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1.  The role of cranial CT in the investigation of meningitis 
JRSM Short Reports  2011;2(3):20.
Objective
To assess the usage of cranial computed tomography (CT) in patients admitted with meningitis.
Design
Retrospective study.
Setting
Heart of England NHS foundation trust, a teaching hospital in the West Midlands.
Participants
Two groups of adult patients admitted with meningitis between April 2001 and September 2004 and from September 2006 until September 2009.
Main outcome measures
The numbers of patients having cranial CT and lumbar puncture and whether any complications had arisen following lumbar puncture. The appropriateness of the CT request according to local criteria.
Results
A total of 111 patients were admitted in the initial time period and 47 patients in the second time period. In the first group, 67 patients underwent CT (61%), compared with 36 patients (80%) in the second group. There were eight abnormal scans (12%) in the initial group including three patients with radiological features of cerebral oedema. Of these patients, one underwent lumbar puncture and had no neurological sequelae. In the second group, there were five abnormal scans (14%) with one presenting a contraindication for lumbar puncture due to mild ventricular dilatation. A lumbar puncture was performed in this patient without complication. All patients with abnormal scans had clinical features to suggest raised intracranial pressure. CT scan requests were considered inappropriate in 26% of patients in the initial study period and 56% of patients in the second study period.
Conclusion
More patients with meningitis are undergoing CT and the number of inappropriate requests are increasing. There are few abnormal CT scans presenting a contraindication for lumbar puncture and the majority of these patients usually have clinical signs to suggest raised intracranial pressure.
doi:10.1258/shorts.2011.010113
PMCID: PMC3086327  PMID: 21541088
2.  Testing for Meningitis in Children with Bronchiolitis 
The Permanente Journal  2014;18(4):16-19.
The authors present a retrospective, case-control study of hospitalized infants younger than age one year diagnosed with viral bronchiolitis who underwent lumbar puncture as part of an evaluation for meningitis. The presence of apnea, cyanosis, meningeal signs, positive urine culture results, and young age were factors found to be preliminarily associated with the performance of a lumbar puncture in the setting of bronchiolitis. Young age was the only significant clinical factor found after multivariable regression; no other demographic, clinical, laboratory, or radiologic variables were found to be significant.
Viral bronchiolitis accounts for almost 20% of all-cause hospitalizations of infants (ie, children younger than age 1 year). The annual incidence of fever in viral bronchiolitis has been documented at 23% to 31%. However the incidence of concurrent serious bacterial infections is low (1%–7%), with meningitis occurring in less than 1% to 2% of cases, but lumbar puncture is performed in up to 9% of viral bronchiolitis cases. To our knowledge, no study has examined clinical factors that influence a physician’s decision to perform a lumbar puncture in the setting of viral bronchiolitis.
We present a retrospective, case-control study of hospitalized infants younger than one year diagnosed with viral bronchiolitis who underwent lumbar puncture as part of an evaluation for meningitis. The objective of the study was to determine clinical factors that influence a physician’s decision to perform a lumbar puncture in the setting of viral bronchiolitis. Although the presence of apnea, cyanosis, meningeal signs, positive urine culture results, and young age were factors found to be preliminarily associated with the performance of a lumbar puncture in the setting of bronchiolitis, young age was the only significant clinical factor found after multivariable regression; no other demographic, clinical, laboratory, or radiologic variables were found to be significant.
doi:10.7812/TPP/14-015
PMCID: PMC4206166  PMID: 25662522
3.  The role of lumbar puncture in children with suspected central nervous system infection 
BMC Pediatrics  2002;2:8.
Background
The use of the lumbar puncture in the diagnosis of central nervous system infection in acutely ill children is controversial. Recommendations have been published but it is unclear whether they are being followed.
Methods
The medical case notes of 415 acute medical admissions in a children's hospital were examined to identify children with suspected central nervous system infection and suspected meningococcal septicaemia. We determined whether lumbar punctures were indicated or contraindicated, whether they had been performed, and whether the results contributed to the patients' management.
Results
Fifty-two children with suspected central nervous system infections, and 43 with suspected meningococcal septicaemia were identified. No lumbar punctures were performed in patients with contraindications, but only 25 (53%) of 47 children with suspected central nervous system infection and no contraindications received a lumbar puncture. Lumbar puncture findings contributed to the management in 18 (72%) of these patients, by identifying a causative organism or excluding bacterial meningitis.
Conclusion
The recommendations for undertaking lumbar punctures in children with suspected central nervous system infection are not being followed because many children that should receive lumbar punctures are not getting them. When they are performed, lumbar puncture findings make a useful contribution to the patients' management.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-2-8
PMCID: PMC126268  PMID: 12350236
4.  Prospective surveillance of neonatal meningitis. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1993;69(1 Spec No):14-18.
Neonatal meningitis is a serious problem with a high mortality and frequent neurological sequelae. The incidence of neonatal meningitis was calculated and the aetiology, clinical and laboratory features, and the treatment of cases recorded prospectively over a 7 year 8 month period was documented. It was further investigated whether secondary meningitis had occurred after lumbar puncture. The estimated incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal meningitis was 0.25, 0.11, and 0.02 per 1000 live births respectively. There were eight cases of early onset meningitis (seven definite, one probable) and group B streptococci accounted for six (75%) of these. Blood cultures were negative in only one of seven cases of definite early bacterial meningitis. Of the 15 late onset cases, Gram negative organisms accounted for six of the seven bacterial cases. The overall mortality was 26%. Of the 11 survivors of bacterial meningitis, three (27%) had significant neurological sequelae at follow up (between three months to three years later). As in the first 48 hours after birth an initial blood culture is unlikely to be negative if bacterial meningitis is present, lumbar puncture can be deferred if the procedure might exacerbate respiratory distress. Although approximately 1880 infants had a lumbar puncture during the review period, only one case of meningitis was found where it was possible that lumbar puncture in a bacteraemic infant may have caused meningeal infection. The incidence of this potential complication must therefore be low.
