The opacity (Opa) proteins mediate a variety of interactions between the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis and its human host. These interactions are thought to be of central importance in both the asymptomatic colonization of the nasopharynx and the sporadic occurrence of meningococcal disease. The receptor specificities of a limited number of Opa protein variants have been explored, but the high level of amino acid sequence diversity among variants has complicated the assignment of specific roles to individual Opa variants or combinations of variants. In addition, the distribution of Opa protein variants among diverse meningococci, information that is potentially informative for studies of Opa function, is poorly understood. A systematic survey of the genetic diversity in the four opa gene loci in each of 77 meningococcal isolates was undertaken. These isolates were representative of the seven hyperinvasive meningococcal clonal complexes that caused the majority of meningococcal disease over the last 50 years. Consistent with previous studies, a high level of sequence diversity was observed among the opa genes and the proteins that they encoded; however, particular sets of Opa protein variants were consistently associated with each of the clonal complexes over time periods often spanning decades and during global spread. These observations were consistent with the postulate that particular combinations of Opa proteins confer fitness advantages to individual clonal complexes and have implications for studies of Opa function and the inclusion of Opa proteins in novel meningococcal vaccines.
Neisseria meningitidis causes half a million cases of septicemia and meningitis globally each year. The opacity (Opa) integral outer membrane proteins from N. meningitidis are polymorphic and highly immunogenic. Particular combinations of Opa proteins are associated with the hyperinvasive meningococcal lineages that have caused the majority of serogroup B and C meningococcal disease in industrialized countries over the last 60 years. For the first time, this genetic structuring of a diverse outer membrane protein family has been used to select a novel combination of representative antigens for immunogenicity testing. Fourteen recombinant Opa variants were produced and used in murine immunizations inducing an increase in specific antimeningococcal total IgG levels. All 14 Opa proteins elicited bactericidal antibodies against at least one hyperinvasive meningococcal isolate, and most isolates from each hyperinvasive lineage were killed by at least one Opa antiserum at a titer of 1:16 or greater. Cross-reactive bactericidal antibody responses were observed among clonal complexes. A theoretical coverage of 90% can be achieved by using a particular combination of 6 Opa proteins against an isolate collection of 227 recent United Kingdom disease cases. This study indicates the potential of Opa proteins to provide broad coverage against multiple meningococcal hyperinvasive lineages.
Epidemic disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis, the meningococcus, has been recognised for two centuries, but remains incompletely controlled and understood. There have been dramatic reductions in serogroup A and C meningococcal disease following the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines but there is currently no comprehensive vaccine against serogroup B meningococci. Genetic analyses of meningococcal populations have provided many insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenesis of this important pathogen. The meningococcus, and its close relative the gonococcus, are the only pathogenic members of the genus Neisseria, and the invasive propensity of meningococci varies widely, with around a dozen ‘hyper invasive lineages’ responsible for most disease. Despite this, attempts to identify a ‘pathogenome’, a subset of genes associated with the invasive phenotypes have failed; however, genome-wide studies of representative meningococcal isolates using high throughput sequencing are beginning to provide detail on the relationship of invasive phenotype and genotype in this fascinating organism and how this relationship has evolved.
Neisseria meningitidis; population genomics; pathogenomics; molecular evolution; molecular epidemiology
Transferrin binding protein B (tbpB), an outer membrane lipoprotein, is required for the acquisition of iron from human transferrin. Two tbpB families have been documented in Neisseria meningitidis: an isotype I tbpB gene of 1.8 kb and an isotype II tbpB gene of 2.1 kb, the former expressed by meningococci in the disease-associated ST-11 clonal complex and the latter found among meningococci belonging to the hyper-invasive clonal complexes including ST-8, ST-18, ST-32, ST-41/44 as well as N. gonorrhoeae isolates. The origin of the isotype I tbpB gene is unknown, however several features in common with non-pathogenic Neisseria and the ST-11 clonal complex N. meningitidis isolate FAM18 have been documented leading to the hypothesis that the isotype I tbpB gene may also be shared between non-pathogenic Neisseria and ST-11 meningococci. As a result, the diversity of the tbpB gene was investigated in a defined collection of Neisseria species.
