and intentions at 3 years were associated with higher scores on care, development, relationships, work-life interface, resources, pay respectively. Intentions expressed at 18 months to nurse at 3 years were associated with higher scores on development, relationships, education and work-life interface. Associations with actual nursing were fewer. Those working as a nurse had higher satisfaction scores for development (18 months) and relationships (3 years). Regression models found significant associations between the pay and staffing factors and intentions expressed at 6 months to nurse at 18 months, and between pay and intentions to nurse at 3 years. Many of the associations between intentions and working as a nurse were significant. Development was the only job satisfaction factor significantly associated with working as a nurse and just at 18 months.
Results partially support the theory of planned behaviour. Intentions expressed by nurses are stronger predictors of working as a nurse than job satisfaction. Retention strategies should focus on identifying nurses showing early signs of departure with emphasis on developmental aspects, mentoring and support.
Job satisfaction is important for nursing home staff and nursing home management, as it is associated with absenteeism, turnover, and quality of care. However, we know little about factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for nursing home workers.
In this investigation, we use data from 251 caregivers (i.e., Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses, and Nurse Aides) to examine: job satisfaction scores of these caregivers and what characteristics of these caregivers are associated with job satisfaction. The data were collected from two nursing homes over a two and a half year period with five waves of data collection at six-month intervals. The Job Description Index was used to collect job satisfaction data.
We find that, overall nursing home caregivers are satisfied with the work and coworkers, but are less satisfied with promotional opportunities, superiors, and compensation. From exploratory factor analysis three domains represented the data, pay, management, and work. Nurse aides appear particularly sensitive to the work domain. Of significance, we also find that caregivers who perceived the quality of care to be high have higher job satisfaction on all three domains than those who do not.
These results may be important in guiding caregiver retention initiatives in nursing homes. The finding for quality may be especially important, and indicates that nursing homes that improve their quality may have a positive impact on job satisfaction of staff, and thereby reduce their turnover rates.
Although previous studies proved that the implementation of mentoring program is beneficial for enhancing the nursing skills and attitudes, few researchers devoted to exploring the impact of mentoring functions on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new nurses. In this research we aimed at examining the effects of mentoring functions on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new nurses in Taiwan's hospitals.
We employed self-administered questionnaires to collect research data and select new nurses from three regional hospitals as samples in Taiwan. In all, 306 nurse samples were obtained. We adopted a multiple regression analysis to test the impact of the mentoring functions.
Results revealed that career development and role modeling functions have positive effects on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new nurses; however, the psychosocial support function was incapable of providing adequate explanation for these work outcomes.
It is suggested in this study that nurse managers should improve the career development and role modeling functions of mentoring in order to enhance the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of new nurses.
The motivation for this study was to investigate how role stress among nurses could affect their job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and whether the job rotation system might encourage nurses to understand, relate to and share the vision of the organization, consequently increasing their job satisfaction and stimulating them to willingly remain in their jobs and commit themselves to the organization. Despite the fact that there have been plenty of studies on job satisfaction, none was specifically addressed to integrate the relational model of job rotation, role stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among nurses.
With top managerial hospital administration's consent, questionnaires were only distributed to those nurses who had had job rotation experience. 650 copies of the questionnaire in two large and influential hospitals in southern Taiwan were distributed, among which 532 valid copies were retrieved with a response rate of 81.8%. Finally, the SPSS 11.0 and LISREL 8.54 (Linear Structural Relationship Model) statistical software packages were used for data analysis and processing.
According to the nurses' views, the findings are as follows: (1) job rotation among nurses could have an effect on their job satisfaction; (2) job rotation could have an effect on organizational commitment; (3) job satisfaction could have a positive effect on organizational commitment; (4) role stress among nurses could have a negative effect on their job satisfaction; and (5) role stress could have a negative effect on their organizational commitment.
