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1.  Oral health of visually impaired schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:33.
Although oral health care is a vital component of overall health, it remains one of the greatest unattended needs among the disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (Child-OIDP in 11-13-year-old) of the visually challenged school attendants in Khartoum State, the Sudan.
A school-based survey was conducted in Al-Nour institute [boys (66.3%), boarders (35.9%), and children with partial visual impairment (PVI) (44.6%)]. Two calibrated dentists examined the participants (n=79) using DMFT/dmft, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), dental care index, and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) index. Oral health related quality of life (C-OIDP) was administered to 82 schoolchildren.
Caries experience was 46.8%. Mean DMFT (age≥12, n=33) was 0.4 ± 0.7 (SiC 1.6), mean dmft (age<12, n=46) was 1.9 ±2.8 (SiC 3.4), mean OHIS 1.3 ± 0.9. Care Index was zero. One fifth of the children suffered TDI (19%). Almost one third (29%) of the 11–13 year old children reported an oral impact on their daily performances. A quarter of the schoolchildren (25.3%) required an urgent treatment need. Analysis showed that children with partial visual impairment (PVI) were 6.3 times (adjusted) more likely to be diagnosed with caries compared to children with complete visual impairment (CVI), and children with caries experience were 1.3 times (unadjusted) more likely to report an oral health related impact on quality of life.
Visually impaired schoolchildren are burdened with oral health problems, especially caries. Furthermore, the 11-13 year olds' burden with caries showed a significant impact on their quality of life.
PMCID: PMC3720199  PMID: 23866155
Visually impaired children; Oral health; Oral health-related quality of life
2.  Oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors 
Clinics and Practice  2012;2(4):e86.
Dentist and oral health screening may be the latest weapon in identifying persons at risk of cardiovascular disease. Oral infections, specifically periodontitis, may confer independent risks for different systemic conditions. The risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases also suggest that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes works in both ways. The aim of this study was to support and strengthen the association and relationship between oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and its associated risk factors. A simple random sampling was carried out in 200 inhabitants of Western Utter Pradesh, India. An oral health visit and examination was made for an equal number of males and females of different age groups with cardiovascular diseases. Evaluation of the oral status was made by means of an oral hygiene index, community periodontal index of treatment needs and loss of attachment. Evaluation of oral status in patients with cardiovascular diseases and in the control group has shown a statistically significant low level of oral health in patients with cardiovascular diseases as compared to control. Prevalence of systemic diseases in different age groups significantly correlated with the prevalence of severe periodontal diseases. Treating gum disease may reduce the risk of heart disease and improve health outcomes for patients with periodontal disease and vascular heart problems.
PMCID: PMC3981199  PMID: 24765485
oral health; dental health surveys; cardiovascular disease; oral hygiene index; community periodontal index of treatment needs; systemic diseases.
3.  Pattern and severity of early childhood caries in Southern Italy: a preschool-based cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:206.
This survey was intended to investigate prevalence and severity of early childhood caries (ECC) in a sample of children in Southern Italy and to identify factors that may be related to this condition.
The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. The study population (children aged 36–71 months) attending thirteen kindergartens was randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Parents/guardians of all eligible children were invited to participate filling out a structured self-administered questionnaire, and after having returned the informed consent form an oral examination of the child was performed at school. The questionnaire included information on: socio-demographics about parents/guardians and child, pregnancy and newborn characteristics, oral hygiene habits of child, eating habits particularly on consumption of sweets, access to dental services, and infant feeding practices. The WHO caries diagnostic criteria for deciduous decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) and surfaces (dmfs) were used to record ECC and severe-ECC (S-ECC). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate statistical associations of social demographics, infant feeding practices, oral hygiene habits, and access to dental services to ECC, S-ECC, dmft and dmfs.