Two families of isotype I tbpB were identified: family A containing conserved genes belonging to ST-11 meningococci, N. polysaccharea and N. lactamica isolates and family B including more diverse isotype I tbpB genes from N. sicca, N. mucosa, N. flava, N. subflava as well as N. cinerea, N. flavescens and N. polysaccharea isolates. Three isotype II tbpB families were identified with: family C containing diverse tbpB genes belonging to N. polysaccharea, N. lactamica, N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis isolates, family D including another subset of isotype II tbpB genes from N. lactamica isolates and family E solely composed of N. gonorrhoeae tbpB genes.
This study reveals another instance of similarity between meningococci of the ST-11 clonal complex and non-pathogenic Neisseria with the origin of the isotype I tbpB gene resulting from a horizontal genetic transfer event occurring between these two populations.
The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of meningitis and septicemia worldwide. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are candidates in the search for comprehensive meningococcal vaccines; however, the formulation of OMP vaccines is complicated by antigenic diversity, which is generated by high levels of genetic reassortment and strong positive selection in the meningococcal antigen genes. The genetic and antigenic diversity of three OMPs (FetA, PorA, and PorB) among a global collection of meningococcal isolates representative of the major hyperinvasive clonal complexes was determined. There was evidence for antigenic structuring among the three OMPs that could not be explained purely by descent. These observations violated the predictions of the clonal and epidemic clonal models of population structure but were in concordance with models of strain structure which propose that host immunity selects for nonoverlapping antigen combinations. The patterns of antigenic variant combinations suggested that an OMP-based vaccine with as few as six PorA and five FetA variant sequences could generate homologous immune responses against all 78 isolates examined.
The two-partner secretion (TPS) pathway is widespread among gram-negative bacteria and facilitates the secretion of very large and often virulence-related proteins. TPS systems consist of a secreted TpsA protein and a TpsB protein involved in TpsA transport across the outer membrane. Sequenced Neisseria meningitidis genomes contain up to five TpsA- and two TpsB-encoding genes. Here, we investigated the distribution of TPS-related open reading frames in a collection of disease isolates. Three distinct TPS systems were identified among meningococci. System 1 was ubiquitous, while systems 2 and 3 were significantly more prevalent among isolates of hyperinvasive clonal complexes than among isolates of poorly invasive clonal complexes. In laboratory cultures, systems 1 and 2 were expressed. However, several sera from patients recovering from disseminated meningococcal disease recognized the TpsAs of systems 2 and 3, indicating the expression of these systems during infection. Furthermore, we showed that the major secreted TpsAs of systems 1 and 2 depend on their cognate TpsBs for transport across the outer membrane and that the system 1 TpsAs undergo processing. Together, our data indicate that TPS systems may contribute to the virulence of N. meningitidis.
Meningococcal disease occurs worldwide with incidence rates varying from 1 to 1000 cases per 100,000. The causative organism, Neisseria meningitidis, is an obligate commensal of humans, which normally colonizes the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract without causing invasive disease, a phenomenon known as carriage. Studies using molecular methods have demonstrated the extensive genetic diversity of meningocococci isolated from carriers, in contrast to a limited number of genetic types, known as the hyperinvasive lineages, associated with invasive disease. Population and evolutionary models that invoke positive selection can be used to resolve the apparent paradox of virulent lineages persisting during the global spread of a non-clonal and normally commensal bacterium. The application of insights gained from studies of meningococcal population biology and evolution is important in understanding the spread of disease, as well as in vaccine development and implementation, especially with regard to the challenge of producing comprehensive vaccines based on sub-capsular antigens and measuring their effectiveness.
