To study clinical features and treatment of patients diagnosed with fractured penis.
All patients diagnosed with penis fracture from March 2000-March 2007 were retrospectively studied. No invasive investigation was used for diagnosis.
Surgical intervention was done in 52 patients while 5 patients were managed conservatively. The constant finding recorded in all cases was that penis fracture occurred in erect penises. Most fractures were observed in the 16-30 years age group (50.88%). Left lateral tear was present in 53.84% cases. One patient had gangrene of penile skin after surgery.
Penis Fracture is not so uncommon as reported. A trauma to erect penis is mandatory for fracture to occur. Surgical intervention is the preferred mode of treatment.
Penile fracture; trauma; Management
Surgery to augment penile length has become increasingly common. Lack of standardization of this controversial procedure has led to a wide variety of poorly documented surgical techniques, with unconvincing results. The most commonly used technique involves release of the suspensory ligament, with an advancement of an infrapubic skin flap onto the penis via a V-Y plasty. This technique has a major drawback of the possibility of reattachment of the penis to the pubis. We describe a new technique of interposing a silicone sheath along with V-Y advancement flap that overrides this drawback and minimizes the loss of the gained length.
Penile length; silicone sheath; suspensory ligament; symphysis pubis; V-Y plasty
One of the documented benefits of neonatal circumcision is protection against invasive penile cancer. To date there have been a handful of published cases of invasive penile cancer in men circumcised as neonates. We report a case of a 73-year-old man, with a history of neonatal circumcision with no evidence of previous human papillomavirus exposure, who developed a buried penis secondary to obesity. He was diagnosed with Grade 2, pT3N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. This report suggests that buried penis may pose a risk factor for the development of penile cancer despite the protective effects of neonatal circumcision. Thus periodic examination of a buried penis is warranted even in patients with no risk factors for penile cancer. A review of the literature is provided.
Penile fracture has been reported with sexual intercourse, masturbation, rolling over or falling on to the erect penis. Classically the history is with a sudden snap, pain, detumescence and a hematoma of the penis with deformity. Immediate surgical treatment is recommended. The patients may delay the admission due to fear and embarrassment or the condition may usually be underreported.
A 32-year-old man presented to primary care complaining of discoloration of penis without any significant history or symptom. Physical examination revealed swollen, ecchymotic, and deviated circumcised penis.
Although frequent and common diseases represent the majority of daily work, the primary care physician should be alert for possible unexpected history or symptom of a rare and often serious condition.
Penile fracture is a rare condition. Primarily it is a rupture of the corpus cavernosum that occurs when the penis is erect. The rupture can also affect the corpus spongiosum and the urethra.
We report a case of a 37 year old man who presented with acute penile pain, penile swelling and the inability to pass urine after a blunt trauma during sexual intercourse. In emergency surgery we found bilateral partial rupture of the corpus cavernosum with complete urethral and corpus spongiosum disruption. In the one year follow up the patient presented with normal erectile and voiding function.
Emergency surgical repair in penile fracture can preserve erectile and voiding function.
BACKGROUND: The aim of a circumcision is to remove sufficient foreskin from the penile shaft and preputial epithelium to uncover the glans. Removal of too much preputial skin may lead to an unsatisfactory cosmetic and functional result. Patients with a congenital anomaly known as 'buried penis' are particularly susceptible to this. In this condition, abnormal dartos fascial bands or muscle fibres tether the penile shaft and as a result conceal its true length. CASE REPORT: A 5-year-old boy underwent circumcision but his 'buried penis' was not recognised by the surgeon pre-operatively. Unfortunately, his penile shaft was left almost entirely denuded of skin as a result. The wound required a full thickness graft. Follow-up at 1 year has so far been satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of early recognition of a buried penis when considering circumcision. It demonstrates the abnormal anatomy of a buried penis and its management. It also provides a potential reconstructive option in cases of excess skin removal.