515 children participated in the study. 19% had experienced ECC, and 2.7% severe-ECC (S-ECC), with a mean dmft and dmfs scores of 0.51 and 0.99, respectively. Mean dmft was 2.68 in ECC subjects, and 6.86 in S-ECC subjects. Statistical analysis showed that prevalence of ECC significantly increased with age (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.3-2.91) and duration of breastfeeding (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.01-1.57), whereas it was significantly lower in children of more educated mothers (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.42-0.96), and higher in those who had been visited by a dentist in the previous year (OR = 3.29; 95% CI = 1.72-6.33).
Results of our study demonstrate that even in Western countries ECC and S-ECC represent a significant burden in preschool children, particularly in those disadvantaged, and that most of the known modifiable associated factors regarding feeding practices and oral hygiene are still very spread in the population.
PMCID: PMC3941481  PMID: 24571668
Early childhood caries; Public health; Feeding habits; Children; Prevention
4.  Oral Manifestations in HIV/AIDS-Infected Children 
European Journal of Dentistry  2011;5(3):291-298.
To assess factors influencing the distribution of oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS-infected children attending the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic in Mulago Hospital, Kampala.
This was a cross-sectional study comprising 237 children (males/females: 113/124) aged 1 to 12 years. The parents/guardians were interviewed to obtain demographic information, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and health seeking behaviours as well as any medications taken. The children were clinically examined for oral lesions based on World Health Organization criteria with modifications.
About 71.7% of the children cleaned their teeth. About 16.9% of the children had visited a dentist since birth, mainly for emergency care. One or more oral lesions were recorded in 73% of the children of whom 19.0% experienced discomfort during oral functions. Cervical lymphadenopathy, oral candidiasis and gingivitis were the most common soft tissue oral lesions: 60.8%, 28.3% and 19.0%, respectively. Except for dental caries, the overall frequency distribution of soft tissue oral lesions was significantly lower in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as compared to their counterparts not on HAART. The prevalence of dental caries in deciduous and permanent dentitions was 42.2% and 11.0%, respectively. Tooth brushing and previous visits to the dentist were indirectly and significantly associated with dental caries. About 5.9% (n=14) of the children had <200 CD3 + CD4 T-lymphocyte cells per μl of blood.
The majority of the children had one or more oral lesions, particularly in the group not on HAART. Some of the lesions were associated with discomfort during oral functions.
PMCID: PMC3137442  PMID: 21769270
HIV/AIDS-infected children; Oral manifestations; Uganda
5.  Do dentists have better oral health compared to general population: a study on oral health status and oral health behavior in Kathmandu, Nepal 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:23.
Dentists are considered role models by the general population in regards to oral hygiene and oral health behavior. This study aimed to access the oral health status of dentists and laypersons, and compare the dentists’ practice of preventive dentistry and oral self-care behaviors to that of the laypersons.
This cross-sectional study recruited 472 participants (195 dentists and 277 laypersons from the general population). Their oral health/hygiene behavior was assessed using a standardized close-ended multiple choice questionnaire. Oral examination was performed to assess caries using Decayed Missed Filled teeth (DMFT) index and periodontal status using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN).
Ninety-six percent of dentists brushed their teeth at least once daily, using fluoridated toothpaste and 80.5% twice daily. Although 94% of laypersons brushed their teeth once daily, they seldom used fluoridated toothpaste. Ten percent of participants in each group were caries free. The mean number of teeth present in the oral cavity (27.4 versus 25.4), mean number of teeth with caries (1.8 versus 3.7) and fillings (2.5 versus 0.4) were significantly different (p < 0.0001) between dentists and laypersons, respectively. Regarding the periodontal status, 82% of dentists had CPITN score of 0 whereas 71% of laypersons had the highest score 3 (p = 0.007), and 81% of the laypersons reported tooth mobility compared to 1% of dentists (p < 0.0001).
The participating dentists had better periodontal status and better self-reported oral health behaviors than the laypersons. Despite similar prevalence of caries in the two groups, the prevalence of decayed and unfilled teeth was lower among the dentists.
PMCID: PMC3994336  PMID: 24655533
Dentist; Oral health behavior; Oral health status; Dental caries; DMFT; Periodontal status; CPITN
6.  Association of Parental Stress and Early Childhood Caries 
Dental Research Journal  2009;6(2):65-70.
Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children’s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association between parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC).
A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. Details of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group.
Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively).
Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.
PMCID: PMC3075457  PMID: 21528033
Dental caries; Dental stress analysis; Oral health
7.  Oral Health Status of Disabled Individuals Attending Special Schools 
European Journal of Dentistry  2010;4(4):361-366.
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the dmft-DMFT indexes and the oral hygiene status of 136 individuals attending a special school for the disabled.
Participants were grouped according to disability [Mental Retardation (MR), Cerebral Palsy (CP), Autistic Disorder (AD), Down Syndrome (DS), Other (OTH)] and age [2–6 years (n=24), 7–12 years (50 children) and 13+ years (62 children]. Caries examinations were carried out in accordance with WHO criteria and oral cleanliness was evaluated by visually assessing the presence of plaque on teeth.
The age range of patients was 2–26 years (mean age: 11.89±5.19 years). Mean dmft and DMFT scores by age group were as follows: 2–6 years: dmft=2.04±2.24; 7–12 years: dmft=2.24±2.60, DMFT=0.98±2.58; 13+years: DMFT=2.68±2.91. Overall, 15.4% of children had no caries or fillings. While dmft and DMFT levels (P>.05) did not vary significantly by type of disability, oral cleanliness did. Children with autism were observed to maintain the best oral hygiene and those with mental retardation (MR), the poorest.
It is important for the dentist to concentrate on a preventive approach and provide proper dental education to parents of disabled individuals. Among the children with disabilities, more attention should be paid to the oral hygiene of MR group.
PMCID: PMC2948746  PMID: 20922154
Disabled individual; Oral health; Caries; Oral plaque
8.  Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study 
Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families.
A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent’s/caregiver’s perceptions regarding their child’s health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K = 0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between oral health conditions and OHRQoL (α = 5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) oral health conditions.
The prevalence of impact from oral health conditions on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR = 1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR = 1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR = 1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR = 2.116; 95% CI: 1.624-2.757), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.809; 95% CI: 2.009-3.926) and type of TDI (PR = 2.448; 95% CI: 1.288-4.653).
Cavitated lesions and TDI exerted a impact on OHRQoL of the preschool children and their families. Parents’/caregivers’ perception of their child’s oral health as poor and the birth order of the child were predictors of a greater impact on OHRQoL.
PMCID: PMC4002905  PMID: 24745700
Quality of life; Dental caries; Malocclusion; Tooth injuries; Preschool child
9.  Do public health nurses in Norway promote information on oral health? 
BMC Oral Health  2011;11:23.
(i) to describe oral health counselling in Norway to parents with infants and toddlers, ii) to assess existing collaboration and routines in oral health matters between nurses and personnel in the PDS, iii) to evaluate to what extent oral health was integrated in the basic educational curriculum of public health nurses.
This study was based on two separate surveys: the sample of Study I was 98 randomly selected child health clinics. A questionnaire covering oral health promotion counselling of parents with young children was returned by 259 nurses. Study II was a telephone survey addressing teachers of public health nurses at the eight educational institutions in Norway.
The response rate in Study I was 45%. Nutrition (breast feeding, diet) was the health subject most often prioritized in the counselling targeting parents of young children (by 60% of the nurses). Oral health was not among the first priority counselling subjects. The subject was seldom spontaneously mentioned by parents. Seventy percent of respondents reported (agreed or totally agreed) that they managed to provide information parents needed and 72% believed that the information they gave influenced parents' health behaviours. Seven nurses (5.2%) responded that they agreed with the statement that the information they gave only slightly influenced parents' health behaviour. Lack of time was mentioned as being a problem. Approximately half of the nurses (48%) had regular contact with the PDS for the 0-3 year-old children, but only a quarter of the nurses claimed that children's teeth were routinely examined at the child clinics. Some forms of previously established contact with the PDS enhanced the likelihood of nurses' referrals. Oral health was a minor part of the educational curriculum for public health nurses; at three institutions, the subject was totally absent.