Meningococcal disease; Carriage; Population structure
Two haemoglobin-binding proteins, HmbR and HpuAB, contribute to iron acquisition by Neisseria meningitidis. These receptors are subject to high frequency, reversible switches in gene expression - phase variation (PV) - due to mutations in homopolymeric (poly-G) repeats present in the open reading frame. The distribution and PV state of these receptors was assessed for a representative collection of isolates from invasive meningococcal disease patients of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Most of the major clonal complexes had only the HmbR receptor whilst the recently expanding ST-275-centred cluster of the ST-269 clonal complex had both receptors. At least one of the receptors was in an ‘ON’ configuration in 76.3% of the isolates, a finding that was largely consistent with phenotypic analyses. As PV status may change during isolation and culture of meningococci, a PCR-based protocol was utilised to confirm the expression status of the receptors within contemporaneously acquired clinical specimens (blood/cerebrospinal fluid) from the respective patients. The expression state was confirmed for all isolate/specimen pairs with <15 tract repeats indicating that the PV status of these receptors is stable during isolation. This study therefore establishes a protocol for determining in vivo PV status to aid in determining the contributions of phase variable genes to invasive meningococcal disease. Furthermore, the results of the study support a putative but non-essential role of the meningococcal haemoglobin receptors as virulence factors whilst further highlighting their vaccine candidacy.
Infections by Neisseria meningitidis show duality between frequent asymptomatic carriage and occasional life-threatening disease. Bacterial and host factors involved in this balance are not fully understood. Cytopathic effects and cell damage may prelude to pathogenesis of isolates belonging to hyper-invasive lineages. We aimed to analyze cell–bacteria interactions using both pathogenic and carriage meningococcal isolates. Several pathogenic isolates of the ST-11 clonal complex and carriage isolates were used to infect human epithelial cells. Cytopathic effect was determined and apoptosis was scored using several methods (FITC-Annexin V staining followed by FACS analysis, caspase assays and DNA fragmentation). Only pathogenic isolates were able to induce apoptosis in human epithelial cells, mainly by lipooligosaccharide (endotoxin). Bioactive TNF-α is only detected when cells were infected by pathogenic isolates. At the opposite, carriage isolates seem to provoke shedding of the TNF-α receptor I (TNF-RI) from the surface that protect cells from apoptosis by chelating TNF-α. Ability to induce apoptosis and inflammation may represent major traits in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis. However, our data strongly suggest that carriage isolates of meningococci reduce inflammatory response and apoptosis induction, resulting in the protection of their ecological niche at the human nasopharynx.
Acquisition of Neisseria meningitidis often leads to asymptomatic colonization (carriage) and rarely results in invasive disease associated with tissue injury. The reasons that make disease-associated isolates (pathogenic isolates) but not asymptomatic carriage isolates able to invade the host to establish disease are not understood. Isolates belonging to the ST-11 clonal complex are most frequently associated with the disease and rarely found in carriers. These hyper-invasive isolates may be able to induce cytopathic effects in target cells. We aimed to investigate the cytopathic effect of meningococcal isolates on epithelial cells using both ST-11 pathogenic isolates and carriage isolates. We showed that cytopathic effects were strongly associated with pathogenic isolates and infected cells exhibited features of apoptosis. This effect is mainly mediated by bacterial endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide) and involved an autocrine signaling mechanism of secreted TNF-α through its receptor TNF-RI. In contrast, carriage isolates down-regulate TNF-RI on the surface of infected cells by increasing TNF-RI shedding into the medium. We suggest that chelating secreted TNF-α protects cells from apoptosis. Our results unravel a differential modulation of TNF-α signaling by meningococcal isolates leading to cell survival or death and would therefore contribute to better understanding of the duality between carriage and invasiveness.
Meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis remains an important health problem in many parts of the world, and there are currently no comprehensive vaccines. Poor immunogenicity, combined with immunological identity to human sialic acids, have hindered the development of a serogroup B conjugate vaccine, resulting in the development of alternative vaccine candidates, including many outer-membrane protein (OMP)-based formulations. However, the design of protein-based meningococcal vaccines is complicated by the high level of genetic and antigenic diversity of the meningococcus. Knowledge of the extent and structuring of this diversity can have implications for the use of particular proteins as potential vaccine candidates. With this in mind, the diversity of the meningococcal OMP HmbR was investigated among N. meningitidis isolates representative of major hyper-invasive lineages. In common with other meningococcal antigens, the genetic diversity of hmbR resulted from a combination of intraspecies horizontal genetic exchange and de novo mutation. Furthermore, genealogical analysis showed an association of hmbR genes with clonal complexes and the occurrence of two hmbR families, A and B. Three variable regions (VR1–VR3), located in loops 2, 3 and 4, were observed with clonal complex structuring of VR types. A minority of codons (3.9 %), located within putative surface-exposed loop regions of a 2D model, were under diversifying selection, indicating regions of the protein likely to be subject to immune attack.
Study population was susceptible to ST11 complex meningococci bearing both C and W135 polysaccharide capsules; vaccine against serogroup C meningococci may not prevent ST11 disease.
Clusters of meningococcal disease caused by a hyperinvasive lineage of Neisseria meningitidis, the ST11 complex, bearing a serogroup C polysaccharide capsule, have been prominent in Europe and North America since the early 1990s. This situation has led to expensive public health measures for outbreak control and, finally, to the introduction of a serogroup C glyconjugate vaccine into the primary immunization schedule in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. ST11 complex meningococci may also express serogroup W135 polysaccharide capsules. We investigated the level of population immunity to this hyperinvasive clone in association with the appearance of outbreaks of meningococcal disease in southern British Columbia. We found that most adults and almost all children were apparently susceptible to infection with ST11 complex meningococci bearing both C and W135 polysaccharide capsules, which suggests that a vaccine program directed against only serogroup C meningococci may be insufficient to prevent hyperinvasive ST11 disease.
Neisseria meningitides; population immunity; meningococcal disease; research
Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative bacterium that may cause meningitis, sepsis, or both. The increase in the incidence of meningococcal disease in various countries in the past 2 decades is mainly due the genotypically related lineage III meningococci. The chromosomal DNA differences between lineage III strains and non-lineage III strains were identified using representational difference analysis. Thus, a 1.8-kb locus that is specific for lineage III meningococci was identified. The locus contains three open reading frames encoding the NmeSI restriction-modification system. The methyltransferase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Site AGTACT was found to be modified by the enzyme. In conclusion, lineage III strains differ from endemic strains by the presence of a specific restriction-modification system. This restriction-modification system may contribute to the clonal and hypervirulent character of lineage III strains by influencing horizontal gene transfer and transcription.
In the era after the introduction of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010, serogroup B meningococci were the major cause of invasive meningococcal disease in the province of Québec, Canada, being responsible for 72% of all meningococcal disease cases. Of the 334 invasive serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis strains analyzed, 53.9% belonged to the ST-269 clonal complex (CC). Since it first emerged in 2003, the percentage of invasive serogroup B isolates that belonged to the ST-269 CC had increased from 35% in 2003 to 76% in 2010. Among the 180 meningococci in the ST-269 CC, 91.7% belonged to a single ST (ST-269). The most common PorA genotypes identified in the ST-269 CC were (i) VR1 19-1, VR2 15-11, VR3 36 (84%) and (ii) VR1 18-7, VR2 9, VR3 35-1 (9%). Cases of invasive disease due to the ST-269 CC were commonly found in those aged 11 to 19 years (30.5%) and 20 to 40 years (25.5%). Meningococci of the ST-269 CC were uncommon in other Canadian provinces. In contrast to the ST-269 CC, invasive serogroup B meningococci that belonged to the ST-41/44 CC were much more diverse genetically. However, one ST (ST-571), which is uncommon in the United States, accounted for 35% of all cases due to this CC. The current finding suggests that the ST-269 clone may indeed represent an emerging hypervirulent clone of meningococci.
