The recommended interval between updates for systematic reviews included in The Cochrane Library is 2 years. However, it is unclear whether this interval is always appropriate. Whereas excessive updating wastes time and resources, insufficient updating allows out-of-date or incomplete evidence to guide clinical decision-making. We set out to determine, for Cochrane pregnancy and childbirth reviews, the frequency of updates, factors associated with updating, and whether updating frequency was appropriate.
Cochrane pregnancy and childbirth reviews published in Issue 3, 2007 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were retrieved, and data were collected from their original and updated versions. Quantitative changes were determined for one of the primary outcomes (mortality, or the outcome of greatest clinical significance). Potential factors associated with time to update were assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Among the 101 reviews in our final sample, the median time before the first update was 3.3 years (95% CI 2.7–3.8). Only 32.7% had been updated within the recommended interval of 2 years. In 75.3% (76/101), a median of 3 new trials with a median of 576 additional participants were included in the updated versions. There were quantitative changes in 71% of the reviews that included new trials (54/76): the median change in effect size was 18.2%, and the median change in 95% CI width was 30.8%. Statistical significance changed in 18.5% (10/54) of these reviews, but conclusions were revised in only 3.7% (2/54). A shorter time to update was associated with the same original review team at updating.
Most reviews were updated less frequently than recommended by Cochrane policy, but few updates had revised conclusions. Prescribed time to update should be reconsidered to support improved decision-making while making efficient use of limited resources.
An American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) focused update updates a single recommendation (or subset of recommendations) in advance of a regularly scheduled guideline update. This document updates one recommendation of the ASCO Guideline Update on Chemotherapy for Stage IV Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) regarding switch maintenance chemotherapy.
Recent results from phase III clinical trials have demonstrated that in patients with stage IV NSCLC who have received four cycles of first-line chemotherapy and whose disease has not progressed, an immediate switch to alternative, single-agent chemotherapy can extend progression-free survival and, in some cases, overall survival. Because of limitations in the data, delayed treatment with a second-line agent after disease progression is also acceptable.
Seven randomized controlled trials of carboxyaminoimidazole, docetaxel, erlotinib, gefitinib, gemcitabine, and pemetrexed have evaluated outcomes in patients who received an immediate, non–cross resistant alternative therapy (switch maintenance) after first-line therapy.
In patients with stage IV NSCLC, first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy should be stopped at disease progression or after four cycles in patients whose disease is stable but not responding to treatment. Two-drug cytotoxic combinations should be administered for no more than six cycles. For those with stable disease or response after four cycles, immediate treatment with an alternative, single-agent chemotherapy such as pemetrexed in patients with nonsquamous histology, docetaxel in unselected patients, or erlotinib in unselected patients may be considered. Limitations of this data are such that a break from cytotoxic chemotherapy after a fixed course is also acceptable, with initiation of second-line chemotherapy at disease progression.
Systematic Reviews (SRs) are an essential part of evidence-based medicine, providing support for clinical practice and policy on a wide range of medical topics. However, producing SRs is resource-intensive, and progress in the research they review leads to SRs becoming outdated, requiring updates. Although the question of how and when to update SRs has been studied, the best method for determining when to update is still unclear, necessitating further research.
In this work we study the potential impact of a machine learning-based automated system for providing alerts when new publications become available within an SR topic. Some of these new publications are especially important, as they report findings that are more likely to initiate a review update. To this end, we have designed a classification algorithm to identify articles that are likely to be included in an SR update, along with an annotation scheme designed to identify the most important publications in a topic area. Using an SR database containing over 70,000 articles, we annotated articles from 9 topics that had received an update during the study period. The algorithm was then evaluated in terms of the overall correct and incorrect alert rate for publications meeting the topic inclusion criteria, as well as in terms of its ability to identify important, update-motivating publications in a topic area.
Our initial approach, based on our previous work in topic-specific SR publication classification, identifies over 70% of the most important new publications, while maintaining a low overall alert rate.