Collaboration between nurses and the PDS in Norway could be improved. Oral health should have a bigger place in the basic educational curriculum.
PMCID: PMC3189905  PMID: 21923940
10.  Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP)-14  
Background: The need for assessment of oral health related quality of life has been increased over the last decades. The aim of this study was to develop a Persian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 and to evaluate its reliability and validity for its use in Persian-speaking communities.
Methods: The original version of the OHIP-14 was translated into the Persian language using the back-translation technique. To establish the reliability of the translated instrument, internal consistency and test-retest reliability trials were performed on 20 subjects (at 4-week intervals); Cronbach’s alpha was used. One hundred sixty adults over 50 years of age who attended Health Care Centers in Sari and Babol were recruited to fill out the questionnaires and received a clinical examination by a single dentist. The socio-demographic and oral health information was also collected.
Results: The test-retest reliability was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.095). In the main study, Cronbach’s reliability coefficient for all 14 questions in each dimension was more than 70%. The individuals in need of dental treatment showed significantly higher OHIP scores than the individuals not requiring treatment. The individuals with hopeless teeth, negative self-perceived oral had significantly higher OHIP scores.
Conclusion: The Persian version of the OHIP-14 is a comprehensive and accurate instrument with acceptable reliability and validity for measuring oral health–related quality of life.
PMCID: PMC3895829  PMID: 24551438
Quality of life; QOL questionnaire; OHIP-14
11.  Evaluation of a Training Programme for Non-Health Professionals as Oral Health Educators 
Involvement of oral health educators among non-health professionals in oral health promotion is important in the prevention of oral diseases. This study was carried out to compare the level of oral health knowledge among pre-school teachers before and after oral health seminar. Pre-test data was collected by distributing questionnaire to pre-school teachers in Pasir Mas, who attended the seminar on “Oral Health” (n=33) and they were required to fill anonymously before the seminar started. The questions consisted of information on general background, perceived oral health status, oral health knowledge and the environment where they work. After two weeks, post-test data was collected using the same structured questionnaire and identification code was used to match the pre and post data. SPSS 11.5 was use for statistical analysis. Two out of 33 eligible preschool teachers were considered non-respondents due to absenteeism during the post-test data collection. The response rate was 94.0% (n = 31). The study shows a significant improvement in oral health knowledge among pre-school teachers in Pasir Mas, after seminar (p < 0.001) as compared to controls. Thus, we can conclude that the oral health programme (seminar) appeared effective at influencing oral health educator’s knowledge towards oral health.
PMCID: PMC3341887  PMID: 22589623
Pre school teachers; oral health educators; oral health promotion
12.  School Outcomes of Children With Special Health Care Needs 
Pediatrics  2011;128(2):303-312.
To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement.
A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores.
Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications.
Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3387854  PMID: 21788226
children with special health care needs; student engagement; academic achievement; bullying; school performance; middle childhood; adolescence; school outcomes
13.  Self-reported and clinically diagnosed dental needs among institutionalized adults in Vijayawada: A cross-sectional study 
Frail and functionally dependent elderly people, living in institutions, have difficulties in accessing dental care. Hence, the present study aims to determine the relationship between subjective need and the equivalent clinical findings in an attempt to understand the factors that contribute to individual's perception of the need for dental care among institutionalized adults in Vijayawada.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study is conducted in all old age homes in Vijayawada. A total of 182 subjects were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of demographic details, dental behavior (last visit, reason for the last visit), and self-rating of oral health and impact of oral problems, followed by the clinical examination for oral mucosal condition, dentition status and treatment needs, prosthetic status and treatment needs, and periodontal status by using World Health Organization proforma.
Results showed that normative needs of subjects are significantly more than the self-perceived needs. Response of subjects regarding their present condition of mouth and teeth is 65.4% of subjects reported good and 0.5% reported poor, with respective to perceived oral symptoms 61.9% of subjects’ complaints of hypersensitivity and 23.1% of subjects were having toothache and 80.5% subjects are having difficulty in eating. The overall prevalence of complete Edentulous and require complete denture was 12.1%, and 60.4% required partial denture.