PMCID: PMC1029390  PMID: 8346945
5.  Computed tomography before lumbar puncture in acute meningitis: a review of the risks and benefits. 
OBJECTIVE: To determine the indications, if any, for routine computed tomography (CT) of the brain before lumbar puncture in the management of acute meningitis. DATA SOURCES: Original research papers, reviews and editorials published in English from 1965 to 1991 were retrieved from MEDLINE. The bibliographies of these articles and of numerous standard texts were examined for pertinent references. A survey of local neurologists was conducted, and legal opinion was sought from the Canadian Medical Protective Association. DATA EXTRACTION: There were no studies directly assessing the risks of lumbar puncture in meningitis; however, all sources were culled for other pertinent information. RESULTS: No cases could be found of patients with acute meningitis deteriorating as a result of lumbar puncture. The neurologic consensus refuted the need for CT in typical acute meningitis. All sources stressed speedy lumbar puncture and the early institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy to minimize the severity of the illness and the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: (a) There is no evidence to recommend CT of the brain before lumbar puncture in acute meningitis unless the patient shows atypical features, (b) for patients with papilledema the risks associated with lumbar puncture are 10 to 20 times lower than the risks associated with acute bacterial meningitis alone, (c) CT may be necessary if there is no prompt response to therapy for meningitis or if complications are suspected, (d) the inability to visualize the optic fundi because of cataracts or senile miosis is not an indication for CT and (e) there are no Canadian legal precedents suggesting liability if physicians fail to perform CT in cases of meningitis.
PMCID: PMC1490723  PMID: 8448711
6.  Effect of the introduction of a lumbar‐puncture sticker and teaching manikin on junior staff documentation and performance of paediatric lumbar punctures 
Quality & Safety in Health Care  2006;15(5):325-328.
Background
Performing a lumbar puncture in an unwell child can cause anxiety in both the parent and the junior doctor. There is increasing evidence of post‐lumbar‐puncture complications in this age group.
Aims
To improve the documentation, consent for and technical performance of paediatric lumbar punctures to 100% of the required standard within 3 months.
Setting
The paediatric emergency department of a the Royal North Shore Hospital (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia).
Participants
Paediatric emergency staff, including residents, registrars and consultants.
Methods
Medical records of 40 consecutive children who had undergone a lumbar puncture in the 6 months before the introduction of the lumbar‐puncture proforma were reviewed. After introduction of the proforma, the records of 25 consecutive patients were reviewed to assess changes in the outcome measures. Before introduction of the proforma, junior medical staff were instructed in the procedure using specialised lumbar puncture manikins (Baby Stap; Laerdel, USA).
Results
Before introduction of the proforma, the median number of documented indicators was 4, out of a maximum of 12. There was almost no documentation of parental consent, patient complications and analgesia. Introduction of the proforma resulted in a highly marked increase to a median of 12 documented indicators per patient (p<0.01, 95% confidence interval 6 to 8).
Conclusions
The introduction of a lumbar‐puncture proforma and formal teaching sessions using a paediatric manikin led to a marked improvement in the documentation of paediatric lumbar‐punctures. Lumbar‐punctures can be performed only by accredited medical officers who have achieved competency on the lumbar‐puncture teaching manikin.
doi:10.1136/qshc.2005.013995
PMCID: PMC2565814  PMID: 17074867
7.  Lumbar puncture and subarachnoid haemorrhage. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1986;62(733):1021-1024.
Medical notes of 123 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage were examined. No patient deteriorated at the time of lumbar puncture. All but 2 patients with associated intracerebral haematomas had markedly impaired consciousness or focal signs. Two of 30 patients with meningitis were initially diagnosed as subarachnoid haemorrhage, and one died without lumbar puncture. If consciousness is not markedly impaired and focal signs are absent, lumbar puncture is safe in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.
PMCID: PMC2418952  PMID: 3628146
8.  AB102. Efficacy and safety of prostate biopsy at 12 points by 16 G puncture needle 
Translational Andrology and Urology  2015;4(Suppl 1):AB102.
Objective
To investigate the efficacy and safety of transrectal prostate biopsy at 12 points by 16 G puncture needle under ultrasonic guidance.
Methods
One hundred cases of transrectal prostate biopsy patients under ultrasonic guidance were screened from urinary surgery of our hospital. They were taken as the research objects. All patients were in accordance with “disease diagnosis and treatment guidelines of China urinary surgery [2011]” and the operation indication of prostate biopsy. All patients were fully informed of the experiment, signed the informed consent and operation informed consent. They were highly suspected for suffering from prostate cancer. All patients were randomly divided into experimental group and control group using random number table method, with 50 cases in each group. 16 G puncture needle was adopted in patients of experimental group and conventional 18 G puncture needle was adopted in control group. Two groups of patients were divided into small volume subgroup (<40 mL), middle volume group (40-60 mL) and large volume group (>60 mL).Then they were divided into low level subgroup (4.1-10.0 ng/mL) and high level subgroup (>10.1 ng/mL) according to the level of PSA, A subgroup (D >0.15) and B subgroup (D <0.15) according to the level of PSAD. All patients’ puncture was performed by a full-time doctor. The operation was performed under epidural anesthesia. The tissue sampling was drawn by the routine 12 puncture needle. The length of needle was more than 11.9 mm and remained roughly consistent. HE staining was performed after puncture biopsy. The positive rate of biopsy was observed. All patients were treated with perioperative anti-infection and analgesic drug according to the state of illness. The postoperative pain degree, infection, hematuria and other complications of patients in two groups were recorded and evaluated.