We performed an initial analysis of the opportunities and challenges in aiding the SR update planning process with an informatics-based machine learning approach. Alerts could be a useful tool in the planning, scheduling, and allocation of resources for SR updates, providing an improvement in timeliness and coverage for the large number of medical topics needing SRs. While the performance of this initial method is not perfect, it could be a useful supplement to current approaches to scheduling an SR update. Approaches specifically targeting the types of important publications identified by this work are likely to improve results.
A study of the continuing medical education of practising physicians in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island was conducted in 1979-80 by means of a mailed questionnaire. Most of the responding physicians ranked reading as the method most used to update knowledge (73.3%) and skills (55.7%); courses and informal instruction were in second place for updating knowledge and skills respectively, ranked most used by 9.3% and 17.1%. With unlimited time and funds 38.0% and 20.5% of the physicians would still most prefer to read to update knowledge and skills respectively. However, 35.2% would most prefer to attend courses to update knowledge and 26.9% and 24.8% would most prefer to do clinical traineeships or attend courses to update skills. When asked what method of learning had provided the most impetus to change their ways of managing patients, 42.5% chose reading, 18.8% courses, 14.6% informal discussions and 12.4% formal consultations. Appropriate developments would therefore include improving methods of providing physicians with the best information available when it is needed, removing roadblocks to participation in continuing education programs, matching individual learning styles to programs of learning, training physicians as peer tutors and helping consultants become better instructors through written consultations.
Background. When planning to use a validated prediction model in new patients, adequate performance is not guaranteed. For example, changes in clinical practice over time or a different case mix than the original validation population may result in inaccurate risk predictions. Objective. To demonstrate how clinical information can direct updating a prediction model and development of a strategy for handling missing predictor values in clinical practice. Methods. A previously derived and validated prediction model for postoperative nausea and vomiting was updated using a data set of 1847 patients. The update consisted of 1) changing the definition of an existing predictor, 2) reestimating the regression coefficient of a predictor, and 3) adding a new predictor to the model. The updated model was then validated in a new series of 3822 patients. Furthermore, several imputation models were considered to handle real-time missing values, so that possible missing predictor values could be anticipated during actual model use. Results. Differences in clinical practice between our local population and the original derivation population guided the update strategy of the prediction model. The predictive accuracy of the updated model was better (c statistic, 0.68; calibration slope, 1.0) than the original model (c statistic, 0.62; calibration slope, 0.57). Inclusion of logistical variables in the imputation models, besides observed patient characteristics, contributed to a strategy to deal with missing predictor values at the time of risk calculation. Conclusions. Extensive knowledge of local, clinical processes provides crucial information to guide the process of adapting a prediction model to new clinical practices.
clinical prediction rules; methodology; decision rules; provider decision making; statistical methods
In 2010, the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) published a Consensus Summary for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children six years of age and older, and adults, including an updated Asthma Management Continuum. The CTS Asthma Clinical Assembly subsequently began a formal clinical practice guideline update process, focusing, in this first iteration, on topics of controversy and/or gaps in the previous guidelines.
Four clinical questions were identified as a focus for the updated guideline: the role of noninvasive measurements of airway inflammation for the adjustment of anti-inflammatory therapy; the initiation of adjunct therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for uncontrolled asthma; the role of a single inhaler of an ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist combination as a reliever, and as a reliever and a controller; and the escalation of controller medication for acute loss of asthma control as part of a self-management action plan. The expert panel followed an adaptation process to identify and appraise existing guidelines on the specified topics. In addition, literature searches were performed to identify relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials. The panel formally assessed and graded the evidence, and made 34 recommendations.
The updated guideline recommendations outline a role for inclusion of assessment of sputum eosinophils, in addition to standard measures of asthma control, to guide adjustment of controller therapy in adults with moderate to severe asthma. Appraisal of the evidence regarding which adjunct controller therapy to add to ICS and at what ICS dose to begin adjunct therapy in children and adults with poor asthma control supported the 2010 CTS Consensus Summary recommendations. New recommendations for the adjustment of controller medication within written action plans are provided. Finally, priority areas for future research were identified.
The present clinical practice guideline is the first update of the CTS Asthma Guidelines following the Canadian Respiratory Guidelines Committee’s new guideline development process. Tools and strategies to support guideline implementation will be developed and the CTS will continue to regularly provide updates reflecting new evidence.