About half of the participants confirmed need for problem-oriented dental care. The main reason for the problems faced by the institutionalized people is due to lack of teeth which could be prevented by appropriate care.
PMCID: PMC4015158  PMID: 24818092
Elderly; institutionalized; normative need; oral health; perceived need for dental care
14.  Prevalence of dental caries among a cohort of preschool children living in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka: A descriptive cross sectional study 
BMC Oral Health  2012;12:49.
Dental caries among young children are a global problem. Scant attention is paid towards primary teeth, leading to high prevalence of dental caries. There are only few studies done in Sri Lanka, addressing oral hygiene among preschool children. Scientific evidence is in need to persuade authorities to establish a programme promoting oral hygiene among preschool children.
A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Ragama Medical officer of Health area. Consecutive children between 2 – 5 years of age, attending child welfare clinics were recruited for the study. Practices related to dental hygiene and socio-economic characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Mouth was examined for evidence of dental caries. Data collection and examination were done by two doctors who were trained for this purpose. The data were analysed using SSPS version 16.
Total of 410 children were included. None had a routine visits to a dentist. Practices related to tooth brushing were satisfactory. Prevalence of dental caries gradually increased with age to reach 68.8% by 5 years. Mean total decayed-extracted-filled (deft) score for the whole sample was 1.41 and Significant caries index (SIC) was 4.09. Decayed tooth were the main contributor for the deft score and Care index was only 1.55. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of caries than boys.
Dental care provided for Sri Lankan preschool children appears to be unsatisfactory as prevalence of dental caries among this cohort of preschool children was very high. There is an urgent need to improve dental care facilities for Sri Lankan preschool children.
PMCID: PMC3514298  PMID: 23148740
Dental caries; Deft score; SIC index; Care index
15.  Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) 
Most of the instruments available to measure the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in paediatric populations focus on older children, whereas parental reports are used for very young children. The scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) assesses the OHRQoL of very young children through self-reports and parental proxy reports. We aimed to cross-culturally adapt the SOHO-5 to the Brazilian Portuguese language and to assess its reliability and validity.
We tested the quality of the cross-cultural adaptation in 2 pilot studies with 40 children aged 5–6 years and their parents. The measurement was tested for reliability and validity on 193 children that attended the paediatric dental screening program at the University of São Paulo. The children were also clinically examined for dental caries. The internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.90 for the children’s self-reports and 0.77 for the parental proxy reports. The test-retest reliability results, which were based on repeated administrations on 159 children, were excellent; the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 for parental and 0.92 for child reports. In general, the construct validity was satisfactory and demonstrated consistent and strong associations between the SOHO-5 and different subjective global ratings of oral health, perceived dental treatment need and overall well-being in both the parental and children’s versions (p < 0.001). The SOHO-5 was also able to clearly discriminate between children with and without a history of dental caries (mean scores: 5.8 and 1.1, respectively; p < 0.001).
The present study demonstrated that the SOHO-5 exhibits satisfactory psychometric properties and is applicable to 5- to 6-year-old children in Brazil.
PMCID: PMC3600026  PMID: 23394292
Oral health; Quality of life; Preschool children; Parents; Validation
16.  Examining the accuracy of caregivers' assessments of young children's oral health status 
Caregivers' perceptions of their young children's oral health status (OHS) are a strong determinant of whether the children visit a dentist. Our aims were to quantify the correlation between caregivers' assessments and their children's clinically determined restorative treatment needs, while investigating factors related to this association.
One hundred eight caregivers assessed their children's OHS by answering a question on the self-reported National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III instrument. Children underwent clinical oral examinations at one of two study sites of the Carolina Oral Health Literacy Project: a dental school–based clinic and a community-based health clinic. Examiners recorded the children's clinical treatment needs by using a modification of the caries severity index. The authors quantified concordance between the two measures with use of the Spearman rank correlation (ρ) and Kendall τ rank correlation, whereas they assessed differences in sociodemographic factors and oral health literacy (OHL) levels by using a homogeneity χ2 test (P < .2 criterion).