Results
The success rates of needle biopsy were compared between patients in two groups. The prostate lesion tissue slice was bulky by 16 G puncture needle in experimental group. And the success rate of needle targeted biopsy was 37.5% (15/40). The prostate lesion tissue slice was bulky by 18 G puncture needle in control group. And the success rate of needle targeted biopsy was 15% (6/40). χ2=5.23, P<0.05. The success rates of needle targeted biopsy in patients of two groups showed significantly statistical significance. The total positive rates were compared between patients in two groups. There were 18 cases of prostatic cancer patients detected in experimental group (18/50, 36%). The total coincidence rate was 36%; There were 12 cases of prostatic cancer patients detected in control group (12/50, 24%). The total coincidence rate was 24%; χ2=1.19, P>0.05. The overall positive rates and coincidence rates showed no significantly statistical significance. Volume subgroup examination result: there were seven cases of small subgroup (7/12, 58.33%), six cases of middle volume subgroup (6/17, 35.29%) and five cases of large volume subgroup (5/21, 23.81%) detected by 16 G puncture needle. There were four cases of small volume subgroup (4/15, 26.67%), three cases of middle volume subgroup (3/12, 25%) and five cases of large volume subgroup (5/23, 21.74%) by 18 G puncture needle. The results of small, middle and large subgroups were χ2=1.14, χ2=0.03 and χ2=0.04. The detection rates showed no significant difference between all subgroups. P>0.05, which showed no statistical significance; the subgroup analysis showed that the overall detection rate of prostate cancer in large volume subgroup was lower than those of middle and small volume subgroups. The experimental group P=0.042, control group P=0.0042. P<0.05, which had statistical significance. Subgroup PSA examination results showed the detection rates of patients in all subgroups in experimental group and control group. The high level group: χ2=0.39, χ=1.34, P>0.05, which had no significantly statistical difference; however subgroup analysis showed that the detection rate of prostate cancer in overall PSA low level subgroup was lower than that of high level group. The experimental group: χ2=4.95, the control group χ2=7.67, P<0.05. The difference had statistically significance. PASD subgroup examination result showed the detection rates in relative PASD subgroups in experimental group and control group. A subgroup: χ2=1.11, B subgroup: χ2=0.36, P>0.05, which had no significantly statistical difference. However subgroup analysis showed that the detection rate in PASD A group was lower than that of PASD B group. The experimental group: χ2=5.97. The control group: χ2=5.02, P<0.05. The difference had statistical significance. Postoperative pain VAS visual analogue scale and the incidence rates of hematuria, infection and other complications results showed that there was no significant difference between experimental group and control group. χ2=0.05, P>0.05, which had no statistical significance.
Conclusions
16 G needle can effectively improve the targeted detection rate. 18 G more used in conventional systematic biopsy.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2015.s102
PMCID: PMC4708750
Prostate; biopsy; cancer
9.  Clinical and prognostic features among children with acute encephalitis syndrome in Nepal; a retrospective study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:294.
Background
Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is commonly seen among hospitalized Nepali children. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) accounts for approximately one-quarter of cases. Although poor prognostic features for JE have been identified, and guide management, relatively little is reported on the remaining three-quarters of AES cases.
Methods
Children with AES (n = 225) were identified through admission records from two hospitals in Kathmandu between 2006 and 2008. Patients without available lumbar puncture results (n = 40) or with bacterial or plasmodium infection (n = 40) were analysed separately. The remaining AES patients with suspected viral aetiology were classified, based on positive IgM antibody in serum or cerebral spinal fluid, as JE (n = 42) or AES of unknown viral aetiology (n = 103); this latter group was sub-classified into Non-JE (n = 44) or JE status unknown (n = 59). Bad outcome was defined as death or neurological sequelae at discharge.
Results
AES patients of suspected viral aetiology more frequently had a bad outcome than those with bacterial or plasmodium infection (31% versus 13%; P = 0.039). JE patients more frequently had a bad outcome than those with AES of unknown viral aetiology (48% versus 24%; P = 0.01). Bad outcome was independently associated in both JE and suspected viral aetiology groups with a longer duration of fever pre-admission (P = 0.007; P = 0.002 respectively) and greater impairment of consciousness (P = 0.02; P < 0.001). A higher proportion of JE patients presented with a focal neurological deficit compared to patients of unknown viral aetiology (13/40 versus 11/103; P = 0.005). JE patients weighed less (P = 0.03) and exhibited a higher respiratory rate (P = 0.003) compared to Non-JE patients.
Conclusions
Nepali children with AES of suspected viral aetiology or with JE frequently suffered a bad outcome. Despite no specific treatment, patients who experienced a shorter duration of fever before hospital admission more frequently recovered completely. Prompt referral may allow AES patients to receive potentially life-saving supportive management. Previous studies have indicated supportive management, such as fluid provision, is associated with better outcome in JE. The lower weight and higher respiratory rate among JE patients may reflect multiple clinical complications, including dehydration. The findings suggest a more systematic investigation of the influence of supportive management on outcome in AES is warranted.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-294
PMCID: PMC3219745  PMID: 22035278
10.  Randomised controlled trial of atraumatic versus standard needles for diagnostic lumbar puncture 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2000;321(7267):986-990.
