Stricture formation is recognized as one of the complications of chronic radiation enteritis. Here, we present a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction 16 years after pelvic irradiation for uterine cancer. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen demonstrated a 1-cm foreign body in the terminal ileum. Laparotomy revealed a stone of ume (Japanese apricot) stuck in an ileal stricture, leading to complete impaction and perforation. She was successfully treated with ileocecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis without any complication. Pathological study revealed that the low compliance caused by fibrosis of the bowel wall prevented the small ume stone from passing through the irradiated ileum. Our case implies the specific risk of food-induced small bowel obstruction in patients with a history of pelvic irradiation.
Radiation injury; Intestinal obstruction; Foreign bodies; Enteritis
Small bowel obstruction is rarely caused by bezoars concretions formed from undigested foreign material in the gastrointestinal tract. An important cause of bezoars is phytobezoars, formed from vegetables or fruits. A four-year-old boy presented to our emergency department with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction. Upright plain abdominal radiography revealed multiple air fluid levels. Ultrasound showed no abnormalities, and because of worsening symptoms computed tomography of abdomen was performed. It showed intraluminal obstruction of the terminal ileum. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a phytobezoar consisting of undigested rhubarb. The mass was milked through the large bowel and out the anus. Although rare in humans, bezoars are a well-documented cause of small bowel obstruction and should be considered when intraluminal bowel obstruction occurs. Bezoars causing small bowel obstruction may require surgical treatment.
Wireless capsule endoscopy is a new tool in the armamentarium of the gastroenterologist to evaluate the small bowel non-invasively. It allows improved diagnostic yield with low complication rates relative to traditional modalities. But this new technology has its own set of complications, some which can lead to significant morbidity. Here, we present a case of complete small bowel obstruction following a capsule endoscopy. A 65-year-old female with a long standing history of anemia and obscure gastrointestinal bleed presented to the Emergency Department 72 hours after a wireless capsule endoscopy procedure complaining of worsening abdominal pain, distension, and frequent vomiting. An X-ray was suggestive of complete distal small bowel obstruction with the capsule at the transition point of dilated proximal and collapsed distal small bowel. The patient was resuscitated and taken up for an explorative laparotomy where a short segment stricture was noted with the capsule endoscope caught proximal to it. The segment was resected and patient made an uneventful recovery. Wireless capsule endoscopy is now becoming the preferred method to image the small bowel. Our report illustrates the importance of appropriate patient selection and evaluation of functional patency of the small bowel may be with a contrast series prior to wireless capsule endoscopy to avoid any post procedural morbidity.
Bowel obstruction; capsule endoscopy; complication
Phytobezoar impacted in a Meckel’s diverticulum causing small bowel obstruction can be managed laparoscopically.
Background and Objectives:
Meckel's diverticulum is a common anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract that may result in gastrointestinal bleeding, diverticulitis, and small bowel obstruction. This report describes the use of laparoscopy to treat a rare complication of Meckel's diverticulum–small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar impaction. More generally, it provides an example of the feasibility and utility of a laparoscopic approach to small bowel obstructions of unknown causes.
A 34-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of episodic abdominal pain and vomiting. He had no history of abdominal surgery. His vital signs were stable, and his abdomen was distended, but only mildly tender. He had no abdominal wall hernias on examination. Imaging was consistent with small bowel obstruction. He was brought to the operating room where laparoscopy revealed a Meckel's diverticulum with an impacted phytobezoar as the source of obstruction. The diverticulum was resected and the phytobezoar removed laparoscopically.
The patient recovered well and was discharged home on the third postoperative day, tolerating a regular diet.
Phytobezoar impaction in a Meckel's diverticulum causing small bowel obstruction is a rare event. It can be effectively treated laparoscopically. This case provides an example of the potential utility of laparoscopy in treating small bowel obstructions of unclear etiology.
Laparoscopy; Bowel obstruction; Meckel's diverticulum; Bezoar
A 71-year-old man was admitted with features of intestinal obstruction. His past surgical history included an appendicectomy as a child and three laparotomies. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed a high attenuation foreign body impacted in the distal ileum, associated with small bowel obstruction. At laparotomy, a bone was removed from the terminal ileum.
Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam.
We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on presentation but developed a small bowel obstruction shortly thereafter.
Patients presenting following ingestion of polyurethane foam should be scheduled for elective laparotomy, gastrotomy, and retrieval of the cast on the next available theatre list - given that they are suitable for surgery.