The concordance between caregivers' assessments and clinically determined OHS was lower for younger children (< 2 years, ρ = 0.29 versus ≥ 2 years, ρ = 0.63 [homogeneity P = .03]), a pattern that was evident in the community clinic but not in the university clinic. Caregivers' age, education and OHL did not influence the accuracy of self-reports.
For children younger than 2 years, caregivers' assessments correlated poorly with clinical needs, which routinely were underestimated.
Practice Implications
These findings underscore the importance of preventive dental visits at a young age and the early establishment of a dental home.
PMCID: PMC3697431  PMID: 23115154
Children; early childhood caries; caregivers; self-reports; prevention; oral health literacy; dental home; first dental visit
17.  Impact of traumatic dental injuries and malocclusions on quality of life of young children 
The presence of traumatic dental injuries and malocclusions can have a negative impact on quality of life of young children and their parents, affecting their oral health and well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traumatic dental injuries and anterior malocclusion traits on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children between 2 and 5 years-old.
Parents of 260 children answered the six domains of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) on their perception of the OHRQoL (outcome). Two calibrated dentists assessed the types of traumatic dental injuries (Kappa = 0.9) and the presence of anterior malocclusion traits (Kappa = 1.0). OHRQoL was measured using the ECOHIS. Poisson regression was used to associate the type of traumatic dental injury and the presence of anterior malocclusion traits to the outcome.
The presence of anterior malocclusion traits did not show a negative impact on the overall OHRQoL mean or in each domain. Only complicated traumatic dental injuries showed a negative impact on the symptoms (p = 0.005), psychological (p = 0.029), self image/social interaction (p = 0.004) and family function (p = 0.018) domains and on the overall OHRQoL mean score (p = 0.002). The presence of complicated traumatic dental injuries showed an increased negative impact on the children's quality of life (RR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.63; p < 0.001).
Complicated traumatic dental injuries have a negative impact on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their parents, but anterior malocclusion traits do not.
PMCID: PMC3186738  PMID: 21943368
tooth injuries; malocclusion; oral health-related quality of life; preschool child
18.  Malocclusion, dental aesthetic self-perception and quality of life in a 18 to 21 year-old population: a cross section study 
BMC Oral Health  2013;13:3.
Aesthetic alterations in the face can be self-perceived and can affect quality of life. For young people, physical attractiveness is an important factor affecting social relationships. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion, identify the most common types and test its association with oral aesthetic self-perception in 18 to 21 year-old population of male young adults.
A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 138 Brazilian Army soldiers. Data collection included socio demographic profile, malocclusion status through the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and oral aesthetic self-perception as indicated by the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). The chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used to test for homogeneity of proportions. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for the relationship between the poorer oral aesthetic self-perception and parental and soldier’s education, per capita income, history of caries in all teeth and only on anterior teeth, dental trauma, previous orthodontic treatment and malocclusion.
The prevalence of malocclusion was 45.6%. Incisor teeth crowding and misalignment of lower incisors were the most common types of malocclusions. A statistically significant and independent association between malocclusion and poorer oral aesthetic self-perception in the multivariate analysis was observed. Subjects with severe malocclusion conditions showed 88% higher prevalence [prevalence ratio =1.88 (95% CI, 1.30 – 2.72); p = 0.001] of poorer aesthetic self-perception comparing to those with minor malocclusion.
A high prevalence of malocclusion was observed. The young adults presenting severe malocclusion had a higher and independent prevalence of poorer oral aesthetic self-perception.
PMCID: PMC3556057  PMID: 23295063
Malocclusion; Oral health; Aesthetics; Quality of life
19.  Aspects of oral and general health among a community center for the underserved  
Journal of Medicine and Life  2011;4(2):168-171.
Rationale: oral health is one of the fundamental steps to general health, well being and a determinant factor for the quality of life.
