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1.  Nonepiphyseal Giant Cell Tumor of the Rib: A Case Report 
A case of a 32-year-old female patient with a giant cell tumor originating in the middle part of the left 10th rib is presented. On X-rays and CT, the tumor caused a well-defined osteolysis with nonsclerotic borders. On MRI, it exhibited intermediate signal intensity on T1 sequences and central high signal and peripheral intermediate signal on T2 sequences. On contrast-enhanced MR images both central and peripheral-periosteal enhancement was noted. Thanks to its small size (2 × 1.3 cm), the lesion was easily resected en bloc with a part of the affected rib. The patient is free of recurrence for 3 years after the operation.
doi:10.1155/2012/745292
PMCID: PMC3479942  PMID: 23119206
2.  Central giant cell granuloma mimicking an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor 
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry  2011;2(3):249-252.
Central giant cell granulomas are non-neoplastic lesions of unknown etiology. They affect females more than males with the mandibular anterior region being the most common site of occurrence. Clinically central giant cell granulomas present as asymptomatic, expansile swellings causing deviation of associated teeth. Radiologically they usually presents as multilocular lesions causing expansion or perforation of cortical bone. Central giant cell granulomas are usually confused as other lesions both clinically and radiologically, and a definitive diagnosis can be made only histologically. We report here a rare case of central giant cell granuloma in association with congenitally missing tooth which was misdiagnosed to be an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor both clinically and radiologically. This case report also highlights yet another unique presentation of central giant cell granulomas that is in association with a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor.
doi:10.4103/0976-237X.86483
PMCID: PMC3214539  PMID: 22090775
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor; central giant cell granuloma
3.  Differential considerations of skin tumours with florid vascularisation: report of a solitary giant vascular eccrine spiradenoma 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0520114187.
The authors report the case of an 81-year-old male who presented with a 3-year-history of a bluish, nodular tumour located on the extensor side of his right forearm. Subjective symptoms included tenderness upon palpation and spontaneous haemorrhage. In order to exclude malignant neoplasms, for example, nodular melanoma, metastatic melanoma or angiosarcoma, the tumour was surgically removed and tissue submitted for microscopic examination. Histologically, the authors diagnosed this as giant vascular eccrine spiradenoma, a rare variant of eccrine spiradenoma, which can easily be mistaken for angiomatous lesions due to the haemorrhagic features and florid vascularisation. It is our aim to help clarify the diagnosis and differentiate giant vascular eccrine spiradenoma from other painful cutaneous tumours exhibiting a high degree of vascularisation, for example, angiosarcoma or venous thrombosis, as this case represents one of only seven found in published literature.
doi:10.1136/bcr.05.2011.4187
PMCID: PMC3143330  PMID: 22689604
4.  Osteoclast-type giant cell tumour of the pancreas. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1983;36(10):1165-1170.
A case of osteoclast-type giant cell tumour of the pancreas is described and the features of eight other previously reported patients are reviewed. Characteristically, these neoplasms are large at presentation and show focal haemorrhage and necrosis, but seem slow to give rise to metastases. Histological examination reveals numerous osteoclast-like giant cells set in a sarcomatous stroma, the appearances being similar to those seen in giant cell tumours of bone. They are distinct from pleomorphic giant cell carcinomas of the pancreas and may have a slightly better prognosis after resection than ordinary adenocarcinomas. The histogenesis of these rare tumours is unknown.
Images
PMCID: PMC498495  PMID: 6619312
5.  Use of a Distal Radius Endoprosthesis Following Resection of a Bone Tumour: A Case Report 
Sarcoma  2010;2009:938295.
Limited literature is available on the reconstruction of the distal radius using prosthetic replacement following resection of a bone tumour. We present the first reported case, in the English literature, of the use of an entirely metal endoprosthesis for the reconstruction of the distal radius. This case involves a 66-year-old male who was treated for giant cell tumour of the distal radius with surgical excision of the lesion and replacement of the defect using a predominantly titanium endoprosthesis. He was followed-up for 56 months following surgery and had a good functional outcome with no associated pain or complications. We propose that the use of a primarily titanium endoprosthesis for the reconstruction of a bone defect of the distal radius is a suitable alternative, providing good function of the forearm with satisfactory range of movement at the wrist and adequate pain relief.
doi:10.1155/2009/938295
PMCID: PMC2831197  PMID: 20204177
6.  Giant cell tumor of the anterior rib masquerading as a breast mass: a case report and review of current literature 
Cases Journal  2010;3:51.