Asthma; Clinical practice guideline; Management
Structured entry forms for clinical records should be updated to take into account the physicians’ needs during consultation and advances in medical knowledge and practice. We updated the computerized medical record form of a hypertension clinic, based on its previous use and clinical guidelines. A statistical analysis of previously completed forms identified several unnecessary items rarely used by clinicians. A terminological analysis of guidelines and of free-text answers on completed forms identified several new topics relevant to current clinical practice. We therefore added new items to the form and some topics previously recorded as free text were itemized. We collaborated with clinicians in interpretation of the results of the statistical and terminological analyses used as the starting point and guide for this updating process.
Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy programs. In previous research, we have found that imagery rescripting was superior to a control condition in terms of its beneficial effects on negative beliefs, image and memory distress, fear of negative evaluation, and anxiety in social situations. In this article, we describe our imagery rescripting procedure. We consider the importance of updating negative imagery in social phobia, the theoretical basis for imagery rescripting, directions for future research, and how to conduct imagery rescripting, including potential problems and their solutions.
► Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update distressing memories. ► We describe our imagery rescripting procedure of early traumatic memories in social phobia. ► The procedure consists of a cognitive restructuring component then 3 stages conducted in imagery.► Consideration is given to how and why imagery rescripting works. ► Potential problems and their solutions are also presented.
imagery rescripting; imagery; trauma memory; social phobia
Patient management in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is largely based on societal guidelines and recommendations. A recent update by the American Thoracic Society (ATS), European Respiratory Society (ERS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) and Latin American Thoracic Association (ALAT) provided updated guidance on the diagnosis and management of IPF, along with recommendations on pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches to patient management. The treatment guidance is based on GRADE criteria, which rates the quality of evidence according to previously published methodology. Here we discuss how to interpret the recent guideline updates and the implications of this guidance for clinical practice. In addition we discuss the assessment and recommendations for a number of pharmacological agents that have been the focus of clinical trials over the past years. Although no single pharmacological agent was recommended by the guidelines committee, we discuss how since then, more recent data have resulted in the approval of pirfenidone in Europe, and preliminary negative findings regarding the safety of a triple therapy regimen consisting of prednisone, azathioprine and N-acetylcysteine have raised the question of whether it is no longer a treatment option. As clinicians, we must interpret the available guidance and recommendations as we consider each individual patient and as we discuss the available clinical data and the patient’s own preferences in our approach to the management of this disease.
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), recommendations, guidelines, treatment
The neuregulin 1 (NRG1) gene has been the subject of considerable excitement within the psychiatric genetics literature since it was originally identified as a potential susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. Here we provide an update of our first meta-analysis of this association. Case-control and family-based genetic association studies of the NRG1 gene in healthy control groups and clinically diagnosed schizophrenia patients were included. We repeated the search strategy in our earlier meta-analysis for studies published between December 31, 2005, and September 30, 2007, and updated the results of our original meta-analysis accordingly. Superficially, the results of our updated meta-analysis are consistent with those in our previous report, although it is notable that the strength of evidence as based on our haplotype analysis has weakened over this period. The evidence for association of the SNP8NRG221533 polymorphism continued to be nonsignificant. We discuss a number of problems in the interpretation of a disparate and inconsistent gene-disease association literature, including the difficulties associated with determining what constitutes replication across studies which vary in their methods, marker sets employed, phenotype definition, and other study characteristics.
schizophrenia; neuregulin 1; NRG1; genetic association; meta-analysis
Cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of morbidity, mortality, and excess health care costs in the United States. From 2000 through 2004, cigarette smoking caused an estimated annual average of 443,595 deaths and cost $193 billion per year in smoking-attributable productivity losses and smoking-related health care expenditures. Preventing smoking and providing effective treatment to help smokers quit will remain a public health priority for the foreseeable future. In support of this goal, the US Department of Health and Human Services recently published the clinical practice guideline entitled Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. The new guideline updates the previous guidelines published in 1996 and 2000 and presents many new research findings to provide a broader evidence base for effective intervention. This article briefly reviews the major updates and recommendations from the new guideline and highlights its practical clinical applications.