Circumcision is one of the most common rituals in Jewish and Islamic cultures. It may also be performed for phimosis correction or the treatment of recurrent balanitis. Although circumcision is considered to be a technically easy and safe surgical procedure with no significant risk, it may lead to severe complications such as necrotizing fasciitis or total penis amputation. In this report, we present a case of penis amputation at two levels occurring with third-degree burns due to electrocautery during circumcision. Although penile replantation was attempted, it was unsuccessful due to burn damage to the veins. After restoration of the functional structures, the penis was buried in the inguinal area by reepithelization to maintain blood circulation. The recovery of the penis was successful. This case is presented as a novel example of groin flap surgery to achieve a functionally and aesthetically acceptable outcome in a salvage operation for a penis with significant traumatic injury, which has not been previously reported in the literature.
Penis; Circumcision; Amputation
The aim of this study was to categorize concealed penis and buried penis by preoperative physical examination including the manual prepubic compression test and to describe a simple surgical technique to correct buried penis that was based on surgical experience and comprehension of the anatomical components.
Materials and Methods
From March 2007 to November 2010, 17 patients were diagnosed with buried penis after differentiation of this condition from concealed penis. The described surgical technique consisted of a minimal incision and simple fixation of the penile shaft skin and superficial fascia to the prepubic deep fascia, without degloving the penile skin.
The mean age of the patients was 10.2 years, ranging from 8 years to 15 years. The median follow-up was 19 months (range, 5 to 49 months). The mean penile lengths were 1.8 cm (range, 1.1 to 2.5 cm) preoperatively and 4.5 cm (range, 3.3 to 5.8 cm) postoperatively. The median difference between preoperative and postoperative penile lengths was 2.7 cm (range, 2.1 to 3.9 cm). There were no serious intra- or postoperative complications.
With the simple anchoring of the penopubic skin to the prepubic deep fascia, we obtained successful subjective and objective outcomes without complications. We suggest that this is a promising surgical method for selected patients with buried penis.
Abnormality; Penis; Surgery
Peyronie's disease has been associated with penile shortening and some degree of erectile dysfunction. Surgical reconstruction should be based on giving a functional penis, that is, rectifying the penis with rigidity enough to make the sexual intercourse. The procedure should be discussed preoperatively in terms of length and girth reconstruction in order to improve patient satisfaction. The tunical reconstruction for maximum penile length and girth restoration should be based on the maximum length of the dissected neurovascular bundle possible and the application of geometrical principles to define the precise site and size of tunical incision and grafting procedure. As penile rectification and rigidity are required to achieve complete functional restoration of the penis and 20 to 54% of patients experience associated erectile dysfunction, penile straightening alone may not be enough to provide complete functional restoration. Therefore, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, self-injection, or penile prosthesis may need to be added in some cases.
To determine the pattern of morbidity and outcome among patients referred to the Pediatric Surgery Unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) following circumcision.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective descriptive study of all patients with complications of circumcision who were managed in LUTH between 2008 and 2010.
There were 36 patients. The age range was between 2 days and 9 years (median-3 months). Fifteen cases (42.9%) were due to urethro-cutaneous fistula while there were six cases (16.7%) of postcircumcision bleeding. There were four cases (11.1%) each of partial penile amputation and buried penis. There were also cases of meatal stenosis, penile implantation cyst and glanulo-preputial skin bridge. With respect to the treatment offered, eleven (30.6%) patients had urethroplasty for the urethro-cutaneous fistulae while seven (19.4%) patients had penile refashioning for the buried penis and penile amputation. Appropriate surgical treatments were performed for the other complications.
Urethrocutaneous fistula and penile amputation are the commonest complications of circumcision for which referral is made to LUTH. Treatment outcome was satisfactory. Health education and legislation to ensure procedure is performed by qualified medical and paramedical staff may reduce the morbidity.