Introduction
Giant cell tumor (GCT) is an aggressive, but usually benign bone neoplasm most commonly arising in the metaphysis/epiphyses of long bones. While they are categorized as benign tumors, they can be locally aggressive and clinically have metastatic potential. The most common locations of this tumor include the distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal radius. We report a GCT arising in an atypical location and mimicking a breast mass.
Case Presentation
This case was diagnosed at a large cancer center in Florida. Pertinent clinical findings were obtained from chart review and inter-departmental consultation. Radiologically, the initial impression included a deep-seated breast cancer with local chest wall invasion. Further evaluation revealed the mass to be an expansile rib lesion with extraosseous soft tissue invasion. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen showed bland multi-nucleated giant cells and mononuclear cells whose nuclei were morphologically similar. No necrosis, pleomorphism or mitotic activity was identified. No chondroid or osseous elements were present.
Conclusion
The histological features of bland mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells along with the lack of any additional mesenchymal elements led to the diagnosis of giant cell tumor. Resection of tumor was performed. The patient is disease free as of the last follow-up visit. This case is important as it shows where the physician must keep this diagnosis in mind whenever a deeply located breast mast is present.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-3-51
PMCID: PMC2825505  PMID: 20205847
7.  Fibrous Dysplasia and Central Giant Cell Granuloma: A Report of Hybrid Lesion with its Review and Hypotheticated Pathogenesis 
Benign fibro—osseous lesions (BFOLS) of the jaws are a wide array of lesions that actually represent distinct phases of a single benign morphological process. These lesions share certain histopathological features which are in common with giant cell containing lesions, which include central giant cell granulomas (CGCGs). The association of BFOLS and CGCG has to be critically evaluated, pertaining to their clinical, radiologic and histologic features. Many pathologists diagnose these types of lesions, considering only one of the prominent features. Eventually, surgeons end up treating these lesions inadequately. This ambiguity may be because of very small number of cases have been reported in the literature, with uncertain clinical, radiologic and histologic features. We are reporting a case of fibrous dysplasia (FD) which was associated with a central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and discussing the hypothetical pathogenesis of giant cells.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5533.2987
PMCID: PMC3681081  PMID: 23814754
Fibrous dysplasia; Granuloma giant cell; Hybrid; Dimorphic; Stromal cells; Osteoclasts
8.  Fibro-osseous lesions vs. central giant cell granuloma: A hybrid lesion 
Fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws can have certain histologic features in common with central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) including the presence of multinucleated giant cells. The clinical, radiologic and histologic features of these lesions should be carefully evaluated to distinguish between these conditions. Fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws are a heterogenous group of lesions characterized by the replacement of normal bone by fibrovascular tissue containing newly formed mineralized material. Central giant cell lesions are defined as an intraosseus lesion consisting of cellular fibrous tissue containing multiple foci of hemorrhage and aggregation of multinucleated giant cells. These lesions may sometimes lead to a confusion in their diagnosis as many pathologists report them taking into consideration one of the prominent histopathologic feature. These confusions may be because of the small number of cases reported in the literature with uncertain clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features of these lesions. So even surgeons may end up treating these lesions inadequately or patients may need to undergo multiple surgeries. We report such a case of Juvenile ossifying fibroma associated with CGCG and discuss the clinical, imaging, histologic, and treatment aspects of this hybrid lesion.
doi:10.4103/2231-0746.83162
PMCID: PMC3591046  PMID: 23483611
Central giant cell granuloma; fibro-osseous lesions; hybrid lesion
9.  Giant Cell Fibroma in Children: Report of Two Cases and Literature Review 
ABSTRACT
Background
Giant cell fibroma is a type of fibrous tumour of the oral mucosa which rarely affects children under the age of 10. The purpose of this paper was to contribute two clinically and histologically documented cases of giant cell fibroma in the free gingiva of a 7 and 6 year old boys.