In a prospective study to explore connections between clinical information delivery and information retrieval, 41 Canadian family physicians searched an Electronic Knowledge Resource as needed for practice. Research software, called the Information Assessment Method prompted family physicians to report on the situational relevance, perceived cognitive impact, and application of their retrieved information hits. Both the Information Assessment Method and the Electronic Knowledge Resource needed periodic updating to properly address our research questions.
To determine the frequency of software updates when manual or semi-automatic approaches are used by family physicians.
Each family physician received a handheld computer (PDA) that ran the Windows Mobile 6 operating system. For technical reasons, the Information Assessment Method and the Electronic Knowledge Resource were accessed offline on PDA. To update the Electronic Knowledge Resource and the Information Assessment Method, family physicians were asked to synchronize their PDA to their PC. Updating the Information Assessment Method was a manual process, whereas updating the Electronic Knowledge Resource was semi-automatic.
We found: (1) about 25% of family physicians never or rarely updated PDA software on their own (2) a large number of software updates were never installed, and (3) the semi-automatic method was associated with a small increase in the proportion of installed software updates (58.9% versus 48.6% for the manual method).
When a wireless Internet connection is not used to update PDA software, sociotechnical issues complicate mobile data collection and data transfer.
PMID: 20359400 CAMSID: cams799
Computers handheld; software; family practice
We published the Canadian 2003 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Management of Hereditary Angioedema (HAE; C1 inhibitor [C1-INH] deficiency) and updated this as Hereditary angioedema: a current state-of-the-art review: Canadian Hungarian 2007 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Management of Hereditary Angioedema.
To update the International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema (circa 2010).
The Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN)/Réseau Canadien d'angioédème héréditaire (RCAH) http://www.haecanada.com and cosponsors University of Calgary and the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (with an unrestricted educational grant from CSL Behring) held our third Conference May 15th to 16th, 2010 in Toronto Canada to update our consensus approach. The Consensus document was reviewed at the meeting and then circulated for review.
This manuscript is the 2010 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema that resulted from that conference.
Consensus approach is only an interim guide to a complex disorder such as HAE and should be replaced as soon as possible with large phase III and IV clinical trials, meta analyses, and using data base registry validation of approaches including quality of life and cost benefit analyses, followed by large head-to-head clinical trials and then evidence-based guidelines and standards for HAE disease management.
Use of terminology standards facilitates aggregating data from multiple sources for information retrieval, exchange and analysis. However, medical vocabularies are continuously updated and incorporating those changes consistently into clinical data warehouses requires rigorous methodology. To integrate pharmacy data from two hospital pharmacy information systems the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) project mapped medication orders to RxNorm content using the RxNorm drug model. In order to keep the data relevant and up-to-date, we developed a strategy for updating to RxNorm, while preserving the original meaning and mapping of the legacy data. This case study discusses managing the vocabulary update by following the RxNorm content maintenance strategy and supplementing it with operations to retain access to its drug model information.
Since 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure (HF) guidelines have published annual focused updates for cardiovascular care providers. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF guidelines update focuses on an increasing issue in the western world – HF in ethnic minorities – and in an uncommon but important setting – the pregnant patient. Additionally, due to increasing attention recently given to the assessment of how care is delivered and measured, two critically important topics – disease management programs in HF and quality assurance – have been included. Both of these topics were written from a clinical perspective. It is hoped that the present update will become a useful tool for health care providers and planners in the ongoing evolution of care for HF patients in Canada.
Cardiomyopathy; Disease management; Ethnicity; HF; Heart failure clinic; Minority; Outcomes; Performance indicator; Peripartum; Pregnancy; Quality assurance; Quality of care
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have become increasingly popular, and the methodology to develop guidelines has evolved enormously. However, little attention has been given to the updating process, in contrast to the appraisal of the available literature. We conducted an international survey to identify current practices in CPG updating and explored the need to standardize and improve the methods.
We developed a questionnaire (28 items) based on a review of the existing literature about guideline updating and expert comments. We carried out the survey between March and July 2009, and it was sent by email to 106 institutions: 69 members of the Guidelines International Network who declared that they developed CPGs; 30 institutions included in the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse database that published more than 20 CPGs; and 7 institutions selected by an expert committee.