Objective
To compare the ease of use of atraumatic needles with standard needles for diagnostic lumbar puncture and the incidence of headache after their use.
Design
Double blind, randomised controlled trial.
Setting
Investigation ward of a neurology unit in a university hospital.
Participants
116 patients requiring elective diagnostic lumbar puncture.
Interventions
Standardised protocol for lumbar puncture with 20 gauge atraumatic or standard needles.
Outcome measures
The primary end point was intention to treat analysis of incidence of moderate to severe headache, assessed at one week by telephone interview. Secondary end points were incidence of headache at one week analysed by needle type, ease of use by operator according to a visual analogue scale, incidence of backache, and failure rate of puncture.
Results
Valid outcome data were available for 97 of 101 patients randomised. Baseline characteristics were matched except for higher body mass index in the standard needle group. By an intention to treat analysis the absolute risk of moderate to severe headache with atraumatic needles was reduced by 26% (95% confidence interval 6% to 45%) compared with standard needles, but there was a non-significantly greater absolute risk of multiple attempts at lumbar puncture (14%, −4% to 32%). Higher body mass index was associated with an increased failure rate with atraumatic needles, but the reduced incidence of headache was maintained. The need for medical interventions was reduced by 20% (1% to 40%).
Conclusions
Atraumatic needles significantly reduced the incidence of moderate to severe headache and the need for medical interventions after diagnostic lumbar punctures, but they were associated with a higher failure rate than standard needles.
PMCID: PMC27505  PMID: 11039963
11.  Necessity of Lumbar Puncture in Patients Presenting with New Onset Complex Febrile Seizures 
Introduction: This study aims to characterize the population of patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED) for a first complex febrile seizure, and subsequently assess the rate of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) occurrence in this population. Furthermore, this study seeks to identify whether a specific subset of patients may be at lesser risk for ABM or other serious neurological disease.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed the charts of patients between the ages of 6 months to 5 years of age admitted to an ED between 2005 and 2010 for a first complex febrile seizure (CFS). The health information department generated a patient list based on admission and discharge diagnoses, which was screened for patient eligibility. Exclusion criteria included history of a complex febrile seizure, history of an afebrile seizure, trauma, or severe underlying neurological disorder. Data extracted included age, gender, relevant medical history, descriptions of seizure, treatment received, and follow-up data. Patients presenting with two short febrile seizures within 24 hours were then analyzed separately to assess health outcomes in this population.
Results: There were 193 patients were eligible. Lumbar puncture was performed on 136 subjects; it was significantly more likely to be performed on patients that presented with seizure focality, status epilepticus, or a need for intubation. Fourteen patients were found to have pleocytosis following white blood cell count correction, and 1 was diagnosed with ABM (0.5% [95% confidence interval: 0.0–1.5, n=193]). Forty-three patients had 2 brief febrile seizures within 24 hours. Of the 43, 17 received lumbar puncture while in the ED. None of these patients were found to have ABM or other serious neurological disease.
Conclusion: ABM is rare in patients presenting with a first complex febrile seizure. Patients presenting only with 2 short febrile seizures within 24 hours may be less likely to have ABM, and may not require lumbar puncture without other clinical symptoms of neurological disease.
doi:10.5811/westjem.2012.8.12872
PMCID: PMC3656699  PMID: 23687537
12.  Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System 
Medicine  2015;94(49):e2189.
Abstract
Prospective nonrandomized control study.
The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).
Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.
The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic time, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.
A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture time(s) were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P = 0.002). The hospital stay was 2.77 ± 0.95 days in Group A and 2.87 ± 1.02 days in Group B (P = 0.702). There were no significant differences in the complication rate between the 2 groups (P = 0.386).
The highlight of HELLO system is accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. This preliminary report indicated that the HELLO system significantly improves the puncture accuracy of PTED and reduces the fluoroscopic time, preoperative location time, as well as operation time. (ChiCTR-ICR-15006730)
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000002189
PMCID: PMC5008493  PMID: 26656348
13.  Cryptococcosis of the central nervous system 
(1) A survey of cryptococcal infections of the nervous system in Queensland, Australia, revealed the nine year prevalence rate for the Australian aboriginal to be some 17 times greater than that of the white population. Uncommon in the first decade of life, the disease was developed by 79% of 29 patients between 20 and 59 years, males being affected twice as commonly as females. (2) Cryptococcosis appears to be more common in Australia than in the United Kingdom, and in Queensland the nine year incidence of neurological cryptococcosis was 4·7 per 100,000 in the tropical north compared with 1·8 per 100,000 in the southern parts of the State. Because of this, and since 20 of the 29 patients were regarded as having outdoor occupations, it is suggested that a high environmental exposure to the fungus may be associated with an animal reservoir and with dry, dusty conditions. It is also possible that geographical and occupational factors rather than racial predisposition account for the high incidence of the disease in the Australian aborigine. However, individual resistance and susceptibility are probably also important factors, since the clinical disease appears to be positively correlated with certain other diseases, or with steroid therapy, which would impair the immune responses of the body. (3) Headache is the outstanding symptom of neurological cryptococcosis and fever or evidence of meningeal reaction, though often present, may be absent. An awareness of the possibility of neurological cryptococcosis in the differential diagnosis of various intracranial disorders should lead to identification of the encapsulated C. neoformans in the cerebrospinal fluid. Although in eight of 26 patients the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid was sterile on repeated examination, in five cases C. neoformans was found on direct examination of cerebrospinal fluid obtained by ventricular puncture. The remaining three died before further investigations could be performed. (4) Before the introduction of amphotericin B, neurological cryptococcosis was almost invariably fatal. At the present time, the infection can be eradicated in some 80% of patients. Intravenous administration of amphotericin B is generally adequate, but the intrathecal route should be used for cases in relapse or in critically ill patients. In addition to the toxic effects of the drug, the possibility of later deterioration in the patient's condition due to meningeal reaction—for example, occult hydrocephalus—merits consideration and appropriate neurosurgical treatment.