As a practical and excellent strategy for manpower utilization, a hospital could promote the benefits of job rotation to both individuals and the hospital while implementing job rotation periodically and fairly. And when a medical organization attempts to enhance nurses' commitment to the organization, the findings suggest that reduction of role ambiguity in role stress has the best effect on enhancing nurses' organizational commitment. The ultimate goal is to increase nurses' job satisfaction and encourage them to stay in their career. This would avoid the vicious circle of high turnover, which is wasteful of the organization's valuable human resources.
To study the career destinations, job satisfaction and views of UK-trained senior doctors.
All doctors who qualified from all UK medical schools in 1977; and Department of Health employment data.
Main outcome measures
Career destinations of medical qualifiers from 1977.
72% responded to the questionnaire. Using all available evidence, including that on non-responders, 76% of the cohort, comprising 77% of the men and 74% of the women, were working in the NHS 27 years after qualification. Approximately 18% were in medical jobs either overseas or outside the NHS. Of respondents in the NHS, 89% of men and 51% of women had full-time contracts. NHS doctors rated their job satisfaction highly, with a median score of 19.5 on a scale from 5 (very low satisfaction) to 25 (very high satisfaction). Satisfaction with time off for leisure was much lower, with a median score of 4.6 on a scale from 1 (low) to 10 (high). Of those in the NHS, 67% agreed that they worked longer hours than they thought they should; and 40% agreed that their working conditions were satisfactory.
27 years after qualification, the percentage of women who were working in the NHS was similar to that of men. Although these senior doctors had high levels of satisfaction with the content of their jobs, they were not so satisfied with their working hours and working conditions. Our results can be used as benchmarks, against which the career pathways and satisfaction levels of more recently qualified doctors can be compared.
Mentoring is important in the career development of novice and experienced nurses. With the anticipated shortage in nursing, it is important to explore factors such as mentoring that may contribute to career satisfaction and intent to stay in the profession. This study explored the effects of mentoring on career satisfaction and intent to stay in nursing, and the relationship between career satisfaction and intent to stay in nursing. It was conducted through a mailed survey of RNs 55 years or younger currently in practice, education, administration, or research. Career satisfaction was measured through the use of the newly developed Mariani Nursing Career Satisfaction Scale. Findings revealed no statistically significant effect of mentoring on career satisfaction and intent to stay in nursing. There was a statistically significant relationship between career satisfaction and intent to stay in nursing. The majority of nurses reported participating in a mentoring relationship. Although the findings related to mentoring, career satisfaction, and intent to stay were not statistically significant, there was a prevalence of mentoring in nursing, thus suggesting the need for future research to identify outcomes of mentoring. In addition, the study contributed a newly developed instrument to measure the concept of career satisfaction in nursing.
A comparison of the job satisfaction of health care professionals has not been well studied in Malaysia. This study aimed to compare the job satisfaction level among 8 groups of health care professionals in private settings, using the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS).
A total of 81 health care professionals, including nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, medical laboratory technologists, dieticians, medical imaging practitioners, environmental health officers, and optometrists in private (non-government) settings in the Klang Valley, were interviewed using the Job Satisfaction Survey scale invented by Dr Paul E Spector. Their job satisfaction scores were calculated and determined.
In the demographic data, the majority of the subjects were 20–30 years old (81.5%), were female (72.8%), had a basic degree (98.8%), were single (64.2%), and had 1–5 years of working experience (83.9%). A Kruskal–Wallis analysis showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in promotion, supervision, operating conditions, co-workers, nature of the work, and communication, but there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in pay, fringe benefits, and contingent rewards in JSS score among the 8 health care professions. The Friedman Test showed a significant difference of overall JSS scores (χ2 = 526.418, P < 0.001) among the 8 health care professions.
The overall job satisfaction levels are different among health care professionals in private settings, especially regarding promotion, supervision, operating conditions, co-workers, the nature of the work, and communication.
job satisfaction; health care; non-governmental organizations; private sector
Lebanon is perceived to be suffering from excessive nurse migration, low job satisfaction, poor retention and high turnover. Little is known about the magnitude of nurse migration and predictors of intent to leave. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of nurses' intent to leave and examine the impact of job satisfaction on intent to leave. Intent to leave was explored to differentiate between nurses who intend to leave their current hospital and those intending to leave the country.