Forty-four institutions answered the questionnaire (42% response rate). In the final analysis, 39 completed questionnaires were included. Thirty-six institutions (92%) reported that they update their guidelines. Thirty-one institutions (86%) have a formal procedure for updating their guidelines, and 19 (53%) have a formal procedure for deciding when a guideline becomes out of date. Institutions describe the process as moderately rigorous (36%) or acknowledge that it could certainly be more rigorous (36%). Twenty-two institutions (61%) alert guideline users on their website when a guideline is older than three to five years or when there is a risk of being outdated. Twenty-five institutions (64%) support the concept of "living guidelines," which are continuously monitored and updated. Eighteen institutions (46%) have plans to design a protocol to improve their guideline-updating process, and 21 (54%) are willing to share resources with other organizations.
Our study is the first to describe the process of updating CPGs among prominent guideline institutions across the world, providing a comprehensive picture of guideline updating. There is an urgent need to develop rigorous international standards for this process and to minimize duplication of effort internationally.
We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiency diseases, compiled by the ad hoc Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. As compared to the previous edition, more than 15 novel disease entities have been added in the updated version. For each disorders, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This updated classification is meant to help in the diagnostic approach to patients with these diseases.
primary immunodeficiency diseases
Scientific knowledge is in constant change. The flow of new information requires a frequent re-evaluation of the available research results. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not exempted from this phenomenon and need to be kept updated to maintain the validity of their recommendations. The objective of our review is to systematically identify, describe and assess strategies for monitoring and updating CPGs.
Study design and setting
We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating one or more methods of updating (with or without monitoring) CPGs or recommendations. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and The Cochrane Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library) from 1966 to June 2012. Additionally, we hand-searched reference lists of the included studies and the Guidelines International Network book of abstracts. If necessary, we contacted study authors to obtain additional information.
We included a total of eight studies. Four evaluated if CPGs were out of date, three updated CPGs, and one continuously monitored and updated CPGs. The most detailed reported phase of the process was the identification of new evidence. As opposed to studies updating guidelines, studies evaluating if CPGs were out of date applied restricted searches. Only one study compared a restricted versus an exhaustive search suggesting that a restricted search is sufficient to assess recommendations’ Validity. One study analyzed the survival time of CPGs and suggested that these should be reassessed every three years.
There is limited evidence about the optimal strategies for monitoring and updating clinical practice guidelines. A restricted search is likely to be sufficient to monitor new evidence and assess the need to update, however, more information is needed about the timing and type of search. Only the exhaustive search strategy has been assessed for the update of CPGs. The development and evaluation of more efficient strategies is needed to improve the timeliness and reduce the burden of maintaining the validity of CPGs.
Clinical practice guidelines; Diffusion of innovation; Evidence-based medicine; Information storage and retrieval; Methodology; Updating; Implementation science; Dissemination and implementation; Knowledge translation
To update the international recommendations for use of anti‐tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.
The published recommendations on anti‐TNF treatment in ankylosing spondylitis formed the basis of the update. A questionnaire was sent to the ASAS (assessment in ankylosing spondylitis) members before the final decisions were agreed upon at an international meeting of the ASAS working group.
Only minor changes to the original consensus statement were required. For the initiation of anti‐TNF treatment, there should be: a diagnosis of definitive ankylosing spondylitis (normally based on modified New York criteria); active disease for at least four weeks, as defined by a sustained Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) of ⩾4 on a 0–10 scale and expert opinion based on clinical findings; refractory disease, defined by failure of at least two non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs during a three month period, failure of intra‐articular steroids (if indicated), and failure of sulfasalazine in patients with predominantly peripheral arthritis; and application of the usual precautions and contraindications for biological treatment. For monitoring anti‐TNF treatment: both the ASAS core set for clinical practice and the BASDAI should be followed after the initiation of treatment. Discontinuation of anti‐TNF treatment in non‐responders should be considered after 6–12 weeks. Response is defined by improvement of at least 50% or 2 units (on a 0–10 scale) of the BASDAI.