PMCID: PMC493494  PMID: 5535907
14.  Frequency of Meningitis in Children Presenting with Febrile Seizures at Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital 
Objective
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of childhood seizures, affecting 2–5% of children. As the seizure may be the sole presentation of bacterial meningitis in febrile infants, it is mandatory to exclude underlying meningitis in children presenting with fever and seizure. To determine the frequency of meningitis in children with FS and related risk factors, the present study was conducted at Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital.
Materials & Methods
The records of children aged from 1-month–6 years of age with fever and seizure admitted to the hospital from October 2000–2010 were studied. The charts of patients who had undergone a lumbar puncture were studied and cases of meningitis were selected. The related data was collected and analyzed with SPSS version 16.
Results
A total of 681 patients with FS were known from which 422 (62%) lumbar punctures (LP) were done. Meningitis (bacterial or aseptic) was identified in 19 cases (4.5%, 95% CI 2.9–6.9 by Wilson- Score internal) and bacterial meningitis in 7 (1.65%, 95% CI 0.8–3.3). None of the patients with bacterial meningitis had meningeal irritation signs. Complex FS, first attack of FS, and impaired consciousness were more common in patients with meningitis when compared to non- meningitis patients.
Conclusion
Meningitis is more common in patients less than 18 months presenting with FS; however, complex features of seizures, first attack of FS, or impaired consciousness seem significant risk factors for meningitis in these children and an LP should be considered in this situation.
PMCID: PMC4308616  PMID: 25663842
Bacterial meningitis; Febrile seizure; Meningitis
15.  Cerebral herniation during bacterial meningitis in children. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1993;306(6883):953-955.
OBJECTIVE--To see whether the incidence of cerebral herniation is increased immediately after lumbar puncture in children with bacterial meningitis and whether any children with herniation have normal results on cranial computed tomography. DESIGN--Retrospective review of case notes; computed tomograms were read again. SETTING--Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--445 children over 30 days old admitted to hospital with bacterial meningitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Timing of herniation in relation to lumbar puncture; findings on computed tomography in children with herniation. RESULTS--Cerebral herniation was detected in 19 (4.3%) of the 445 children (21 episodes; herniation occurred twice in two children). Herniation occurred in 14 (45%) of the 31 children who died. Nineteen episodes of herniation occurred in the 17 children who had a lumbar puncture; 12 of the episodes occurred in the first 12 hours after the lumbar puncture and seven over six other 12 hour periods (odds ratio 32.6 (95% confidence interval 8.5 to 117.3); p < 0.001). The results of cranial computed tomography were normal in five (36%) of the 14 episodes of herniation in which scanning was performed at about the time of herniation. CONCLUSIONS--The temporal relation between lumbar puncture and herniation strongly suggests that a lumbar puncture may cause herniation in some patients, and normal results on computed tomography do not mean that it is safe to do a lumbar puncture in a child with bacterial meningitis.
PMCID: PMC1677428  PMID: 8490469
16.  Epidemiology and clinical management of meningococcal disease in west Gloucestershire: retrospective, population based study. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7111):774-779.
OBJECTIVE: To study changes in the epidemiology and management of meningococcal disease in one health district during a period of high local incidence of disease. DESIGN: Prospective case ascertainment and data collection over 14 years, with retrospective analysis of cases. SETTING: West Gloucestershire (population 320,000). SUBJECTS: Residents developing meningococcal disease between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 1995. RESULTS: 252 cases of invasive meningococcal disease were identified, of which 102 (40%) were officially notified and 191 (76%) were confirmed by culture from a deep site. The observed disease incidence of 5.6/100,000/year was about 2.7 times the national incidence (as measured by either statutory notifications or reference laboratory reports). The period 1983-90 was characterised by a prolonged localised outbreak due to serogroup B serotype 15 sulphonamide resistant (B15R) strains. General practitioners gave benzylpenicillin before hospital admission to 18% of patients who presented with meningococcal disease in the first half of the study period and to 40% who presented in the second half. The overall case fatality rate was 6.7% (17/252). Four deaths were directly or indirectly related to lumbar puncture. Of 120 patients whose lumbar puncture yielded meningococci, nine (8%) showed no abnormality on initial examination. CONCLUSIONS: Neither laboratory records nor formal notifications alone can give an accurate estimate of the incidence of meningococcal disease. Because of the dangers of lumbar puncture, the frequency of misleading negative initial findings, and the advent of new diagnostic techniques, the need for samples of cerebrospinal fluid should be critically questioned in each case of suspected meningococcal disease.
PMCID: PMC2127533  PMID: 9345169
17.  Comparing the use of, and considering the need for, lumbar puncture in children with influenza or other respiratory virus infections 
Please cite this paper as: Khandaker et al. (2012) Comparing the use of, and considering the need for, lumbar puncture in children with influenza or other respiratory virus infections. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI:10.1111/irv.12039.
Background  The clinical presentation of influenza in infancy may be similar to serious bacterial infection and be investigated with invasive procedures like lumbar puncture (LP), despite very limited evidence that influenza occurs concomitantly with bacterial meningitis, perhaps because the diagnosis of influenza is very often not established when the decision to perform LP is being considered.