Plastic bread-bag clips have been identified as a cause of local perforation or obstruction at many sites in the gastrointestinal tract. This study is the largest case series yet reported, consisting of 3 cases presenting as small-bowel perforation, 1 case in which the clip was found incidentally in the small bowel at laparotomy during vascular surgery and 1 case in which the clip was found incidentally in the small bowel at autopsy. In all cases there was no radiographic evidence to suggest a foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract. People older than 60 years of age who have either partial or full dentures seem to be particularly at risk for the accidental ingestion of these devices. If accidentally ingested, plastic bread-bag clips represent a significant health hazard. As the population ages, small-bowel perforation secondary to ingestion of such clips may occur with increasing frequency. The authors recommend elimination or redesign of the clips, to prevent their being swallowed and becoming impacted in the small bowel or to allow them to be identified in the gastrointestinal tract by conventional radiography.
Phytobezoars are a rare cause of small-bowel obstruction and an accurate preoperative diagnosis is very difficult. After diagnosis, the majority of patients in this study underwent surgery. The conventional management of small-bowel obstruction is done by laparotomy. Many studies have demonstrated that laparoscopy can be an alternative to laparotomy for the treatment of small-bowel obstruction in select patients, and it also brings the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. This report demonstrates the case of a patient with intestinal obstruction caused by phytobezoar (mango seed) who was treated laparoscopically. During the laparoscopy, a hard mass 5 cm proximal to the ileocaecal junction was palpable with graspers. An ileotomy was then performed. The bezoar was extracted and inserted into a bag. In this case, the intestinal obstruction management by laparoscopy was safe and feasible.
Laparoscopy; Minimally invasive; Intestinal obstruction; Bezoar; Mango
Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone.
small bowel obstruction; chicken bone; bezoar
This is a case report of an early high-grade small bowel obstruction due to a retroperitoneal hernia following laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. General and urologic surgeons should become familiar with the complications of these newer interventions.
Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common entity encountered in surgical patients. The most common causes of the SBO range from postoperative adhesions to cancer. We present the case of a 55-year-old male who underwent a laparoscopic left radical nephrectomy and presented with an early SBO. An imaging study revealed an obstructive pattern with proximal dilated jejunum with decompressed distal small bowel. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy with extensive lysis of adhesions and release/resection of a long segment of incarcerated jejunum from an 8-cm retroperitoneal hernia in the left renal fossa. The patient was discharged home, and at 3-month follow-up no bowel complaints were reported.
Small bowel obstruction; Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy
Intersigmoid hernia is a rare internal hernia presenting with symptoms of bowel obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis is uncommon but computerised tomography (CT) may show signs to suggest internal hernia.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 63-year-old female presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and absolute constipation. Examination revealed a tense distended abdomen. A plain abdominal radiograph showed features of small bowel obstruction. Conservative management was initiated without success and a CT scan was performed which showed a dilated distal oesophagus, stomach and small bowel with a non-dilated length of distal ileum and large bowel. Internal hernia was suggested as a possible cause and the patient underwent a laparotomy where a loop of small bowel was found to be strangulated and gangrenous within the intersigmoid fossa. The gangrenous bowel was resected, an end-to-end anastamosis was performed and the fossa was closed. The patient made an uneventful recovery.
Hernias of the sigmoid mesocolon account for 6% of internal hernias with internal hernias themselves causing between 0.2 and 4.1% of intestinal obstruction. This report presents a case of intersigmoid hernia, a rare internal hernia which should be suspected in patients presenting with acute obstruction, no past surgical history and no external hernia. Patients with these symptoms should receive an urgent CT scan to facilitate early surgery and minimise strangulation and prevent bowel resection.
Intersigmoid hernia presents with acute obstruction, no past surgical history and no external hernia. Urgent CT scanning and early surgery may minimise strangulation, conserve bowel and reduce patient morbidity and mortality.
Intersigmoid hernia; Intersigmoid fossa; Sigmoid mesocolon hernia; Internal hernia; Intestinal obstruction
Small bowel obstruction associated with abdominal cocoon (AC) is a rarely encountered surgical emergency. This condition is characterised by a thick fibrous membrane which encases the small bowel partially or completely. It is usually difficult to be able to make a definitive diagnosis in the presence of obscure clinical and radiological findings. Diagnosis is usually made at laparotomy when the encasement of the small bowel within a cocoon-like sac is visualised. Here, we report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with acute small bowel obstruction and was eventually diagnosed with AC at laparoscopy. In this case, laparoscopic excision of the fibrous sac and extensive adhesiolysis resulted in complete recovery. Although rare, the diagnosis of AC should be kept in cases of patients with intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings. Laparoscopy should also be considered for the management of this condition in suitable patients.