A cross-sectional design was used to survey nurses currently practicing in Lebanese hospitals. A total of 1,793 nurses employed in 69 hospitals were surveyed. Questions included those relating to demographic characteristics, intent to leave, and the McCloskey Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Univariate descriptive statistics were conducted on sample's demographic characteristics including gender, age, marital status and educational level. Bivariate associations between intent to leave and demographic characteristics were tested using Pearson Chi-square. Differences in satisfaction scores between nurses with and without intent to leave were tested using t-test and ANOVA f-test. A multinomial logistic regression model was created to predict intent to leave the hospital and intent to leave the country.
An alarming 67.5% reported intent to leave within the next 1 to 3 years, many of whom disclosed intent to leave the country (36.7%). Within nurses who reported an intent to leave the hospital but stay in Lebanon, 22.1% plan to move to a different health organization in Lebanon, 29.4% plan to leave the profession and 48.5% had other plans. Nurses reported being least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. A common predictor of intent to leave the hospital and the country was dissatisfaction with extrinsic rewards. Other predictors of intent to leave (country or hospital) included age, gender, marital status, degree type, and dissatisfaction with scheduling, interaction opportunities, and control and responsibility.
Study findings demonstrate linkages between job satisfaction, intent to leave, and migration in a country suffering from a nursing shortage. Findings can be used by health care managers and policy makers in managing job satisfaction, intent to leave and nurse migration.
Untested changes in nursing education in Australia, such as the introduction of double degrees in nursing, necessitate a new research approach to study nursing career pathways. A review of the literature on past and present career choice theories demonstrates these are inadequate to gain an understanding of contemporary nursing students' career choices. With the present worldwide shortage of nurses, an understanding of career choice becomes a critical component of recruitment and retention strategies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an ecological system approach based on Bronfenbrenner's theory of human development can be used to understand and examine the influences affecting nursing students' and graduates' career development and career choices. Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model was adapted to propose a new Nursing Career Development Framework as a way of conceptualizing the career development of nursing students undertaking traditional bachelor of nursing and nontraditional double-degree nursing programs. This Framework is then applied to a study of undergraduate nurses' career decision making, using a sequential explanatory mixed method study. The paper demonstrates the relevance of this approach for addressing challenges associated with nursing recruitment, education, and career choice.
Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Malawi, where more than 50% of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by clinical health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. As this cadre and the cadre of enrolled nurses are the mainstay of the Malawian health service at the district level, it is important that they are supported and motivated to deliver a good standard of service to the population. This study explores how these cadres are managed and motivated and the impact this has on their performance.
A quantitative survey measured health workers' job satisfaction, perceptions of the work environment and sense of justice in the workplace, and was reported elsewhere. It emerged that health workers were particularly dissatisfied with what they perceived as unfair access to continuous education and career advancement opportunities, as well as inadequate supervision. These issues and their contribution to demotivation, from the perspective of both management and health workers, were further explored by means of qualitative techniques.
Focus group discussions were held with health workers, and key-informant interviews were conducted with members of district health management teams and human resource officers in the Ministry of Health. The focus groups used convenience sampling that included all the different cadres of health workers available and willing to participate on the day the research team visited the health facility. The interviews targeted district health management teams in three districts and the human resources personnel in the Ministry of Health, also sampling those who were available and agreed to participate.
The results showed that health workers consider continuous education and career progression strategies to be inadequate. Standard human resource management practices such as performance appraisal and the provision of job descriptions were not present in many cases. Health workers felt that they were inadequately supervised, with no feedback on performance. In contrast to health workers, managers did not perceive these human resources management deficiencies in the system as having an impact on motivation.
A strong human resource management function operating at the district level is likely to improve worker motivation and performance.