Methods
Both nodules were presented in the mandibular anterior region. In the differential diagnosis several fibrous hyperplastic lesions were considered such as traumatic fibroma, papilloma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, giant cell fibroma and odontogenic hamartoma.
Results
The lesions were removed and the histological examination revealed fibrocollagenous connective tissue with the presence of stellate giant cells which confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell fibroma.
Conclusions
Dentists should be aware of the existence of giant cell fibroma in children, which must be included in the differential diagnosis of nodular lesions of the gingiva and adequately diagnosed and treated by removal and histopathological examination.
doi:10.5037/jomr.2013.4105
PMCID: PMC3886105  PMID: 24422028
fibroma; children; gingiva.
10.  Erdheim-Chester disease: a case report. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(3):323-326.
A 42-year-old man with Erdheim-Chester disease (EC) is presented. This is the first case of this disease reported in Korea. The patient complained of knee pain and plain roentgenogram of the bilateral legs revealed diffusely increased density, coarsened trabecular pattern, and cortical thickening in the diaphysis, and metaphysis as well as epiphysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesions showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneously low and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen showed a xanthogranulomatous lesion consisting aggregations of foamy histiocytes and Touton-type giant cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed positive reaction to anti-S-100 and lysozyme in the cytoplasm of the giant cells.
PMCID: PMC3054380  PMID: 10402177
11.  Atypical malignant round cell tumour of the femur 
BMJ Case Reports  2008;2008:bcr0620080159.
We report an atypical case of malignant round cell tumour in a 25-year-old man who presented with pain in the left hip of insidious onset and long duration of about 1½ years. Radiologically, the tumour was meta-epiphyseal in location with sparing of the diaphysis and showed a defined, narrow zone of transition. These appearances are contradictory to the well documented classical features of malignant round cell tumours, which usually present with a short history, are meta-diaphyseal in location, and appear ill-defined with a wide zone of transition due to infiltration of the adjacent bone.
doi:10.1136/bcr.06.2008.0159
PMCID: PMC3124746  PMID: 21716823
12.  Giant cell reparative granuloma of the proximal phalanx: A case report and literature review 
The present article is a case report of a 16-year-old boy who presented with a benign bony tumour, which on histological analysis suggested giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), but was not corroborate by blood tests. The implications of this type of tumour and the correct diagnostic requirements were investigated. The correct identification of GCRG from other giant cell-containing tumours is important because the treatment modalities for these tumours significantly differ from one another. In most cases, histological findings are sufficient to identify the tumours. In most GCRG cases, curettage is usually a curative treatment option. However, due to high recurrence rates of GCRGs, close follow-up of these patients is warranted. Also, due to osteoclastic activity of the giant cells in GCRGs, the use of drugs such as calcitonin or bisphosphonates, which inhibit osteoclast differentiation and activation, may have an important influence on future treatments or in reducing the recurrence rate of these tumours.
PMCID: PMC3328113  PMID: 22654539
Bony tumour; Giant cell granuloma; Phalanx
13.  Spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis in a woman: a case report and review of the literature 
Introduction
Spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis is a rare tumour recently reported by Roncaroli et al. in 2002. This tumour is considered a grade I tumour by the World Health Organization.
Case presentation
We describe what is, to the best of our knowledge, the 14th case of its kind in the literature. A 45-year-old African woman presented clinical and radiological findings related to a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. The diagnosis was made on the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings.