This updated consensus statement is recommended in guiding clinical practice and as a basis for developing national guidelines. Evaluation and regular update of this consensus statement is subject to further research by the ASAS group.
ankylosing spondylitis; tumour necrosis factor α; infliximab; etanercept; adalimumab
This article provides an update on cardiovascular genomics using three clinically relevant exemplars, including myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and sudden cardiac death (SCD).
Recent advances in cardiovascular genomic research, testing, and clinical implications are presented.
Genomic nurse experts reviewed and summarized recent salient literature to provide updates on three selected cardiovascular genomic conditions.
Research is ongoing to discover comprehensive genetic markers contributing to many common forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including MI and stroke. However, genomic technologies are increasingly being used clinically, particularly in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who are at risk for SCD.
Currently, there are no clinically recommended genetic tests for many common forms of CVD even though direct-to-consumer genetic tests are being marketed to healthcare providers and the general public. On the other hand, genetic testing for patients with certain single gene conditions, including channelopathies (e.g., LQTS) and cardiomyopathies (e.g., HCM), is recommended clinically.
Nurses play a pivotal role in cardiogenetics and are actively engaged in direct clinical care of patients and families with a wide variety of heritable conditions. It is important for nurses to understand current development of cardiovascular genomics and be prepared to translate the new genomic knowledge into practice.
Genomics; coronary artery disease; sudden cardiac death; stroke
Increasing numbers of proteins, nucleic acids and other molecular entities have been explored as therapeutic targets, hundreds of which are targets of approved and clinical trial drugs. Knowledge of these targets and corresponding drugs, particularly those in clinical uses and trials, is highly useful for facilitating drug discovery. Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) has been developed to provide information about therapeutic targets and corresponding drugs. In order to accommodate increasing demand for comprehensive knowledge about the primary targets of the approved, clinical trial and experimental drugs, numerous improvements and updates have been made to TTD. These updates include information about 348 successful, 292 clinical trial and 1254 research targets, 1514 approved, 1212 clinical trial and 2302 experimental drugs linked to their primary targets (3382 small molecule and 649 antisense drugs with available structure and sequence), new ways to access data by drug mode of action, recursive search of related targets or drugs, similarity target and drug searching, customized and whole data download, standardized target ID, and significant increase of data (1894 targets, 560 diseases and 5028 drugs compared with the 433 targets, 125 diseases and 809 drugs in the original release described in previous paper). This database can be accessed at http://bidd.nus.edu.sg/group/cjttd/TTD.asp.
Recent reviews of blue light-filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) have stated their potential risks for scotopic vision and circadian photoentrainment. Some authors have challenged the rationale for retinal photoprotection that these IOLs might provide. Our objective is to address these issues by providing an updated clinical perspective based on the results of the most recent studies.
This article evaluates the currently available published papers assessing the potential risks and benefits of blue light-filtering IOLs. It summarizes the results of seven clinical and two computational studies on photoreception, and several studies related to retinal photoprotection, all of which were not available in the previous reviews. These results provide a clinical risk/benefit analysis for an updated review for these IOLs.
Most clinical studies comparing IOLs with and without the blue light-filtering feature have found no difference in clinical performance for; visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, or glare. For blue light-filtering IOLs, three comparative clinical studies have shown improved contrast sensitivity and glare reduction; but one study, while it showed satisfactory overall color perception, demonstrated some compromise in mesopic comparative blue color discrimination. Comparative results of two recent clinical studies have also shown improved performance for simulated driving under glare conditions and reduced glare disability, better heterochromatic contrast threshold, and faster recovery from photostress for blue light-filtering IOLs. Two computational and five clinical studies found no difference in performance between IOLs with or without blue light-filtration for scotopic vision performance and photo entrainment of the circadian rhythm. The rationale for protection of the pseudophakic retina against phototoxicity is discussed with supporting results of the most recent computational, in-vitro, animal, clinical, and epidemiological investigations.