Management of job satisfaction is of growing importance in terms of the maintenance of employees’ health. This study aimed to evaluate which and to what extent facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction.
The participants were 4286 employees aged 18–69 years working in local government in Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 1998–1999. Seven facets of job satisfaction were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate which facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction.
For all employees, all of the facets of job satisfaction significantly contributed to global job satisfaction. Among the facets of job satisfaction, ‘being satisfied with interests and skills involved in work’ and ‘how abilities were used’ contributed more strongly to global satisfaction than ‘being satisfied with how the section is running’, ‘co-workers’, ‘work prospects’, ‘physical working conditions’ and ‘payment’. The differing associations of facets of job satisfaction with global job satisfaction did not change substantially in stratified analysis by occupation, with one exception that only three facets of job satisfaction contributed to global job satisfaction in administrative workers.
Job satisfaction related to the intrinsic aspects of the job (i.e., ‘interests and skills involved in work’ and ‘how abilities were used’) contributed more to global job satisfaction than the other aspects of job satisfaction. Longitudinal research in employees with various occupations may be needed to confirm the results of this study.
Job satisfaction; Occupation; Working environments; The JACS study; Japan
The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with turnover intention among nurses in small and medium-sized medical institutions.
A self-administered questionaire survey was performed in 293 registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and assistant nurses working full-time in various medical institutions. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted, with turnover intention as the dependent variable, and nurses’ basic attributes and job satisfaction as independent variables.
As for nurses’ basic attributes, turnover intention was significantly associated with registered nurses, younger nurses and those with low satisfaction with sleep. As for nurses’ job satisfaction, the number of nurses with turnover intention was significantly higher for those with low satisfaction with salary, low satisfaction with welfare, poor implementation of fair salary raise and poor cooperation among nurses.
Turnover intention may be reduced by the enhancement of trust in the organization, giving appropriate advice to young nurses and registered nurses, and developing measures for addressing sleep disorders.
nurse; turnover; job satisfaction; questionnaire; medical institution
Aims and objectives
This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China.
The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China.
This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China.
Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05.
Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses’ work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses.
Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China.
Relevance to clinical practice
The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China.
burnout; job satisfaction; nursing; retention; work environment
To report the career destinations, views and future plans of a cohort of senior doctors who qualified in the 1980s.
Postal questionnaire survey of all doctors who qualified from all UK medical schools in 1988.
The response rate was 69%. We estimated that 81% of the total cohort was working in the NHS, 16 years after qualification; and that at least 94% of graduates who, when students, were from UK homes, were working in medicine. Of NHS doctors, 30% worked part-time. NHS doctors rated their job satisfaction highly (median score 19.9, scale 5–25) but were less satisfied with the amount of leisure time available to them (median score 5.4, scale 1–10). NHS doctors were very positive about their careers, but were less positive about working hours and some other aspects of the NHS. Women were more positive than men about working conditions; general practitioners were more positive than hospital doctors. Twenty-five percent reported unmet needs for further training or career-related advice, particularly about career development. Twenty-nine percent intended to reduce their hours in future, while 6%, mainly part-time women, planned to increase their hours. Overall, 10% of NHS doctors planned to do more service work in future and 24% planned to do less; among part-time women, 18% planned to do more and only 14% less.
These NHS doctors, now in their 40s, had a high level of satisfaction with their jobs and their careers but were less satisfied with some other aspects of their working environment. A substantial percentage had expectations about future career development and change.
Job satisfaction has been associated with intentions to quit and aspects of quality of care. In 2001, GP job satisfaction in England had fallen to its lowest point for over a decade.
To assess GP job satisfaction and stressors immediately prior to implementation of the 2004 contract.
Design of study
National survey of a random sample of GPs.
One thousand, nine hundred and fifty principal and salaried GPs surveyed in February 2004 were compared with 1828 principals surveyed in 1998 and 1841 principal and salaried GPs surveyed in 2001. Job satisfaction and stressor scores were adjusted for 2004 age–sex distributions. Determinants of overall satisfaction were examined through ordinary least squares regression.