Circumcision morbidity; indications; specialist care
Penile abscesses are rare, but can develop after trauma, injection therapy, or surgery of the penis, or as an unusual presentation of sexually transmitted diseases. We report a case of penile abscess in a 51-year-old diabetic man, presented 9 days after neglected penile fracture following intracavernosal injection therapy and sexual intercourse. Penile ultrasonography and surgical exploration confirmed the physical examination findings of involvement of the corpus cavernosum. The pus culture from the abscess revealed Enterococcous faecalis. The patient was successfully treated by surgical drainage of the abscess and primary closure of the ruptured tunica albuginea.
Penis; Abscess; Fractures
Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common etiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis in an acute paranoid schizophrenic patient. The penis was successfully reattached using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.
Genital self mutilation; penile replantation; schizophrenia; management
Fracture of the penis is an uncommon injury presenting to the emergency department (ED). Personal embarrassment and social scenarios associated with this condition may result in underreporting. Patients often delay seeking medical attention, and even when they do, as in our case report, they may withhold the condition for a significant time. ED physicians need to be aware of the social inhibitions and the need for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. A delay in treatment increases the risk of complications such as ischemia, necrosis and penile deformity.
Fracture of the penis is caused by rupture of the tunica albuginea of one or both corpora cavernosa by a blunt trauma to the erect penis. Diagnosis is usually clinical as evident by the characteristic history and clinical presentation. Diagnostic modalities aid in the management of the fracture and associated injuries if present. But promptness in the recognition and initiation of treatment can significantly reduce the chances of post-injury complications.
We present a case of penile fracture in a young male who presented to the ED with abdominal pain, but careful history and physical examination revealed penile fracture. A delay in diagnosis could have led to complications.
Our case report is an attempt to emphasize the need to suspect injury to the penis in a young adult who might present to the emergency department with an entirely different complaint and also to treat any penile trauma as an emergency. This report provides evidence of an uncommon and underreported clinical entity. A review of the pertinent literature is included.
Tunica albuginea; Corpus cavernosa; Penile shaft; Penile fracture; Injury to penis
A 22-year-old man reported cracking sound and acute pain during sexual intercourse followed by rapid penile detumescence and ecchymosis. He experienced more pain because he could not urinate and had a palpably full bladder. Moreover, his urethra was bleeding. Physical examination revealed swollen, ecchymotic and deviated penis and penis ultrasonography showed an injury of the tunica albuginea and Buck’s fascia with an expanding hematoma. Suprapubic catheter was positioned. Surgical exploration revealed a tear of tunica albuginea of both corpora cavernosa and complete urethral dissection. End-to-end urethral anastomosis and suture of corpora cavernosa lesion were performed. Vescical catheter was mantained for 6 days and suprapubic catheter for 3 months to allow a complete urethral healing. A pseudodiverticulum was found at anastomosis level on the urethrocistography 1 month after surgery. It disappeared by allowing micturition via the suprapubic catheter. The patient presented regular urinary flow and physiological erections 30 days later. In our experience, prompt surgical repair preserved erectile function and keeping the suprapubic catheter protected the urethra; this was the correct management for repairing the urethral lesion.
We present the case of a 24 year old man who presented with acute urinary retention and found to have diphallus with vertical duplication of penis. Superior phallus was well developed without any urethral meatus whereas inferior phallus was rudimentary but with patent urethra. History of erection was present in superior phallus only whereas patient was voiding urine from inferior phallus. It was associated with anorectal malformation and bilateral pelvic ectopic kidneys. Patient was managed by suprapubic catheter placement and planned for penile and urethral reconstructive surgery. Diphallus very rarely present in adulthood and vertical duplication is very unusual.
Diphallus; Dual penis; Ectopic kidney; Anorectal malformation; vertical duplication
Penile metastases are rare and usually secondary to genitourinary and colorectal cancer.