Objective of this cross–sectional study is to assess the oral–systemic health and the treatment needs among the institutionalized people in a homeless center, with high prevalence of co–morbidities and barriers to care.
Methods and Results: after getting the informed consent, 51 adults from a community, which is disadvantaged from a socio–economic and medical point of view, were studied: frequently with multiple general diseases treated with medicines that produce oral side effects, a high need of treatment and the lack of a dental office. The subjects were orally examined from a clinical point of view and received a questionnaire with regard to the presence of the health risk factors. General health status and drug treatments of subjects were evaluated based on medical records. Results showed that oral health status of the subjects is precarious, oral hygiene is poor and the subjects are exposed to common risk factors for oral and systemic diseases: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, diet, poor hygiene and history of cancer.
Discussion: if their needs are not met, the oral health will be persistently poor and will further deteriorate during their residency, because of increasing care dependency and subsequent lack of adequate oral health care. Despite great achievements in oral and general health of populations, problems still remain in many communities, particularly among underprivileged groups.
PMCID: PMC3124273  PMID: 21776300
institutionalized people; chronic diseases; risk factors; medications; treatment needs
20.  Prosthetic Status and Prosthetic Need Among the Patients Attending Various Dental Institutes of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar District, Gujarat 
The oral health being an integral part for the healthy living, necessity of disability limitation and rehabilitation in oral health has taken a paramount role. To assess the prosthetic status and to evaluate the prosthetic needs of the patients attending various institutes of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar district. A total of 510 (264 males and 246 females) subjects at various dental institutes were examined in the study. A survey proforma was prepared with the help of WHO oral health assessment form (1997). Prosthetic status and prosthetic treatment need was recorded. Out of 510, any type of Edentulousness was 322 (63 %). Among them, 254 (49.8 %) were partially edentulous while 68 (13.3 %) were completely edentulous. Only 69 (13 %) were having any prosthesis in upper arch while only 80 (16 %) were having any prosthesis in lower arch. Need for any type of prosthesis in upper and lower arch was 55 and 60 % in males and females, respectively. In lower social class group need of prosthesis in upper and lower arch was 62 and 63 %, respectively. It was found that prosthetic status and prosthetic treatment need increased with increase in age. Steps should be taken to overcome this disparity and more emphasis should be given to meet the felt need of the people through government and non government organizations to improve the oral health. The unmet prosthetic treatment need should be met to rehabilitate needy people so that their disability may be limited.
PMCID: PMC3416937  PMID: 23997466
Prosthetic status; Prosthetic treatment need; Socioeconomic group
21.  A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene practices, oral health status, and behavior between graduate and post-graduate dentists of North India: An epidemiological survey 
The present study was carried out to compare oral hygiene practices, oral health status and behavior of graduate and postgraduate dentists of North India.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out among 727 dentists (446 graduate i.e., Group A and 281 post graduate i.e., Group B) through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire covered oral hygiene regimen, adverse oral habits, information regarding dental visits and dental treatment.
Results showed less than adequate oral hygiene practices among both the groups with more so in the graduate group (P ≤ 0.05). Very few dentists in both the groups reported any adverse oral habit. A more positive (P ≤ 0.05) attitude towards regular dental check up and dental treatment was seen in post-graduate dentists when compared to graduates.
Very few dentists in both the groups followed ideal dental hygiene regimen. Dentists are the role models for the society as far as oral health is concerned; hence they need to be more responsible and lay more stress on their daily regimen and improve the scenario.
PMCID: PMC3894097  PMID: 24478975
Dentists; graduate; oral habits; oral hygiene; post-graduate
22.  The Influence of Mothers’ Lifestyle and Health Behavior on Their Children: An Exploration for Oral Health 
Parents and teachers involvement reinforce health promotion programs for children's health.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate mothers’ lifestyle behavior and its association with children's oral health.