The 2004 response rate was 53%. GPs were most dissatisfied with hours of work, recognition for good work and remuneration, and experienced most pressure from paperwork, increasing workloads and having insufficient time. The majority of doctors were satisfied with their job overall. Satisfaction was higher than in 2001 and approximately the same as in 1998. Overall stress in 2004 was lower than in 2001 but still higher than in 1998. After allowing for personal, practice and job characteristics, higher satisfaction was associated with lower job stress, involvement in decision making, increasing job interest and ability to meet conflicting demands.
Despite recent initiatives to enhance workforce capacity and working lives for GPs, workload, time pressures and job control remain potential areas of concern. Addressing such issues may be key to maintaining morale as the new contract is implemented.
contracts; general practitioner; job satisfaction; workforce
Data from a two-wave panel study of staff nurses in two hospitals are used to assess the relative importance of several types of independent variables as determinants of job satisfaction. Both organizational and nonorganizational determinants are examined, with the formed including both perceptual and structural measures. Job satisfaction is measured in two ways using both Overall and Multi-Facet indicators. The independent variables were measured five months before the dependent variables were measured in order to attenuate contamination problems. Findings indicate that perceptions of job and nursing unit attributes, particularly autonomy and task delegation, predict satisfaction most strongly. In addition, a nurse's own characteristics are found to be more important than either structural attributes of nursing units or job characteristics in predicting job satisfaction.
Objective: To investigate how much of the variance in data on nurse evaluation of different aspects of hospital work can be attributed to individual, ward, department and hospital levels, and to discuss the implication of the findings on quality improvement strategies.
Design and method: National survey data of work experiences were collected from hospital nurses working at 124 hospital wards in 36 departments in 15 hospitals across Norway during the autumn of 1998. The multilevel structure of the variation of nine indices of job satisfaction was explored by fitting four-level random intercept models (nurse, ward, department and hospital).
Results: A total of 2606 nurses (66%) responded. The indices showed varying clustering to organizational units. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) varied from 0.05 to 0.38, representing considerable higher level variation. The ward level was the dominating level for the clustering of nurses' job aspect evaluations.
Conclusion: Multilevel modelling of staff work experiences may identify which improvement goals can be addressed at which organizational level. Improvement efforts should be directed specifically towards each aspect of work and at its most relevant organizational level. Strategies aimed at the micro-organizational level (ward management) rather than the individual level or the macro level (hospital top management) might prove worthwhile.
This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The subscale, Personal Satisfaction, was the highest in this sample as in the other 2. Job Satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression demonstrated that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influences on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These findings provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.
Africa; AIDS; HIV; job satisfaction; nurses; stigma
Job dissatisfaction among nurses contributes to costly labor disputes, turnover, and risk to patients. Examining survey data from 95,499 nurses, we found much higher job dissatisfaction and burnout among nurses who were directly caring for patients in hospitals and nursing homes than among nurses working in other jobs or settings, such as the pharmaceutical industry. Strikingly, nurses are particularly dissatisfied with their health benefits, which highlights the need for a benefits review to make nurses’ benefits more comparable to those of other white-collar employees. Patient satisfaction levels are lower in hospitals with more nurses who are dissatisfied or burned out—a finding that signals problems with quality of care. Improving nurses’ working conditions may improve both nurses’ and patients’ satisfaction as well as the quality of care.
Interpersonal communication is considered as an important and effective factor of job satisfaction and efficiency and has special significance in nursing career because of the face to face relationship with patients. This study aimed to determine the association between head nurses’ interpersonal communication and job satisfaction of nurses under their supervision. The study was conducted in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2006.
This was a descriptive and analytical study on 203 nursing personnel working in educational hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2006. Data were collected using Job Descriptive Index (JDI) developed by Smith and Kendall and interpersonal communication was measured using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and Pearson’s test and presented in tables and diagrams.