We present a case of a 77-year-old man with penile metastasis who was operated for rectal carcinoma. He was referred to our clinic for penile ulcerous lesion, semierectile penis and voiding dysfunction. Imaging studies showed nodular lesion at glans penis and multiple bone metastases. He did not respond to chemoradiotherapy and he had bad prognosis.
Imaging methods and biopsy may help to clarify the diagnosis but the treatment modalities are insufficient in these patients.
penis; metastasis; rectum; carcinoma
We evaluated penile prosthesis implantation with tunica albuginea-relaxing incisions without grafting in the treatment of Peyronie's disease associated with erectile dysfunction. Between April 2005 and June 2011, 62 patients underwent surgery due to severe Peyronie's disease associated with erectile dysfunction. Malleable and inflatable penile prostheses were inserted in 49 and 13 cases, respectively. Penile prostheses were inserted into the corpora cavernosa using the standard ventral approach. After lifting the neurovascular bundle, the tunica albuginea was incised and opened at the plaque region to correct the deformities and to lengthen the penis. Subsequently, the wide neurovascular bundle was replaced, and all incisions of the tunica albuginea were covered to prevent corporal grafting. In the median follow-up of 35 months (range 14–82 months), the penis was completely straightened in 59 (95%) patients. Numbness of the glans, which the patients found initially upsetting, decreased or disappeared spontaneously 3–6 months later. Penile prosthesis implantation with tunica albuginea incisions is a viable alternative in the treatment of Peyronie's disease because the extensive dissection of the neurovascular bundle allows a good approach to the plaque and provides excellent covering of the incised tunica albuginea without additional grafting.
erectile dysfunction; neurovascular bundle; penile prosthesis; Peyronie's disease; tunica albuginea
Injuries to the penis during intercourse represent one hypothesized mechanism by which uncircumcised men are at increased risk for HIV. There are no published, systematically collected data regarding mild penile coital trauma. We identified risks for self-reported penile coital injuries in men aged 18–24 in our randomized trial of circumcision to prevent HIV in Kisumu, Kenya.
Materials and Methods
Each participant underwent standardized interview, medical history, and physical examination, at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after enrollment. Self-reported penile coital injuries were assessed at each visit: penis feels sore during sex; penis gets scratches, cuts or abrasions during sex; skin of the penis bleeds after sex. Generalized estimating equation analysis estimated odds ratios (OR) for penile coital injuries.
February 2002–September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized. At baseline, 1,775 (64.4%) men reported any coital injury: 1,313 (47.6%) soreness; 1,328 (48.2%) scratches, abrasions, or cuts; 461 (16.7%) bleeding. In multivariable analysis, coital injury risk was lower for circumcised than uncircumcised men: soreness [OR=0.71, 95% CI 0.64–0.80], scratches/abrasions/cuts [OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.46–0.59], bleeding [OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.75], any coital injury [OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.54–0.68]. Other significant risks (p<0.05) included: increasing age, multiple recent sex partners, HSV-2 seropositivity, and genital ulcers. Condom use, cleaning the penis soon after intercourse, and being married/cohabiting were protective (p<0.05, each).
Self-reported penile coital injuries were common in these healthy young men. Circumcised men were at lower risk for coital injuries. Verifying penile coital injuries, mechanism of acquisition, and association with HIV risk is needed.
Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common aetiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis, which was successfully reattached by using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.
Microneurovascular surgery; penile-replantation; total amputation
Cutaneous metastases from colorectal cancer are uncommon, accounting for 6.5% of all secondary skin lesions. They occur in advanced disease. The most common site is the abdomen. The penis is a rare site.
We report the case of a 79-year-old patient who presented, two years after rectocolectomy for a rectal adenocarcinoma, obstructive renal failure secondary to a presacral recurrence, as well as symptomatic phimosis associated with papulonodules invading the penis, scrotum and pubis. After hemodialysis, percutaneous pyelostomy, and double-J catheter placement, the patient underwent circumcision and a pubic skin biopsy. On histology and immunohistochemistry, a cutaneous metastasis originating from the rectal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed.