Materials and Methods:
The study was a cross sectional study on 383 children and their mothers who were selected from 6 primary schools in Tehran, Iran. Mothers and children who participated in this study were asked to complete a questionnaire containing demographic questions, knowledge of oral health, attitude towards the oral health behavior, and oral health behaviors. Furthermore, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were assessed by two calibrated dentists. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed model analyses.
The average age of the children and their mothers were 11.6 and 38.4 years, respectively. Mothers’ higher knowledge, higher educational status, positive attitude, higher frequent oral health behaviors, lower DMFT and lower CPI were all associated significantly with children’s higher oral health status.
The results suggest that to improve children’s oral health, educational interventions should focus on both children and mothers to obtain a more promising outcome.
PMCID: PMC3965884  PMID: 24719751
Oral Health; Lifestyle; Mothers; Health Behavior
23.  Dental caries status of Bulang preschool children in Southwest China 
BMC Oral Health  2014;14:16.
Bulang is one of the 55 ethnic minorities in China with a population of around 120,000. They live mainly in Yunnan, which is a less-developed province in southwestern China. Many Bulang people live in remote villages and have little access to dental care. They like hot and sour food and chew betel nut. This study examines the caries status of 5-year-old Bulang children and factors that influence their caries status.
A sample of 5-year-old Bulang children in Yunnan was selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. One trained dentist examined the children using dental mirrors with intra-oral LED light and CPI probes. Caries experience was measured according to the dmft index. Oral hygiene status was recorded according to the visible plaque index (VPI). A parental questionnaire was used to study the children’s oral health-related behaviours.
A total of 775 children were invited and 723 joined the survey. The caries prevalence was 85%, and 38% of them had caries involved in pulp. The mean dmft and dt score were 5.8 ± 4.9 and 5.6 ± 4.8, respectively. Visible plaque was found on 636 children (88%). Multi-factor ANCOVA analysis found that higher dmft scores were found among the children who snacked on sweets daily, had visited a dentist within the last year and had higher VPI scores.
The caries prevalence and experience among 5-year-old Bulang children in Yunnan was high, and most of the caries were left untreated. The caries experience was associated with snacking habits, dental visit habits and oral hygiene.
PMCID: PMC3946148  PMID: 24593701
Caries; Children; Ethnic; Minority; China
24.  Inequalities in Oral Health for Children with Disabilities: A French National Survey in Special Schools 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(6):e2564.
Despite wide recognition that children with disability often have poor oral health, few high quality, controlled results are available.
Twenty-four objective and subjective criteria covering feeding, autonomy, access to dental care, oral hygiene, oral disease, general health and behavior were evaluated in a observational cross-sectional study of 2,487 children with disability (DC group), 4,772 adolescents with disability (DA group) and 1,641 children without disability (NDC group). Five algorithms ranked the subjects according to clinical criteria in three original oral health indices: the Clinical Oral Health Index (COHI), indicating the level of oral health problems, the Clinical Oral Care Needs Index (COCNI) giving dental care need levels, and the Clinical Oral Prevention Index (COPI) determining possible needs in terms of dental education initiatives.
DC-group children presented poorer oral health and had greater needs in both treatment and preventive oral health actions than NDC-group children (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 3.25–4.86 for COHI; OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.77–2.28 for COCNI; OR = 5.25, 95% CI = 4.55–6.02 for COPI). These conditions were worse again in the DA group comparing to the DC group (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 2.7–4.6 for COHI; OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.38–1.69 for COCNI; OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.39–1.69 for COPI).
Clinical indices generated by algorithmic association of various clinical indicators allow sensitive clinical measurement, and in this study demonstrated inequalities in oral health for children with disabilities schooling in institutions. Questions need now to be addressed as to the measures that could be taken to compensate for this situation.
PMCID: PMC2432497  PMID: 18575600
25.  Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2010;5:10.3402/ljm.v5i0.4859.
To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students.
A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need.
The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3%) rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5%) agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life.
Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%), tooth restoration (10.3%), to extraction (1.2%).
This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.
PMCID: PMC3071173  PMID: 21483589
oral health; status; dental auxiliaries

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