Methods  A retrospective medical record review was undertaken in all children presenting to the Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia, in one winter season with laboratory‐confirmed influenza or other respiratory virus infections (ORVIs) but excluding respiratory syncytial virus, to compare the use of, and reflect on the need for, the performance of invasive diagnostic procedures, principally LP, but also blood culture, in influenza and non‐influenza cases. We also determined the rate of concomitant bacterial meningitis or bacteraemia.
Findings  Of 294 children, 51% had laboratory‐confirmed influenza and 49% had ORVIs such as parainfluenza viruses (34%) and adenoviruses (15%). Of those with influenza, 18% had a LP and 71% had a blood culture performed compared with 6·3% and 55·5% in the ORVI group (for both P < 0·01). In multivariate analysis, diagnosis of influenza was a strong independent predictor of both LP (P = 0·02) and blood culture (P = 0·05) being performed, and, in comparison with ORVIs, influenza cases were almost three times more likely to have a LP performed on presentation to hospital. One child with influenza (0·9%) had bacteraemia and none had meningitis.
Interpretation  Children with influenza were more likely to undergo LP on presentation to hospital compared with those presenting with ORVIs. If influenza is confirmed on admission by near‐patient testing, clinicians may be reassured and less inclined to perform LP, although if meningitis is clinically suspected, the clinician should act accordingly. We found that the risk of bacterial meningitis and bacteraemia was very low in hospitalised children with influenza and ORVIs. A systematic review should be performed to investigate this across a large number of settings.
doi:10.1111/irv.12039
PMCID: PMC4634251  PMID: 23122417
Bacterial meningitis; children; influenza; lumbar puncture; respiratory viral infection
18.  Fungal Infections Associated with Contaminated Methylprednisolone in Tennessee 
The New England journal of medicine  2012;367(23):2194-2203.
BACKGROUND
We investigated an outbreak of fungal infections of the central nervous system that occurred among patients who received epidural or paraspinal glucocorticoid injections of preservative-free methylprednisolone acetate prepared by a single compounding pharmacy.
METHODS
Case patients were defined as patients with fungal meningitis, posterior circulation stroke, spinal osteomyelitis, or epidural abscess that developed after epidural or paraspinal glucocorticoid injections. Clinical and procedure data were abstracted. A cohort analysis was performed.
RESULTS
The median age of the 66 case patients was 69 years (range, 23 to 91). The median time from the last epidural glucocorticoid injection to symptom onset was 18 days (range, 0 to 56). Patients presented with meningitis alone (73%), the cauda equina syndrome or focal infection (15%), or posterior circulation stroke with or without meningitis (12%). Symptoms and signs included headache (in 73% of the patients), new or worsening back pain (in 50%), neurologic symptoms (in 48%), nausea (in 39%), and stiff neck (in 29%). The median cerebrospinal fluid white-cell count on the first lumbar puncture among patients who presented with meningitis, with or without stroke or focal infection, was 648 per cubic millimeter (range, 6 to 10,140), with 78% granulocytes (range, 0 to 97); the protein level was 114 mg per deciliter (range, 29 to 440); and the glucose concentration was 44 mg per deciliter (range, 12 to 121) (2.5 mmol per liter [range, 0.7 to 6.7]). A total of 22 patients had laboratory confirmation of Exserohilum rostratum infection (21 patients) or Aspergillus fumigatus infection (1 patient). The risk of infection increased with exposure to lot 06292012@26, older vials, higher doses, multiple procedures, and translaminar approach to epidural glucocorticoid injection. Voriconazole was used to treat 61 patients (92%); 35 patients (53%) were also treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Eight patients (12%) died, seven of whom had stroke.
CONCLUSIONS
We describe an outbreak of fungal meningitis after epidural or paraspinal glucocorticoid injection with methylprednisolone from a single compounding pharmacy. Rapid recognition of illness and prompt initiation of therapy are important to prevent complications. (Funded by the Tennessee Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1212972
PMCID: PMC4669562  PMID: 23131029
19.  Cerebrospinal fluid leakage and headache after lumbar puncture: a prospective non-invasive imaging study 
Brain  2015;138(6):1492-1498.
Using whole-spine MR myelography in patients receiving diagnostic lumbar punctures, Wang et al. show that post-dural puncture headache is associated with more extensive and more rostral CSF leakages. Compared to other types of CSF leakage, periradicular leaks have a better spatial correlation with the dural defect introduced by lumbar puncture.
Using whole-spine MR myelography in patients receiving diagnostic lumbar punctures, Wang et al. show that post-dural puncture headache is associated with more extensive and more rostral CSF leakages. Compared to other types of CSF leakage, periradicular leaks have a better spatial correlation with the dural defect introduced by lumbar puncture.