Conclusion
The purpose of this work is to report a rare pituitary tumour and to describe its histological and immunohistochemical features, which were characterized by the expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 antigen by tumour cells. This fact could support the theory of a possible common origin of these tumours in pituicytomas. In fact, thyroid transcription factor 1 is considered to be a specific marker of pituicytes.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-64
PMCID: PMC3047430  PMID: 21320334
14.  Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour (GCT)-A Rare Case Report 
Giant Cell Tumours (GCT) of bone account for 5% of all primary bone tumours. Multicentric variety is a rare variant of this condition, accounting for less than 1% of all cases and can occur as synchronous or metachronous lesions. We report a 22-year-old male patient with 18 months history of painful progressive swellings around the right knee. Radiographs revealed expansile lytic lesions in the distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and core needle biopsy was typical of GCT. Biochemical parameters were normal and radiological investigations did not reveal any metastasis. The patient was treated by above knee amputation due to the extensive nature of the tumours. The excised tissue from all sites had features of giant cell tumor with no atypia or malignant cells seen. The patient is free from recurrence or metastasis at three years follow up.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8153.4055
PMCID: PMC3972558
Neoplasms; Synchronous multiple primary; Amputation
15.  Primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed after surgical ablation of a costal mass mistaken for giant-cell bone tumor: a case report 
Introduction
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels, which cause continuous osteoclastic bone resorption. Giant cell tumor of bone is an expansile osteolytic tumor that contains numerous osteoclast-like giant cells. There are many similarities in the radiological and histological features of giant cell tumor of bone and brown tumor. This is a rare benign focal osteolytic process most commonly caused by hyperparathyroidism.
Case presentation
We report the unusual case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman in which primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed after surgical ablation of a costal mass. The mass was suspected of being neoplastic and histopathology was compatible with a giant cell tumor of bone. On the basis of the biochemical results (including serum calcium, phosphorous and intact parathyroid hormone levels) primary hyperparathyroidism was suspected and a brown tumor secondary to refractory hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed.
Conclusions
Since giant cell tumor is a bone neoplasm that has major implications for the patient, the standard laboratory tests in patients with bone lesions are important for a correct diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-596
PMCID: PMC3261225  PMID: 22204520
16.  Management of the giant-cell tumours of the distal radius. 
BACKGROUND: Giant-cell tumour of the distal radius is a rare neoplasm that affects the peri-articular metaphysial region of the bone. Curettage alone or with bone grafting has been reported to be associated with high incidence of local recurrence in these tumours. In the present series, we report the results of curettage only as the treatment for primary giant-cell tumour of the distal radius carried out at a single centre. PATIENTS AND RESULTS: A total of 287 patients with giant-cell tumour have been referred to us for treatment over the last 28 years; 24 of these were found to have lesion in the distal radius. One patient underwent endoprosthetic replacement of the distal radius. The remaining 23 patients underwent curettage of the primary neoplasm. Four out of the 23 (17%) patients developed local recurrence of disease, The mean time to local recurrence was 17 months (range, 9-27 months). Complications such as collapse of the articular cartilage are more common in patients with an extensive soft tissue component of the tumour. CONCLUSIONS: Curettage alone is adequate treatment for the majority of patients with giant-cell tumours of the distal radius but some form of stabilisation may be required in the presence of extensive bone destruction.
doi:10.1308/003588404772614632
PMCID: PMC1964006  PMID: 15005940
17.  Central Giant Cell Lesion 
Head and Neck Pathology  2011;5(4):385-388.
A classic case of central giant cell lesion (CGCL) is presented with emphasis on clinical, radiologic, and histologic features. The differential is discussed including peripheral giant cell granuloma, brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism, and giant cell tumor of bone. The molecular pathway of osteoclastogenesis is selectively reviewed and applied to suggest possible etiologies of the giant cell lesions. CGCL syndromes and treatment are also discussed.
doi:10.1007/s12105-011-0297-4
PMCID: PMC3210229  PMID: 21898170
Central giant cell lesion; Giant cell reparative granuloma; Osteoclast; Giant cell; RANK; RANKL; NFAT; NFATc1; SH3BP2; Peripheral giant cell granuloma; Giant cell tumor of bone; Brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism; Osteitis fibrosa cystica
18.  Multifocal Metachronous Giant Cell Tumor: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Medicine  2014;2014:678035.
Introduction. Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone are known for their local aggressiveness and high recurrence rate. There are rare cases of multicentric GCT and most are synchronous. We herein review metachronous multicentric GCT reported in the literature. Material and Methods. A MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar search was done to collect all cases of multicentric metachronous GCT specifying the clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics of each location and its treatment. Results. A total of 37 multifocal giant cell tumors were found in the literature. 68% of cases of multicentric giant cell tumors occur in less than 4 years following treatment of the first lesion. Thirty-seven cases of multifocal metachronous GCT were identified in the literature until 2012. Patients with multicentric GCT tend to be younger averaging 23. There is a slight female predominance in metachronous GCT. The most common site of the primary GCT is around the knee followed by wrist and hand and feet. Recurrence rate of multicentric GCT is 28.5%. Conclusion. Multicentric giant cell tumor is rare. The correct diagnosis relies on correlation of clinical and radiographic findings with confirmation of the diagnosis by histopathologic examination.