The majority of the participants (148 subjects, 73%) believed that head nurses’ interpersonal communication was excellent and in general Pearson’s test showed a significant association between head nurses’ interpersonal communication and their personnel’s job satisfaction (p < 0.011).
Based on the results of this study on the relationship between interpersonal communication of the head nurses and job satisfaction of their personnel, we can improve the job satisfaction of nursing personnel as well as patients’ satisfactory and level of services by developing educational courses and workshops on importance and effectiveness of interpersonal communication for head nurses.
Nurses; communication; job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs), as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions.
A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5%) among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers) of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007.
The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied) to 100 (extremely satisfied) by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2), job competency (87.9) and teamwork (87.7), as compared with work reward (72.9) and working conditions (79.7). Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7) was higher than that in Anhui (75.5).
Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.
The purpose of this paper is to examine what is known about the nurse workforce and nursing education in China in order to assess the likely potential for nurse migration from China in the future.
There is a severe shortage of nurses in China (only one nurse per thousand in population), but at the same time there is a very high level of unemployment and underemployment of nurses. China's nursing education system is huge in size (about 500,000 nursing students in 2005), but weak in quality and career development.
As a result of lack of limited job opportunities, low salary, and low job satisfaction, many talented Chinese nurses intend to switch occupation or work outside China. Commercial recruiters have expressed a strong interest in recruitment of nurses in China, but to date there are few examples of successful ventures. Even if the Chinese government were to implement health care financing reforms that led to an increase in nursing jobs and improved work conditions, some level of surplus will remain. As such, it is likely that China will become an important source of nurses for developed nations in the coming years.
China; nursing; migration; case studies
To investigate job satisfaction and intention to stay for ambulatory oncology nurses.
An oncology provider shortage suggests retention is a high priority, and factors associated with job outcomes are unknown in this setting.
Data derived from a cross-sectional survey completed by 402 oncology nurses employed in ambulatory settings. Logistic regression models estimated the likelihood of job satisfaction or intention to stay for at least one year.
Most nurses (80.9%) were satisfied and 87.4% indicated their intention to stay. Significant variables for job satisfaction were university/hospital ownership, staffing and resource adequacy, nurse manager ability and leadership, and workloads. Variables significant for intention to stay were staffing and resource adequacy, participation in practice affairs, and years of experience. Medical assistant support was associated with lower intention to stay.
Favorable practice environments are key to effective retention. Staff skill mix in ambulatory oncology settings warrant further examination.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among work stress, sex life satisfaction, and mental health of married nurses. Demographic information, work stress, sex life satisfaction, sexual desire and mental health measured using the Chinese Health Questionnaire, data were collected from 100 married nurses in Taiwan.
Sex life satisfaction and age were negatively correlated, but sex life satisfaction and sexual desire were positively correlated. The mental health of over-committed nursing staff was not affected. Higher reward for effort was positively correlated with sex life satisfaction.
No matter whether job stress was high or low, receiving a higher reward for effort led to better sex life satisfaction, which had a satisfying positive effect on the nurses' lives. To improve nursing care quality at the hospital, nursing administrators should assist nurses in confronting work stress via positive adjustment, which is associated with the nurses’ sexual harmony, and quality of life.
Effort-reward imbalance; Mental health; Sexual desires; Sex life satisfaction
The present research addresses the dynamic transaction between extrinsic (occupational prestige, income) and intrinsic (job satisfaction) career success and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Participants (N = 731) completed a comprehensive measure of personality and reported their job title, annual income, and job satisfaction; a subset of these participants (n = 302) provided the same information approximately 10 years later. Measured concurrently, emotionally stable and conscientious participants reported higher incomes and job satisfaction. Longitudinal analyses revealed that, among younger participants, higher income at baseline predicted decreases in Neuroticism and baseline Extraversion predicted increases in income across the 10 years. Results suggest that the mutual influence of career success and personality is limited to income and occurs early in the career.
Personality; Five-Factor Model; Occupations; Income; Job Satisfaction