The spatial distribution and clinical correlation of cerebrospinal fluid leakage after lumbar puncture have not been determined. Adult in-patients receiving diagnostic lumbar punctures were recruited prospectively. Whole-spine heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography was carried out to characterize post-lumbar puncture spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakages. Maximum rostral migration was defined as the distance between the most rostral spinal segment with cerebrospinal fluid leakage and the level of lumbar puncture. Eighty patients (51 female/29 male, mean age 49.4 ± 13.3 years) completed the study, including 23 (28.8%) with post-dural puncture headache. Overall, 63.6% of periradicular leaks and 46.9% of epidural collections were within three vertebral segments of the level of lumbar puncture (T12–S1). Post-dural puncture headache was associated with more extensive and more rostral distributions of periradicular leaks (length 3.0 ± 2.5 versus 0.9 ± 1.9 segments, P = 0.001; maximum rostral migration 4.3 ± 4.7 versus 0.8 ± 1.7 segments, P = 0.002) and epidural collections (length 5.3 ± 6.1 versus 1.0 ± 2.1 segments, P = 0.003; maximum rostral migration 4.7 ± 6.7 versus 0.9 ± 2.4 segments, P = 0.015). In conclusion, post-dural puncture headache was associated with more extensive and more rostral distributions of periradicular leaks and epidural collections. Further, visualization of periradicular leaks was not restricted to the level of dural defect, although two-thirds remained within the neighbouring segments.
doi:10.1093/brain/awv016
PMCID: PMC4614121  PMID: 25688077
cerebrospinal fluid leakage; magnetic resonance myelography; post-dural puncture headache; spontaneous intracranial hypotension
20.  Cerebro Spinal Fluid Analysis in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis 
Oman Medical Journal  2008;23(1):32-33.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to analyze the lumbar puncture of all suspected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for suspected meningitis.
Methods
This study was undertaken in the department of Child Health, the Royal Hospital. The details of CSF of all files of the children who had undergone lumbar puncture for suspected meningitis from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004; were enrolled for the study.
Results
A total of 395 lumbar punctures were done to exclude bacterial meningitis. Out of the 142 CSF studies in neonates, 17 (12%) had the cytology suggestive of bacterial meningitis and 15 (88%) of them being culture positive. The commonest pathogen was Group B Streptococcus (70%).The bacterial antigens were positive only in 41% of the confirmed cases of bacterial meningitis, all being that of Group B Streptococcus and gram stain positivity in 45 percent of cases. In the 1- 3 months group all the 17 lumbar punctures were normal. Of the 179 lumbar punctures done in 3-18 months group, only 11(6%) were abnormal, 72% being culture positive. Streptococcus pneumonia was the commonest organism (88%). Bacterial antigens were positive only in 2 of the 8 culture positive cases where gram stain was positive in 4 out of 8 cases. Irritability, lethargy and sick looking appearance were present in all the positive cases. None of the 28 children from 18 months to 5 years had abnormal CSF or positive CSF culture.
Conclusions
Based on the fact that only 7% of the 395 CSF studies were abnormal, we conclude that better clinical judgment and diagnostic criteria are warranted, before laying out guidelines for lumbar puncture to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Besides fever and convulsions as indicators for CSF studies clinical parameters such as irritability, lethargy and sick looking appearance are better indicators.
PMCID: PMC3338990  PMID: 22567207
21.  Diagnostic lumbar puncture. Comparative study between 22–gauge pencil point and sharp bevel needle 
Post–lumbar puncture headache is a frequent clinical problem. Needle design is expected to reduce post–puncture headache. In this study, we compared two different lumbar puncture needle designs in diagnostic lumbar puncture and analysed post–dural puncture headache (PDPH) and social and economical harm associated with the diagnostic lumbar puncture procedure. This prospective, controlled study consisted of 80 consecutive adult patients requiring elective diagnostic lumbar puncture due to various neurological symptoms. Lumbar puncture was completed either with Spinocan® 22 G sharp bevel needle or Whitacre® 22G pencil point needle. Patients were asked about previous headache symptoms and pain provoked by puncture. One week after the lumbar puncture all patients were interviewed by telephone and occurrence and type of headache, headache intensity, medication and frequency of impairment in activities of daily living were asked. Need for epidural blood patch was also recorded. Thirty–three of 78 (42%) patients experienced headache after diagnostic lumbar puncture and in 26 (33%) the headache could be classified as PDPH. There were no statistically significant differences between needle types in the frequency of common headache, PDPH, puncture pain intensity, need for epidural blood patch or sick leave. Also, there were no other complications except local back pain or headache. In this study, the needle design did not affect the frequency of PDPH. Also, PDPH was common, occurring in 33% cases and caused a considerable amount of disturbance in daily activities. Seeking help for this condition was insufficient and only part of these PDPH patients were treated with epidural blood patch.
doi:10.1007/s10194-005-0235-5
PMCID: PMC3452066  PMID: 16362713
Post–lumbar puncture headache; Diagnostic lumbar puncture; Puncture needle
22.  Lumbar Puncture in HIV-Infected Patients with Syphilis and No Neurologic Symptoms 
Background
The decision to perform lumbar puncture in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis is controversial. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend certain criteria that warrant lumbar puncture. Here, we assess the performance of these criteria for detecting asymptomatic neurosyphilis (ANS).
Methods
Eligible subjects consisted of all patients with concurrent HIV infection and syphilis in a prospective clinical cohort who had no neurologic symptoms at the time of lumbar puncture. We retrospectively applied different stratification criteria to calculate the performance of lumbar puncture in detecting ANS: (1) lumbar puncture in patients with late latent syphilis or syphilis of an unknown duration, regardless of the CD4 cell count or rapid plasma reagin titer; (2) lumbar puncture if the CD4 cell count was ≤350 cells/mL and/or the rapid plasma reagin titer was ≥1:32, regardless of the syphilis stage; and (3) lumbar puncture in the context of serologic nonresponse to syphilis therapy.
Results
Two hundred two of 231 patients with syphilis did not have neurologic symptoms. Immediate lumbar puncture was performed for 46 patients, and 10 cases (22%) of ANS were detected. With use of the first criterion, 2 (14%) of 10 cases of ANS in patients with early-stage syphilis would have been missed (sensitivity, 80% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 44%–97%]; specificity, 76% [95% CI, 60%–89%]). Criterion 2 would not have missed any cases of ANS (sensitivity, 100% [95% CI, 70%–100%]; specificity, 87% [95% CI, 72%–96%]) but would have required that a lumbar puncture be performed for 88% of patients. Performance of lumbar puncture performed in 13 cases based on serologic nonresponse to syphilis therapy yielded 4 cases (31%) of ANS.