Abdominal cocoon; laparoscopy; management; small bowel obstruction
Obturator hernia is a rare type of hernia which accounts for only 0.07–1.4% of all intra-abdominal hernias and 0.2–5.8% of small-intestinal obstructions. Because the symptoms are non-specific, the diagnosis is often delayed until laparotomy is performed to treat bowel obstruction. The need for awareness of the condition is stressed, and the diagnosis of obturator hernia should be strongly suspected in a thin, elderly woman who has small bowel obstruction and no previous abdominal surgery. Here is a case report of obturator hernia in which the diagnosis was difficult because of the slow development of symptoms; on laparotomy it was found to be a Richter hernia. Computed tomography scanning can be helpful and will typically show an incarcerated small bowel behind the pectineus muscle. Laparoscopy may be necessary for diagnosis, and the hernia can be repaired laparoscopically.
Richter obturator hernia; Strangulated
Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis but an established cause of mechanical bowel obstruction in the elderly. Perforation of the small intestine proximal to the obstructing gallstone is rare, and only a handful of cases have been reported. We present two cases of perforation of the jejunum in gallstone ileus, and remarkably in one case, the gallstone ileus caused perforation of a jejunal diverticulum and is to the best of our knowledge the first such case to be described.
A 69 year old man presented with two days of vomiting and central abdominal pain. He underwent laparotomy for small bowel obstruction and was found to have a gallstone obstructing the mid-ileum. There was a 2 mm perforation in the anti-mesenteric border of the dilated proximal jejunum. The gallstone was removed and the perforated segment of jejunum was resected.
A 68 year old man presented with a four day history of vomiting and central abdominal pain. Chest and abdominal radiography were unremarkable however a subsequent CT scan of the abdomen showed aerobilia. At laparotomy his distal ileum was found to be obstructed by an impacted gallstone and there was a perforated diverticulum on the mesenteric surface of the mid-jejunum. An enterolithotomy and resection of the perforated small bowel was performed.
Gallstone ileus remains a diagnostic challenge despite advances in imaging techniques, and pre-operative diagnosis is often delayed. Partly due to the elderly population it affects, gallstone ileus continues to have both high morbidity and mortality rates. On reviewing the literature, the most appropriate surgical intervention remains unclear.
Jejunal perforation in gallstone ileus is extremely rare. The cases described illustrate two quite different causes of perforation complicating gallstone ileus. In the first case, perforation was probably due to pressure necrosis caused by the gallstone. The second case was complicated by the presence of a perforated jejunal diverticulum, which was likely to have been secondary to the increased intra-luminal pressure proximal to the obstructing gallstone.
These cases should raise awareness of the complications associated with both gallstone ileus, and small bowel diverticula.
While many recent cases of colonic epiploic appendage causing acute abdomen have been reported, such appendages of the small bowel are extremely rare. We present a 59-year-old woman in whom a small bowel epiploic appendage caused volvulus. She presented with abdominal pain and vomiting in the absence of previous abdominal operations. A diagnosis of small bowel obstruction from strangulation was made. Laparotomy disclosed bloody peritoneal fluid and a closed loop of strangulated small intestine. An adherent band composed of an epiploic appendage and intestine had completely encircled a loop of jejunum, leading to obstruction. This band was released, and approximately 80 cm of gangrenous bowel was resected. Four epiploic appendages 5–6 cm in length were attached to the ileum at the mesenteric border, beginning at a point 70 cm proximal to the terminal ileum.
Epiploic appendage strangulation; Small bowel; Volvulus
Peutz-Jeghers is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomatous polyps and discoloration of mucosal membranes. The polyps can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract and can grow large enough to cause bowel obstructions.
A 16-year-old male presented to the emergency department with signs and symptoms of an acute bowel obstruction. He had 2 days of abdominal pain, obstipation, and vomiting. He had a previous history of a colonoscopy with polypectomy at age 4, and hyperpigmentation of his mucous membranes.
Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed an intussusception of the small intestine. An exploratory laparoscopy found an intussusception of the mid jejunum. A laparoscopic-assisted small bowel resection was performed. Pathology showed a 5-cm polyp that acted as a lead point for the intussusception. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy revealed 5 more polyps in the stomach and colon that were removed.
Small bowel obstructions can be managed successfully with minimally invasive approaches. The treatment of obstruction in these patients is to remove the offending hamartomatous polyp(s). The rest of the intestine needs to be examined and those polyps found should be removed. This can be done intraoperatively with laparoscopic-assisted enteroscopy and colonoscopy.