The opa genes of the Gram negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis encode Opacity-associated outer membrane proteins whose role is to promote adhesion to the human host tissue during colonisation and invasion. Each meningococcus contains 3–4 opa loci, each of which may be occupied by one of a large number of alleles. We analysed the Opa repertoire structure in a large, well-characterised collection of asymptomatically carried meningococci. Our data show an association between Opa repertoire and meningococcal lineages similar to that observed previously for meningococci isolated from cases of invasive disease. Furthermore, these Opa repertoires exhibit discrete, non-overlapping structure at a population level, and yet low within-repertoire diversity. These data are consistent with the predictions of a mathematical model of strong immune selection upon a system where identical alleles may occupy different loci.
Neisseria meningitidis is a globally important pathogen that causes 2,000–3,000 cases of invasive meningococcal disease annually in the United Kingdom. The meningococcal Opa proteins are important in mediating adhesion to and invasion of human tissues, and are important for evasion of the host immune response. They are encoded by a repertoire of 3–4 genomic loci in each meningococcus and exhibit high levels of sequence diversity. Here we analyzed the Opa repertoires of a large, well-characterised, asymptomatically carried meningococcal isolate collection. We found that the Opa repertoires were specific to individual meningococcal genotypes, similar to that observed in isolates from cases of invasive disease. These repertoires exhibited discrete, non-overlapping structure at a population level, and yet low within-repertoire diversity. These data were consistent with the predictions of a mathematical model of strong immune selection, suggesting that the collective immune response of the host population shapes the antigenic diversity of the meningococcal Opa repertoire. This study provides new insights into Opa-mediated meningococcal pathogenesis and the effect of host population immunity on the biodiversity and population structure of bacterial pathogens. These data may also have implications for the design of new meningococcal vaccines based on surface proteins.
From August 1999 through July 2002, hyperinvasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) clonal complexes (CCs), namely, ST-32/ET-5 (CC32) and ST-41/44/lineage 3 (CC41/44), were predominant in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This study analyzed MenB invasive isolates from a national laboratory-based surveillance system that were collected from January 2002 through December 2006. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (n = 302), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PorA and FetA typing were performed on randomly selected isolates (34/302, 11%). In total, 2,400 cases were reported, with the highest numbers from Gauteng Province (1,307/2,400, 54%) and Western Cape Province (393/2,400, 16%); 67% (1,617/2,400) had viable isolates and 19% (307/1,617) were identified as serogroup B. MenB incidence remained stable over time (P = 0.77) (average incidence, 0.13/100,000 population [range, 0.10 to 0.16/100,000 population]). PFGE (302/307, 98%) divided isolates (206/302, 68%) into 13 clusters and 96 outliers. The largest cluster, B1, accounted for 25% of isolates (76/302) over the study period; its prevalence decreased from 43% (20/47) in 2002 to 13% (8/62) in 2006 (P < 0.001), and it was common in the Western Cape (58/76, 76%). Clusters B2 and B3 accounted for 10% (31/302) and 6% (19/302), respectively, and showed no significant change over time and were predominant in Gauteng. Randomly selected isolates from clusters B1, B2, and B3 belonged to CC32, CC41/44, and the new CC4240/6688, respectively. Overall, 15 PorA and 12 FetA types were identified. MenB isolates were mostly diverse with no single dominant clone; however, CC32 and CC41/44 accounted for 35% and the new CC4240/6688 was the third most prevalent clone.
Serogroup C meningococcal disease has been endemic in Canada since the early 1990s, with periods of hyperendemic disease documented in the past two decades. The present study characterized invasive serogroup C meningococci in Canada during the period from 2002 to 2009.
Serogroup C meningococci were serotyped using monoclonal antibodies. Their clonal types were identified by either multilocus enzyme electrophoresis or multilocus sequence typing.