doi:10.1155/2014/678035
PMCID: PMC3912820  PMID: 24511316
19.  Giant Keratoacanthoma of the Upper Extremity Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery 
Keratoacanthomas are fast-growing, solitary, cutaneous neoplasms that usually show spontaneous regression. The development of giant variants and aggressive behavior have been described. Clinically, a keratoacanthoma larger than 20 to 30mm is classified as a giant keratoacanthoma. A major challenge in dealing with these neoplasms is the difficulty of clinically and histologically differentiating them from squamous cell carcinoma. The authors report a practical approach using Mohs micrographic surgery for evaluation of large tumors. With this method, the lateral margins are evaluated and cleared prior to excision of the bulk of the tumor. The authors also describe alternative therapies for giant keratoacanthomas and present a case of a 61-year-old woman with a rapidly growing tumor on her left arm. Skin biopsy was consistent with a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with focal features of a keratoacanthoma. The patient underwent Mohs micrographic surgery using the described approach, and no recurrence has been noted in four years. Surgical excision remains the treatment of choice for giant keratoacanthomas. Mohs micrographic surgery is a logical treatment option for giant keratoacanthomas. This case illustrates a useful approach that may prove valuable when treating large specimens during Mohs micrographic surgery.
PMCID: PMC2923962  PMID: 20729950
20.  Giant cell tumour of bone: morphological, biological and histogenetical aspects 
International Orthopaedics  2006;30(6):484-489.
The giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) is a locally aggressive intraosseous neoplasm of obscure biological behaviour. Although well defined in clinical, radiological and histological terms, detailed information on its biological development is still relatively incomplete. The tumoral tissue consists of three cell types – the neoplastic giant cell tumour stromal cells (GCTSC), representing the proliferative fraction, secondarily recruited mononuclear histiocytic cells (MNHC) and multinuclear giant cells (MNGC). These cellular components interact together with factors that have a role in regulating osteoclast function in normal bone tissue (e.g. RANK, RANKL, OPG, M-CSF). Recent publications suggest that the neoplastic stromal cells express differentiation features of mesenchymal stem cells. Further research of the pathogenesis of GCT as well as the complex interactions of its cellular populations may provide the knowledge necessary for developing approaches for a biological-based therapy of this neoplasm.
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0215-7
PMCID: PMC3172738  PMID: 17013643
21.  Multiple Giant Cell Tumours of Tendon Sheath: A Rare Occurrence 
Giant Cell Tumours Of Tendon Sheath (GCTTS) are the second most frequent soft tissue tumours affecting the hand with an overall incidence of 1 in 50,000 individuals. These tumours are usually localized and solitary, with multiple GCTTS occurring rarely. Multi-centric origin is considered unusual and very few cases of multiple GCTTS have been reported till date. Here, we report a rare case of a 26-year-old female who presented with multiple painless swellings on palmar aspect of little finger of right hand since six months. Clinical diagnosis of Dupuytren’s contracture was given. Intraoperative examination revealed multiple separate nodules, firmly attached to the flexor tendon synovial sheath. Histopathology showed features of GCTTS.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7474.3924
PMCID: PMC3939541  PMID: 24596760
Giant cell tumour; Colony stimulating factor; Dupuytren’s contracture
22.  Surgical treatment of a giant tibial high-grade mixofibrosarcoma with preservation of limb function: a case report 
Myxofibrosarcoma is one of the most common sarcomas in elderly patients showing a slight male prevalence. The tumor is mainly located in lower and upper extremities and rarely in trunk, neck and feet. We present a case of a 84-year-old man referred to our tumour center with a giant and neglected high-grade tibial myxofibrosarcoma in the anteromedial side of tibial mid-diaphysis. Large size lesions in association with older age may jeopardise the maintenance of limb vitality, vascularity and stability.