Peutz-Jeghers; Intussusception; Laparoscopic; Hamartomatous; Polyp
These authors indicate that major laparoscopic gynecologic surgery in patients with a history of prior laparotomy and bowel resection is feasible for experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
Background and Objectives:
To review the success and morbidity of laparoscopic major gynecologic surgery in patients with prior laparotomy bowel resection.
Review of a prospective surgical database of all cases of laparoscopic major gynecologic surgery in patients with prior laparotomy bowel resection. No cases were excluded. Bowel diagnoses and procedures were total colectomy for inflammatory bowel disease (4), partial colectomy for colon cancer (6), partial small bowel resection for obstruction (1), and Whipple for pancreatic cancer (2). Two patients had 3 prior laparotomies, 8 patients had 2 prior laparotomies, and 3 patients had 1 prior laparotomy. All prior abdominal incisions were midline. Gynecologic diagnoses and procedures were laparoscopic cytoreduction for ovarian cancer (1), lsh/bso/staging for ovarian cancer (1), lavh/bso/lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer (4), and lavh/bso, lsh/bso, or bso for large ovarian mass (7). Median patient age was 57 years, median BMI was 31kg/m2, and all patients had medical comorbidities.
All 13 laparoscopic gynecologic surgeries were successful without trocar insertion injury, conversion to laparotomy, and without enterotomy. Abdominal adhesions were present in all cases. Median operative time was 2 hours, median blood loss was 100cc, and median hospital stay was 1 day. There were no postoperative complications.
Laparoscopic major gynecologic surgery in patients with prior laparotomy bowel resection is feasible for experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
Laparoscopic gynecologic surgery; Prior laparotomy bowel resection
We report the unusual case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with multiple episodes of small bowel obstruction. Initial exploratory lap-roscopy did not reveal an etiology of the obstruction. Subsequent upper endoscopy identified a non-obstructing gastric trichobezoar which could not be removed endoscopically but was not thought to be responsible for the small bowel obstruction given its location. One week postoperatively, the patient experienced recurrence of small bowel obstruction. Repeat endoscopy disclosed that the trichobezoar was no longer located in the stomach and upon repeat laparotomy was extracted from the mid-jejunum. In the following 8 months, the patient had no further episodes of small bowel obstruction. Consequently, gastric bezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent small bowel obstruction.
Multiple diverticulosis of jejunum represents an uncommon pathology of the small bowel. The disease is usually asymptomatic and must be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained malabsorption, anemia, chronic abdominal pain or discomfort. Related complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, bleeding or intestinal obstruction appear in 10-30% of the patients increasing morbidity and mortality rates. We herein report a case of a 55 year-old man presented at the emergency department with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. Preoperative radiological examination followed by laparotomy revealed multiple giant jejunal diverticula causing intestinal obstruction. We also review the literature for this uncommon disease.
Gallstone ileus (G.I.) is a mechanical bowel obstruction due to impaction of a large gallstone within the bowel and represents an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis. It accounts for 1–4% of all cases of mechanical bowel obstruction, up to 25% in patients over 65 years of age.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 75 year old male patient was referred to our hospital in March 2009 with clinical signs of bowel obstruction (abdominal pain and distension, post-prandial vomiting, absolute constipation) during the previous 3 days. A plain abdominal film demonstrated dilated bowel loops, air fluid levels and an image of a stone in the inferior left quadrant. Afterwards, diagnosis of Gallstone ileus was made by means of ultrasonography and colonoscopy. The patient underwent emergent laparotomy and a cholecysto-transverse colon fistula was observed. One-stage procedure consisting of enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and fistula repair was performed. The post-operative course was complicated by a dehiscence of the colic suture with acute peritonitis. Therefore a colostomy was performed, followed by rapid recovery of general clinical conditions.
Surgical treatment for G.I. by cholecysto-enteric fistula is still controversial. Enterolithotomy alone is best suited in all elderly patients with significant comorbidities. One-stage procedure – enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and fistula repair – should be reserved for young, fit and low risk patients. In our case, mechanical obstruction was associated with a severe cholecystitis with a large fistula between gallbladder and transverse colon.
A “radical” surgical option could certainly be characterized by a significant morbidity.
Gallstone ileus; Elderly patients; Radical surgery
An 8-year-old boy with Asperger's syndrome presented with right-sided abdominal pain, which was consistent with a probable appendicitis, but revisiting the history with a high index of suspicion confirmed multiple foreign body ingestion to be the cause of his symptoms. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Multiple toy magnets and other metal objects were found, which were causing small bowel obstruction with interloop fistulation. Following removal and repair, the patient made an excellent recovery.