The number of invasive serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis isolates received at the National Microbiology Laboratory (Winnipeg, Manitoba) for characterization has dropped from a high of 173 isolates in 2001 to just 17 in 2009, possibly related to the introduction of the serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Before 2006, 80% to 95% of all invasive serogroup C meningococci belonged to the electrophoreic type (ET)-15 clonal type, and the ET-37 (but not ET-15) type only accounted for up to 5% of all isolates. However, beginning in 2006, the percentage of the ET-15 clonal type decreased while the ET-37 (but not ET-15) type increased from 27% in 2006 to 52% in 2009. The percentage of invasive serogroup C isolates not belonging to either ET-15 or ET-37 also increased. Most ET-15 isolates expressed the antigenic formula of C:2a:P1.7,1 or C:2a:P1.5. In contrast, the ET-37 (but not ET-15) isolates mostly expressed the antigens of C:2a:P1.5,2 or C:2a:P1.2.
A shift in the antigenic and clonal type of invasive serogroup C meningococi was noted. This finding suggests vigilance in the surveillance of meningoccocal disease is warranted.
ET-15; ET-37; Meningococci; Serogroup C
The human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis remains a serious worldwide health threat, but progress is being made toward the control of meningococcal infections. This review summarizes current knowledge of the global epidemiology and the pathophysiology of meningococcal disease, as well as recent advances in prevention by new vaccines. Meningococcal disease patterns and incidence can vary dramatically, both geographically and over time in populations, influenced by differences in invasive meningococcal capsular serogroups and specific genotypes designated as ST clonal complexes. Serogroup A (ST-5, ST-7), B (ST-41/44, ST-32, ST-18, ST-269, ST-8, ST-35), C (ST-11), Y (ST-23, ST-167), W-135 (ST-11) and X (ST-181) meningococci currently cause almost all invasive disease. Serogroups B, C, and Y are responsible for the majority of cases in Europe, the Americas, and Oceania; serogroup A has been associated with the highest incidence (up to 1000 per 100,000 cases) and large outbreaks of meningococcal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and previously Asia; and serogroups W-135 and X have emerged to cause major disease outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa. Significant declines in meningococcal disease have occurred in the last decade in many developed countries. In part, the decline is related to the introduction of new meningococcal vaccines. Serogroup C polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines were introduced over a decade ago, first in the UK in a mass vaccination campaign, and are now widely used; multivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines containing serogroups A, C, W-135, and/or Y were first used for adolescents in the US in 2005 and have now expanded indications for infants and young children, and a new serogroup A conjugate vaccine has recently been introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. The effectiveness of these conjugate vaccines has been enhanced by the prevention of person-to-person transmission and herd immunity. In addition, progress has been made in serogroup B-specific vaccines based on conserved proteins and outer membrane vesicles. However, continued global surveillance is essential in understanding and predicting the dynamic changes in the epidemiology and biological basis of meningococcal disease and to influence the recommendations for current and future vaccines or other prevention strategies.
Neisseria meningitidis; meningococcal disease; conjugate vaccines; meningococcal vaccines
Despite the increasing popularity of Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), the most appropriate method for characterising bacterial variation and facilitating epidemiological investigations remains a matter of debate. Here, we propose that different typing schemes should be compared on the basis of their power to infer clonal relationships and investigate the utility of sequence data for genealogical reconstruction by exploiting new statistical tools and data from 20 housekeeping loci for 93 isolates of the bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Our analysis demonstrated that all but one of the hyperinvasive isolates established by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and MLST were grouped into one of 6 genealogical lineages, each of which contained substantial variation. Due to the confounding effect of recombination, evolutionary relationships among these lineages remained unclear, even using 20 loci. Analyses of the seven loci in the standard MLST scheme using the same methods reproduced this classification, but were unable to support finer inferences concerning the relationships between the members within each complex.