This analysis provides an updated clinical perspective which suggests the selection of blue light-filtering IOLs for patients of any age, but especially for pediatric and presbyopic lens exchange patients with a longer pseudophakic life. Without clinically substantiated potential risks, these patients should experience the benefit of overall better quality of vision, reduced glare disability at least in some conditions, and better protection against retinal phototoxicity and its associated potential risk for AMD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00417-011-1697-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Intraocular lens; Blue light-filtering IOL; Light-normalizing IOL; Age-related macular degeneration; Scotopic vision; Circadian photoentrainment; Glare; Driving simulation
The aim of this study was to present and compare the content of (inter)national clinical guidelines for the management of low back pain. To rationalise the management of low back pain, evidence-based clinical guidelines have been issued in many countries. Given that the available scientific evidence is the same, irrespective of the country, one would expect these guidelines to include more or less similar recommendations regarding diagnosis and treatment. We updated a previous review that included clinical guidelines published up to and including the year 2000. Guidelines were included that met the following criteria: the target group consisted mainly of primary health care professionals, and the guideline was published in English, German, Finnish, Spanish, Norwegian, or Dutch. Only one guideline per country was included: the one most recently published. This updated review includes national clinical guidelines from 13 countries and 2 international clinical guidelines from Europe published from 2000 until 2008. The content of the guidelines appeared to be quite similar regarding the diagnostic classification (diagnostic triage) and the use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Consistent features for acute low back pain were the early and gradual activation of patients, the discouragement of prescribed bed rest and the recognition of psychosocial factors as risk factors for chronicity. For chronic low back pain, consistent features included supervised exercises, cognitive behavioural therapy and multidisciplinary treatment. However, there are some discrepancies for recommendations regarding spinal manipulation and drug treatment for acute and chronic low back pain. The comparison of international clinical guidelines for the management of low back pain showed that diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations are generally similar. There are also some differences which may be due to a lack of strong evidence regarding these topics or due to differences in local health care systems. The implementation of these clinical guidelines remains a challenge for clinical practice and research.
Low back pain; Clinical guidelines; Review; Diagnosis; Treatment
Current estimates of retention among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa consider patients who are lost to follow-up (LTF) as well as those who die shortly after their last clinic visit to be no longer in care and to represent limitations in access to care. Yet many lost patients may have “silently” transferred and deaths shortly after the last clinic visit more likely represent limitations in clinical care rather than access to care after initial linkage.
We evaluated HIV-infected adults initiating ART from 1/1/2004 to 9/30/2007 at a clinic in rural Uganda. A representative sample of lost patients was tracked in the community to obtain updated information about care at other ART sites. Updated outcomes were incorporated with probability weights to obtain “corrected” estimates of retention for the entire clinic population. We used the competing risks approach to estimate “connection to care”—the percentage of patients accessing care over time (including those who died while in care).
Among 3,628 patients, 829 became lost, 128 were tracked and in 111, updated information was obtained. Of 111, 79 (71%) were alive and 35/48 (73%) of patients interviewed in person were in care and on ART. Patient retention for the clinic population assuming lost patients were not in care was 82.3%, 68.9%, and 60.1% at 1, 2 and 3 years. Incorporating updated care information from the sample of lost patients increased estimates of patient retention to 85.8% to 90.9%, 78.9% to 86.2% and 75.8% to 84.7% at the same time points.
Accounting for “silent transfers” and early deaths increased estimates of patient retention and connection to care substantially. Deaths soon after the last clinic visit (potentially reflecting limitations in clinical effectiveness) and disconnection from care among patient who were alive each accounted for approximately half of failures of retention.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder and a plethora of new data has been published from clinical trials and national epidemiological databases in the last three years. In the United Kingdom Atomoxetine is currently the only licensed non-stimulant medication. As part of a systematic review of atomoxetine data Jan 2009–June 2011 formal searches found 750 citations. From these 13 met criteria for either review or systematic review papers and contained clinical data synthesis on atomoxetine. No individual review paper alone would be sufficient for clinicians to be updated at that time on all clinical aspects of atomoxetine data. The crucial data relating to clinical parity of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in trials and meta-analysis where relevant confounding biases are removed are not often discussed. Systematic review of complex data is critical for ADHD clinicians and will need regular updating due to the large volume of new data.
ADHD; suicidality; summary of product characteristics; systematic review; review; atomoxetine