The clinical manifestations of abdominal ‘cocoon’ are non-specific and hence its diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively and the management is often delayed. Surgery remains the main stay of treatment with satisfactory outcome and comprises excision of the fibrous membrane, meticulous adhesionolysis and release of the entrapped small bowel.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 45-year-old male patient presented with 6-month history of progressive subacute small bowel obstruction. After initial radiological investigations, he underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and was misdiagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis. He was started on anti-tuberculous therapy, but exploratory laparotomy was carried out after failure to respond to anti-tuberculous therapy. At laparotomy, the abdominal ‘cocoon’ which was encapsulating the entire small bowel was excised, and the adhesions were carefully lysed. The patient remained well and without recurrence at 1-year follow-up.
Abdominal ‘cocoon’ is a rare cause of subacute, acute and chronic small bowel obstruction. Its diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively.
Abdominal ‘cocoon’ should be thought of as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. It may be mistaken with abdominal tuberculosis. Surgery remains the mainstay of curative treatment.
Abdominal cocoon; Intestinal obstruction; Surgery; Adhesionlysis
Intestinal malrotation occurs when there is a disruption in the normal embryological development of the bowel. The majority of patients present with clinical features in childhood, though rarely a first presentation can take place in adulthood. Recurrent bowel obstruction in patients with previous abdominal operation for midgut malrotation is mostly due to adhesions but very few reported cases have been due to recurrent volvulus. We present the case of a 22-year-old gentleman who had laparotomy in childhood for small bowel volvulus and then presented with acute bowel obstruction. Preoperative computerised tomography scan showed small bowel obstruction and features in keeping with midgut malrotation. Emergency laparotomy findings confirmed midgut malrotation with absent appendix, abnormal location of caecum, ascending colon and small bowel. In addition, there were small bowel volvulus and a segment of terminal ileal stricture. Limited right hemicolectomy was performed with excellent postoperative recovery. This case is presented to illustrate a rare occurrence and raise an awareness of the possibility of dreadful recurrent volvulus even several years following an initial Ladd’s procedure for midgut malrotation. Therefore, one will need to exercise a high index of suspicion and this becomes very crucial in order to ensure prompt surgical intervention and thereby preventing an attendant bowel ischaemia with its associated high fatality.
Gut volvulus; Intestinal malrotation; Acute bowel obstruction; Computerised tomography scan; Laparotomy
The aim of this study is to assess the value of jejunal manometry in the diagnosis of subacute mechanical obstruction distal to the proximal small bowel. In a retrospective review of 850 manometric tracings carried out in patients with unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or altered bowel movements, 16 tracings were identified with features suggestive of mechanical obstruction: prolonged simultaneous contractions (PC) and postprandial clustered contractions (CC). Three patients had CC lasting less than 20 minutes: none proved to have mechanical obstruction. Among seven patients with CC lasting more than 30 minutes, three had proven mechanical obstruction, one probable adhesion obstruction, and in three no obstruction was found. All three patients with PC and three with mixed PC and CC had mechanical obstruction. The obstructed intestine manifests a variety of pressure profiles in the proximal jejunum: PC, CC, or mixed patterns. Prolonged simultaneous contractions are suggestive of distal subacute bowel obstruction; CC lasting over 30 minutes are less specific, whereas CC lasting less than 20 minutes are not associated with obstruction.
Obturator hernia (OH) is a rare condition and difficult to diagnose. While they account for as few as 0.073% of all hernias, mortality can be as high as 70%. The typical clinical presentation for OH is small bowel obstruction. Computed tomography is the diagnostic tool of choice. Surgical repair is mandatory in virtually all cases of OH and traditionally consists of performing an exploratory laparotomy.
Presentation of case
A 90-year-old female was admitted to our surgical service with signs of small bowel obstruction and a CT scan revealing incarcerated fatty tissue and small bowel within a left OH.
The role of laparoscopic surgery in the management of OH has been limited to elective repairs; most reports detail that the OH was found serendipitously during laparoscopic inguinal hernia operations or other pelvic procedures. A few reports describe the use of laparoscopy to treat OH associated with bowel obstruction in an emergency setting using a TAPP approach. A strict TEP hernia repair is not indicated for all patients with OH, and should rarely be performed in emergency situations given its limitation to assess or resect bowel if necessary. In selected cases, a formal exploratory laparoscopy that is negative for compromised bowel can be safely followed by a TEP repair using the same umbilical access as shown in our patient.
A 90-year-old female with a small bowel obstruction related to an incarcerated OH was treated effectively with an extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach.
Hernia; Laparoscopic; TEP; Extraperitoneal; Obturator hernia