Despite the increasing popularity of multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most appropriate method for characterizing bacterial variation and facilitating epidemiological investigations remains a matter of debate. Here, we propose that different typing schemes should be compared on the basis of their power to infer clonal relationships and investigate the utility of sequence data for genealogical reconstruction by exploiting new statistical tools and data from 20 housekeeping loci for 93 isolates of the bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Our analysis demonstrated that all but one of the hyperinvasive isolates established by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and MLST were grouped into one of six genealogical lineages, each of which contained substantial variation. Due to the confounding effect of recombination, evolutionary relationships among these lineages remained unclear, even using 20 loci. Analyses of the seven loci in the standard MLST scheme using the same methods reproduced this classification, but were unable to support finer inferences concerning the relationships between the members within each complex.
Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis has repeatedly caused epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in developing nations since the 1960s. The present study is the first detailed study of serogroup A bacteria isolated in Canada.
Thirty-four serogroup A meningococcal isolates collected from individuals with IMD in Canada between 1979 and 2006 were characterized by serology and multilocus sequence typing of seven housekeeping enzyme genes and genes encoding three outer membrane protein antigens.
Isolates were assigned to either the sequence type (ST)-1 or the ST-5 clonal complex. Clones within the ST-1 complex were recovered between 1979 and 1992, while clones of the ST-5 complex were isolated between 1987 and 2006; respectively, they accounted for 70.6% and 29.4% of all isolates studied. Isolates of the ST-1 complex were characterized by serosubtype antigen P1.3 or P1.3,6 with PorB allele 60 (serotype 4) and FetA sequence F5-1, while isolates of the ST-5 complex were characterized by serosubtype antigen P1.9 with PorB allele 47 (also serotype 4) and FetA sequence F3-1.
The Canadian serogroup A IMD isolates likely originated in travellers returning from hyperendemic or epidemic areas of the globe where serogroup A bacteria circulate. Although the Canadian cases of serogroup A IMD were caused by clones known to have caused epidemics in developing countries, disease incidence remained low in Canada.
Canada; Invasive meningococcal disease; Neisseria meningitides; Serogroup A
Genetic diversity and relationships among 109 isolates of Neisseria meningitidis obtained from throat cultures of healthy individuals in Norway in 1984 were assessed by analyzing electrophoretically demonstrable allelic variation at 15 enzyme-encoding chromosomal genes. Seventy-eight distinctive electrophoretic types (ETs), representing multilocus genotypes, were identified. The mean genetic diversity per locus among the 78 ETs (0.538) was equivalent to that among 19 ETs represented by 66 isolates collected from patients with meningococcal disease in Norway in the first 5 months of 1984. The clonal composition of the collection of carrier strains was, however, quite different from that of strains from patients. The two groups of clones, the ET-5 complex and the ET-37 complex, that were responsible for 91% of the cases of systemic disease in Norway in 1984 were identified in only 7 and 9%, respectively, of the throat cultures from healthy individuals, and their frequencies in the human population sampled were only 0.7% for clones of the ET-5 complex and 0.9% for those of the ET-37 complex. The complex of clones that was most frequently represented by isolates from carriers (19%) has never been recovered from patients with meningococcal disease in Norway or elsewhere, which suggests that these clones have a low virulence potential. Children attending the same day care center or school seldom harbored the same clone in their throats.
Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of septicaemia and meningitis worldwide. Most disease in Europe, the Americas and Australasia is caused by meningococci expressing serogroup B capsules, but no vaccine against this polysaccharide exists. Potential candidates for ‘serogroup B substitute’ vaccines are outer membrane protein antigens including the typing antigens PorA and FetA. The web-accessible PubMLST database (www.pubmlst.org) was used to investigate the temporal and geographical patterns of associations among PorA and FetA protein variants and lineages defined by combinations of housekeeping genes, known as clonal complexes. The sample contained 3460 isolates with genotypic information from 57 countries over a 74 year period. Although shifting associations among antigen variants and clonal complexes were evident, a subset of strain types associated with several serogroups persisted for decades and proliferated globally. Genetic stability among outer membrane proteins of serogroup A meningococci has been described previously, but here long-lived genetic associations were also observed among meningococci belonging to serogroups B and C. The patterns of variation were consistent with behaviour predicted by models that invoke inter-strain competition mediated by immune selection. There was also substantial geographic and temporal heterogeneity in antigenic repertoires, providing both opportunities and challenges for the design of broad coverage protein-based meningococcal vaccines.