Authors performed a complete tumour resection, followed by reconstruction of bone and soft tissue defects with cement, plate and a musculocutaneous gastrocnemius flap, in order to cover the underlying bone and promote uneventful healing and perfusion of the operated extremity.
At 2 years postoperatively, limb salvage, good functional outcome and no tumour recurrence were reported while the patient was able to effectively perform the majority of the daily activities.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-6-16
PMCID: PMC2753323  PMID: 19761609
23.  MRI Sequence and Characteristic Features in ‘Giant Cell Tumor’ of Clivus 
Giant cell tumours of the clivus are rare. These tumours present in the second and third decades of life and they are slightly more frequent in women than in men. We are presenting a case of a 20 years young patient who came with the complaints of headache, retro-orbital pain and recurrent transient bleeding from the nose since two and half months. MRI of the brain with contrast was done and its features were suggestive of a Giant cell tumour of the clivus. A transnasal endoscopic biopsy was done under general anaesthesia and the histopathology report suggested that the features were of a giant cell tumour. Excision of the mass was done by Transnasal endoscopy. Post operatively, the patient did not recover from the lateral rectus palsy which was there on the right side. The patient was discharged with an advice of a follow up and radiotherapy. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be effective as adjuvant treatments. Even though a recurrence usually occurs within 4 years of the initial treatment, these patients will need to be carefully followed for the remainder of their lives.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/2725.3021
PMCID: PMC3708236  PMID: 23905141
Clivus; Tumour; Osteogenic; MRI
24.  Compression of the median nerve in the proximal forearm by a giant lipoma: A case report 
Background
Compression of the median nerve by a tumour in the elbow and forearm region is rare. We present a case of neuropathy of the median nerve secondary to compression by giant lipoma in the proximal forearm.
Case presentation
A 46-year-old man presented with a six month history of gradually worsening numbness and paresthesia on the palmar aspect of the left thumb and thenar eminence. Clinical examination reveals a hypoaesthesia in the median nerve area of the left index and thumb compared to the contralateral side. Electromyography showed prolonged sensory latency in the distribution of the median nerve corresponding to compression in the region of the pronator teres (pronator syndrome). Radiological investigations were initially reported as normal. Conservative treatment for one month did not result in any improvement. Surgical exploration was performed and a large intermuscular lipoma enveloped the median nerve was found. A complete excision of the tumour was performed. Postoperative revaluation the X-ray of the elbow was seen to demonstrate a well-circumscribed mass in the anterior aspect of the proximal forearm. At follow-up, 14 months after surgery, the patient noted complete return of the sensation and resolution of the paresthesia.
Conclusion
In case of atypical findings or non frequent localization of nerve compression, clinically interpreted as an idiopathic compression, it is recommended to make a pre-operative complementary Ultrasound or MRI study.
doi:10.1186/1749-7221-3-17
PMCID: PMC2474606  PMID: 18541043
25.  Visceral Leishmaniasis with Associated Common, Uncommon, and Atypical Morphological Features on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology in Nonendemic Region 
Journal of Tropical Medicine  2013;2013:861032.
Objectives. The present study was conducted to categorise the morphological features on bone marrow aspirate cytology into common, uncommon, and atypical features in a nonendemic region which would be helpful in clinching an early and correct diagnosis especially in clinically unsuspected cases. Methods. The morphological features on bone marrow were categorized into common, uncommon, and atypical in cases of leishmaniasis from non endemic region. Results. Out of total 27 cases, 77.7% were residents of places at the height of 500 m or above and fever was the most common presentation followed by hepatosplenomegaly. Plasmacytosis, hemophagocytosis were the common cytological features while dysmyelopoiesis, presence of leishmania bodies in nonhistiocytic cells, and granuloma with necrosis were uncommon features. Aggregates of LD bodies in form of ring, floret, or strap shapes along with giant cells constitute the atypical morphological features. Conclusion. The knowledge of common, uncommon, and atypical features on bone marrow aspirate cytology is helpful in clinching an early and correct diagnosis of leishmaniasis especially in non endemic areas where clinical suspicion is low. These features will guide the pathologist for vigilant search of LD bodies in the marrow for definite diagnosis and thus will also be helpful in preventing unnecessary workups.
doi:10.1155/2013/861032
PMCID: PMC3782059  PMID: 24089618

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