Penile invasion by colorectal cancer revealed by phimosis is a rare occurrence but needs to be recognized and promptly diagnosed by biopsy in order to propose appropriate adjuvant therapy. These rare lesions can occur without any liver or lung involvement.
Colorectal cancer; Phimosis; Penile metastasis; Cutaneous metastasis
Fracture of the penis is a rare urological emergency which occurs as a result of abrupt trauma to an erect penis. There is paucity of data regarding long-term sexual function or erectile potency following fracture of the penis. The aim of this study is to objectively assess the overall sexual function following fracture of the penis.
A retrospective analysis of 21 penile fractures was performed. A voluntary telephone questionnaire was performed to assess long term outcomes using three validated questionnaires-the Erection Hardness Grading Scale, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Brief Male Sexual Function inventory (BMSFI).
The mean age was 33.1 years (range: 19–63). The median follow up was 46 months (range: 3–144). All fractures were a result of sexual misadventure and all were surgically repaired. There were two concomitant urethral injuries. Seventeen patients were contactable. Fourteen patients demonstrated no evidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) (IIEF-5>22), 1 patient reported symptoms of mild ED (IIEF-5, 17–21) and one patient reported mild to moderate ED (IIEF-5, 12–16). No patients reported insufficient erection for penetration (EHGS: 1 or 2). Regarding the overall BMSFI, 13 (83%) patients were mostly satisfied or very satisfied with their sex life within the previous month.
In a small surgical series of men with penile fracture managed within a short time frame from presentation, we demonstrate erectile potency is maintained. Long-term overall sexual satisfaction is promising.
Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck’s fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery.
penile anatomy; penile venous anatomy; tunica albuginea; distal ligament; erection hemodynamic mechanism
Giant Scrotal Lymphoedema is a rare disease. Such Scrotal elephantiasis presents multiple problems both to the patient as well as the treating clinician obstruction, aplasia, or hypoplasia of the lymphatic vessels. The most common cause world wide is lymphatic Filariasis.
Presentation of case
We present a particularly grotesque where the resected scrotal tissue weighed 32 kg which is one of the largest so far mentioned in literature. The lymphoedema was progressive over 8 years duration and the testes were not palpable with the penis deeply buried.
Scrotum was explored and penis was recovered deep within the pit of lymphoedema. Careful dissection done with cautery to delineate penis circumferentially from the root of scrotal lymphoedema. Foleys catheterisation was done. After the separation of penis scrotal skin flaps were raised on either side by extending the incision horizontally. De bulking of lymphoedema was done and the remaining scrotal skin was closed in Y shaped manner with root of penis in centre. Meticulous technique of dissection, cautery and ligasure use of Ligasure enabled excision with minimal blood loss.
Once fibrosis sets in resectional therapy will be needed in most cases. Successful reduction scrotoplasty with acceptable cosmetic results can be obtained in giant scrotal lymphoedemas weighing as large as 32 kg as in our case.
Epithelioid hemangioma is a rare vascular tumor found in the penis. It is essential to avoid misdiagnosis with Peyronie's disease and penile cancer, as management differs significantly.
We present a case of epithelioid hemangioma of the penis in a 50-year-old Caucasian man. We also review the literature to evaluate the incidence of benign vascular anomalies of the penis and their management.
Epithelioid hemangioma of the penis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with painful penile lumps. A thorough histological and immunohistochemical examination is required to make the diagnosis. Optimal management is complete local excision and periodic physical examination for local recurrence.
Dorsal vein rupture of the penis is a rare condition, and few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we report a 41-year-old man who presented with mildly painful and acute swollen penis, which initially imitated a penile fracture but was surgically explored and shown to be a superficial dorsal vein rupture.
Coitus; Penis; Rupture