Six cases of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 meningococcal infection have been reported in Turkey since 2003. Seven isolates recovered from four meningococcal meningitis patients and two asymptomatic carriers produced three distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Multilocus sequence typing and antigen gene sequencing showed that five isolates were indistinguishable from ST-11 (ET-37) serogroup W135 meningococci, which were first isolated in Saudi Arabia and were responsible for the worldwide outbreak among Hajj pilgrims and their contacts in 2000. The remaining two isolates, which had related PFGE patterns, differed from each other at only one of the genetic loci characterized but were not related to the ST-11 clonal complex. None of the six individuals recalled contact with a pilgrim or had traveled on the Hajj. These six individuals exhibited no time or place relationships to each other, except for the two asymptomatic carriers, who were soldiers and served in the same military unit. These data demonstrate that serogroup W135 meningococci with different genotypes, including the Hajj epidemic strain, are endemic in Turkey.
Bacteriophage T2 codes for a DNA-(adenine-N6)methyltransferase (Dam), which is able to methylate both cytosine- and hydroxymethylcytosine-containing DNAs to a greater extent than the corresponding methyltransferase encoded by bacteriophage T4. We have cloned and sequenced the T2 dam gene and compared it with the T4 dam gene. In the Dam coding region, there are 22 nucleotide differences, 4 of which result in three coding differences (2 are in the same codon). Two of the amino acid alterations are located in a region of homology that is shared by T2 and T4 Dam, Escherichia coli Dam, and the modification enzyme of Streptococcus pneumoniae, all of which methylate the sequence 5' GATC 3'. The T2 dam and T4 dam promoters are not identical and appear to have slightly different efficiencies; when fused to the E. coli lacZ gene, the T4 promoter produces about twofold more beta-galactosidase activity than does the T2 promoter. In our first attempt to isolate T2 dam, a truncated gene was cloned on a 1.67-kilobase XbaI fragment. This construct produces a chimeric protein composed of the first 163 amino acids of T2 Dam followed by 83 amino acids coded by the pUC18 vector. Surprisingly, the chimera has Dam activity, but only on cytosine-containing DNA. Genetic and physical analyses place the T2 dam gene at the same respective map location as the T4 dam gene. However, relative to T4, T2 contains an insertion of 536 base pairs 5' to the dam gene. Southern blot hybridization and computer analysis failed to reveal any homology between this insert and either T4 or E. coli DNA.
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B has been predominant in Brazil, but no broadly effective vaccine is available to prevent endemic meningococcal disease. To understand genetic diversity among serogroup B strains in Brazil, we selected a nationally representative sample of clinical disease isolates from 2004, and a temporally representative sample for the state of São Paulo (1988–2006) for study (n = 372).
We performed multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and sequence analysis of five outer membrane protein (OMP) genes, including novel vaccine targets fHbp and nadA.
In 2004, strain B:4:P1.15,19 clonal complex ST-32/ET-5 (cc32) predominated throughout Brazil; regional variation in MLST sequence type (ST), fetA, and porB was significant but diversity was limited for nadA and fHbp. Between 1988 and 1996, the São Paulo isolates shifted from clonal complex ST-41/44/Lineage 3 (cc41/44) to cc32. OMP variation was associated with but not predicted by cc or ST. Overall, fHbp variant 1/subfamily B was present in 80% of isolates and showed little diversity. The majority of nadA were similar to reference allele 1.
A predominant serogroup B lineage has circulated in Brazil for over a decade with significant regional and temporal diversity in ST, fetA, and porB, but not in nadA and fHbp.