Conclusions
In patients with concurrent HIV infection and syphilis, the use of criteria based on rapid plasma reagin titer and CD4 cell count, instead of stage-based criteria, improved the ability to identify ANS.
doi:10.1086/597096
PMCID: PMC2716000  PMID: 19187028
23.  Diagnostic value of lumbar puncture among infants and children presenting with fever and convulsions 
Electronic Physician  2016;8(4):2255-2262.
Introduction
Central nervous system (CNS) infections can be categorized according to the nature of the infectious pathogen into viral, bacterial, protozoan, or fungal. The diagnosis of diffuse CNS infections depends on examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained by lumbar puncture (LP). The aim of this work was to determine the diagnostic value of CSF analysis in infants and children presenting with fever and convulsions.
Methods
Detailed clinical data of infants and children included in this study were collected with special reference to the course and duration of the illness, description of the convulsions, consciousness level, signs of increased intracranial pressure, and signs of meningeal irritation. Lumbar puncture and chemical and bacteriological analyses of the obtained cerebrospinal fluid were done for all of the children.
Results
The total number of children included in the study was 85, they had a median age 19 months, and 88% of them had generalized convulsions. CSF examination revealed that 20% had abnormal physical findings, while 23.5% had abnormal white blood cell count (WBC) (CSF Pleocytosis). CSF cultures were done in three cases with the highest White blood cells (WBCs), and streptococcus pneumoniae was present in all three cases.
Conclusion
This study found that CNS infections are not uncommon in infants and children presenting with fever and convulsions in our locality, and acute bacterial meningitis cannot be excluded. However, its presence in the absence of clinical symptoms and signs of meningeal irritation is a remote possibility, but it should always be considered.
doi:10.19082/2255
PMCID: PMC4886567  PMID: 27280001
cerebrospinal fluid; meningitis; encephalitis; lumbar puncture
24.  Role of computed tomography before lumbar puncture: a survey of clinical practice 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2006;82(965):162-165.
Introduction
It is becoming increasingly common to request computed tomography (CT) to rule out space occupying lesions before lumbar puncture (LP), even in patients with no clinical signs. Imaging trends within a busy district general hospital in Oxfordshire, UK were analysed with results used to clarify when imaging should be considered mandatory.
Method
A retrospective six month sample was obtained comprising all adults considered for LP. Observed frequencies of abnormal examination findings compared with abnormal investigations were used to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values to assess the validity of using a normal clinical examination as a basis for excluding CT.
Results
64 patients were considered for LP. In total, 58 patients underwent LP, with a single patient receiving two. After an abnormal CT scan, six patients did not undergo a planned LP. In all six of these cases subarachnoid haemorrhage was detected, and in all cases this was considered a probable diagnosis. In no case was an LP precluded by an unsuspected space occupying lesion. Neurological examination showed a sensitivity of 0.72 (0.52 to 0.93), specificity 0.78 (0.64 to 0.91), positive predictive value 0.61 (0.41 to 0.83), and negative predictive value 0.85 (0.73 to 0.97).
Discussion
The high sensitivity and negative predictive values support normal neurological examination as an effective predictor of normal CT scan. This permits the recommendation in cases where subarachnoid haemorrhage is not suspected, a CT scan can be avoided provided there are no abnormal findings on physical or fundoscopic examination.
doi:10.1136/pgmj.2005.041046
PMCID: PMC2563700  PMID: 16517796
computed tomography; lumbar puncture; meningitis; subarachnoid haemorrhage
25.  Febrile Seizure: Measuring Adherence to AAP Guidelines Among Community ED Physicians 
Pediatric emergency care  2006;22(7):465-469.
Objective
In 1996, the American Academy of Pediatrics published practice parameters for the acute management of febrile seizure. These guidelines emphasize the typically benign nature of the condition and discourage aggressive neurodiagnostic evaluation. The extent to which these suggestions have been adopted by general emergency medicine practitioners is unknown. We sought to describe recent patterns of the emergency department (ED) evaluation of febrile seizures with respect to these parameters.
Methods
A retrospective review of records of children between 6 month and 6 years of age diagnosed with “febrile seizure” (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 780.31) at 42 community hospital general EDs nationwide was performed. Electronic records of an ED physician billing service from October 2002 to September 2003 were used to identify relevant records. Data had been entered into a proprietary template documentation system, and all charts were reviewed by a professional coder blinded to outcomes of interest. Rates of resource utilization (including lumbar puncture, radiography, hospital admission) were noted.
Results
A total of 1029 charts met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of lumbar puncture was 5.2%, and variations were strongly associated with age (8.4% <18 months old vs 3.3% >18 months old). This low rate and age discrimination were consistent with the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Although not recommended in the routine evaluation of febrile seizure, computed tomography was part of the evaluation in 11%. The overall rate of admissions or transfers was 12%.
Conclusions
Six years after publication of practice parameters, the use of lumbar puncture in the evaluation of febrile seizure is uncommon and most patients are discharged home. However, the relatively frequent use of head computed tomography is inconsistent with these practice guidelines and merits further investigation.
doi:10.1097/01.pec.0000226870.49427.a5
PMCID: PMC2925644  PMID: 16871103
febrile seizure; practice variation; clinical guidelines

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